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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046397/lipid-metabolic-perturbation-is-an-early-onset-phenotype-in-adult-spin-mutants-a-drosophila-model-for-lysosomal-storage-disorders
#1
Sarita Hebbar, Avinash Khandelwal, Jayashree R, Samantha J Hindle, Yin Ning Chiang, Joanne Y Yew, Sean T Sweeney, Dominik Schwudke
Intracellular accumulation of lipids and swollen dysfunctional lysosomes are linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including lysosomal storage disorders (LSD). Detailed characterization of lipid metabolic changes in relation to the onset and progression of neurodegeneration is currently missing. We systematically analyzed lipid perturbations in spinster (spin) mutants, a Drosophila model of LSD-like neurodegeneration. Our results highlight an imbalance in brain ceramide and sphingosine in the early stages of neurodegeneration, preceding the accumulation of endomembranous structures, manifestation of altered behaviour, and buildup of lipofuscin...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033105/public-attitudes-toward-expanded-newborn-screening
#2
Jane M DeLuca
PURPOSE: There is limited research available on public knowledge and understanding of expanded newborn screening (NBS). The aims of this study were to assess current public knowledge and understanding of newborn screening disorders and procedures, perceived education needs, and preferences for the delivery of NBS information and education. An additional aim was to develop a beginning understanding of public attitudes toward screening for complex, severe, and in some cases untreatable disorders...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029361/the-mechanism-of-attenuation-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-a-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor-via-renal-klotho-expression
#3
Seung Tae Han, Jae Seok Kim, Jun Young Lee, Min Keun Kim, Jin Sae Yoo, Byoung Geun Han, Seung Ok Choi, Jae Won Yang
OBJECTIVES: Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors induces vasodilation in several organs by blocking cyclic GMP (guanosine monophosphate) degradation. However, the existence of alternative mechanism of action in case of an impaired nitric oxide (NO) system remains controversial. Previous studies suggested that decreased NO bioavailability may result in the down-regulation of klotho expression, but the relationship between klotho and NO remains obscure. Therefore, we investigated whether a PDE-5 inhibitor could preserve epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and relationship exists between the NO and renal klotho expression...
October 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028939/serotonin-2a-receptor-signaling-underlies-lsd-induced-alteration-of-the-neural-response-to-dynamic-changes-in-music
#4
Frederick S Barrett, Katrin H Preller, Marcus Herdener, Petr Janata, Franz X Vollenweider
Classic psychedelic drugs (serotonin 2A, or 5HT2A, receptor agonists) have notable effects on music listening. In the current report, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was collected during music listening in 25 healthy adults after administration of placebo, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and LSD pretreated with the 5HT2A antagonist ketanserin, to investigate the role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in the neural response to the time-varying tonal structure of music. Tonality-tracking analysis of BOLD data revealed that 5HT2A receptor signaling alters the neural response to music in brain regions supporting basic and higher-level musical and auditory processing, and areas involved in memory, emotion, and self-referential processing...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028555/shifting-characteristics-of-ecstasy-users-ages-12-34-in-the-united-states-2007-2014
#5
Joseph J Palamar, Pia M Mauro, Benjamin H Han, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy/MDMA has been one of the most prevalent party drugs for decades, and powder ecstasy recently increased in popularity. We examined trends in use to determine who to best target for prevention and harm reduction. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the 2007-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative probability sample, was conducted. Linear trends in past-year ecstasy use and trends in demographic and other past-year substance use characteristics among ecstasy users were examined among participants ages 12-34 (N=332,560)...
October 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023056/ameliorative-effect-of-arctium-lappa-against-cadmium-genotoxicity-and-histopathology-in-kidney-of-wistar-rat
#6
Asma Suliman Al-Gebaly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal whose dispersion in the environment has increased recently, Cd may enhance cell oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative capability of Burdock root 'Arctium lappa' on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histopathology of the kidney of Wistar rats. METHODOLOGY: Cadmium was applied in a form of cadmium chloride to three groups (15 mg Cd kg-1) for five weeks with two groups pre-treated with 'Arctium lappa' administration, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990804/effects-of-a-blend-of-essential-oils-and-overcrowding-stress-on-the-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-heat-shock-protein-gene-expression-of-broilers
#7
S M Hosseini, H Farhangfar, R Nourmohammadi
1. Overcrowding stress is common in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations are characterised by welfare impairment and immunosuppression. The present study evaluated the effects of a blend of essential oils (EOB; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) and stocking density on the performance, gut microflora, meat quality, and physiological stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 360) were allocated to 4 experimental groups from d 22 to 42. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 15 chicks...
October 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987938/tcb-2-7r-3-bromo-2-5-dimethoxy-bicyclo-4-2-0-octa-1-3-5-trien-7-yl-methanamine-a-hallucinogenic-drug-a-selective-5-ht2a-receptor-pharmacological-tool-or-none-of-the-above
#8
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The development of 5-HT2A receptor agonists has been considerably marginalized since the demonstration that the tryptaminergic drugs, LSD and psilocybin, or the phenylakylamine drugs, mescaline and DOI, exert their hallucinogenic properties via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors. Nonetheless, the ability of drugs to stimulate 5-HT2A receptors is not necessarily associated with psychedelic experience and the hallucinogenic properties are still not understood. Several studies have increased interest in stimulating 5-HT2A receptors in various CNS diseases...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967351/acute-lsd-effects-on-response-inhibition-neural-networks
#9
A Schmidt, F Müller, C Lenz, P C Dolder, Y Schmid, D Zanchi, U E Lang, M E Liechti, S Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that the serotonin 2A receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor, 5-HT2AR) is critically involved in the formation of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairments in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced states and neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the interaction between 5-HT2AR activation, cognitive impairments and visual hallucinations is still poorly understood. This study explored the effect of 5-HT2AR activation on response inhibition neural networks in healthy subjects by using LSD and further tested whether brain activation during response inhibition under LSD exposure was related to LSD-induced visual hallucinations...
October 2, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958905/-uro-and-nephrotoxic-effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-literature-review-and-pharmaco-epidemiological-survey-in-france-and-in-the-marseille-area
#10
Marion Gully, Élisabeth Frauger, Michel Spadari, Liselotte Pochard, Vanessa Pauly, Fanny Romain, Bertrand Gondouin, Marion Sallée, Julie Moussi-Frances, Stéphane Burtey, Bertrand Dussol, Laurent Daniel, Joëlle Micallef, Noémie Jourde-Chiche
A great diversification of drugs of abuse has been observed in recent years, both in the populations using them and in the types of drugs. Although dependency and psychiatric disorders associated with the abuse of these substances is well known, somatic complications, uro-nephrotoxicity in particular, are less recognized. We propose here an overview of the products used by drugs abusers in France, through the analysis of the national pharmaco-epidemiological study Observation des produits psychotropes illicites ou détournés de leur utilisation médicamenteuse (OPPIDUM)...
September 25, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957407/semiconductor-laser-irradiation-improves-root-canal-sealing-during-routine-root-canal-therapy
#11
Dandan Su, Xingxue Hu, Dashan Wang, Ting Cui, Ruyong Yao, Huibin Sun
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). METHODS: Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948056/could-hallucinogens-induce-permanent-pupillary-changes-in-ab-users-a-case-report-from-new-zealand
#12
Ahmed Al-Imam
An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD, NBOMe, psilocybin, and DMT. The condition affects both eyes to the same extent. Thorough medical, neurological, and radiological examinations, including an EEG and an MRI of the head and neck region, were completely normal...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948013/mineral-composition-of-tamarindus-indica-linn-tamarind-pulp-and-seeds-from-different-agro-ecological-zones-of-uganda
#13
REVIEW
Jaspher Okello, John B L Okullo, Gerald Eilu, Philip Nyeko, Joseph Obua
Mineral composition of dry Tamarindus indica LINN pulp and seeds was evaluated on samples collected from three different agro-ecological zones of Uganda (Lake Victoria Crescent, and Eastern and West Nile). The objective of the study was to evaluate the mineral composition of T. indica pulp and seed samples from across Uganda's different agro-ecological zones and land use types. Separately grounded samples of T. indica pulp and seeds were analyzed for Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Na, K, and Ca. The univariate analysis of variance in the General Linear Model was used to compare differences in mineral composition...
September 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947181/serotonergic-hallucinogens-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-suffering-from-a-life-threatening-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Simon Reiche, Leo Hermle, Stefan Gutwinski, Henrik Jungaberle, Peter Gasser, Tomislav Majić
Anxiety and depression are some of the most common psychiatric symptoms of patients suffering with life-threatening diseases, often associated with a low quality of life and a poor overall prognosis. 5-HT2A-receptor agonists (serotonergic hallucinogens, 'psychedelics') like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin were first investigated as therapeutic agents in the 1960s. Recently, after a long hiatus period of regulatory obstacles, interest in the clinical use of these substances has resumed. The current article provides a systematic review of studies investigating psychedelics in the treatment of symptoms of existential distress in life-threatening diseases across different periods of research, highlighting how underlying concepts have developed over time...
September 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947075/psychedelic-drugs-in-biomedicine
#15
REVIEW
Evan J Kyzar, Charles D Nichols, Raul R Gainetdinov, David E Nichols, Allan V Kalueff
Psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin, exert profound effects on brain and behavior. After decades of difficulties in studying these compounds, psychedelics are again being tested as potential treatments for intractable biomedical disorders. Preclinical research of psychedelics complements human neuroimaging studies and pilot clinical trials, suggesting these compounds as promising treatments for addiction, depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, many questions regarding the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of psychedelics remain...
September 22, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940552/clinical-and-angiographic-outcomes-of-axial-stent-deformations-in-unrestricted-real-world-patient-population
#16
Mahmoud Sabbah, Kazushige Kadota, Shunsuke Kubo, Yusuke Hyodo, Suguru Otsuru, Daiji Hasegawa, Takeshi Tada, Seiji Habara, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yasushi Fuku, Tsuyoshi Goto
BACKGROUND: Prior reports have suggested that the design of the Promus Element stent is prone to longitudinal stent deformation (LSD). However, little is known about the clinical and angiographic outcomes of Promus Element stent axial deformations when implanted in unrestricted coronary lesions. METHOD AND RESULTS: Two independent reviewers retrospectively evaluated the procedure steps of 961 Promus Element stent (833 de novo lesions in 494 consecutive patients) implanted in unrestricted coronary lesions, between February 2012 and March 2013, and compared the prevalence, predictors, and the mid-term clinical and angiographic outcomes between lesions with and without stent deformation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940314/dietary-sodium-induces-a-redistribution-of-the-tubular-metabolic-workload
#17
Khalil Udwan, Ahmed Abed, Isabelle Roth, Eva Dizin, Marc Maillard, Carla Bettoni, Johannes Loffing, Carsten A Wagner, Aurélie Edwards, Eric Feraille
Na(+) excretion by the kidney varies according to dietary Na(+) intake. We undertook a systematic study on the effects of dietary salt intake on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular Na(+) reabsorption. We examined the renal adaptive response in mice subjected to 7 days of a low sodium diet (LSD) containing 0.01% Na(+) , a normal sodium diet (NSD) containing 0.18% Na(+) , as well as a moderately high sodium diet (HSD) containing 1.25% Na(+) . As expected, LSD did not alter measured GFR and increased the abundance of total and cell-surface NHE3, NKCC2, NCC, α-ENaC, and cleaved γ-ENaC compared to NSD...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940312/increased-thalamic-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-core-driver-of-lsd-induced-hallucinations
#18
F Müller, C Lenz, P Dolder, U Lang, A Schmidt, M Liechti, S Borgwardt
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. METHOD: 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches...
September 21, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937035/effects-of-pinealectomy-and-gonadectomy-on-olfactory-bulb-dopaminergic-neurons-in-rats
#19
Yan Li, Jian Zhu, Ying Wang, Lei Guo, Lei Li, Dong Wang
BACKGROUND: Olfactory disorder is an early manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), likely to be associated with abnormalities of the dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB); however, the causes of olfactory disorder in PD are not entirely clear. Some studies showed that melatonin (MT) and androgens (mainly testosterone, T) might participate in the pathogenesis of PD. The research aimed to investigate effects of MT or T deficiency on OB dopaminergic neurons in rats. METHODS: One hundred and twenty normal male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control, sham operation pinealectomy (PX), sham operation gonadectomy (GDX), PX, GDX, and PX + GDX groups...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933411/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-lysosomal-storage-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Mario de la Mata, David Cotán, Marina Villanueva-Paz, Isabel de Lavera, Mónica Álvarez-Córdoba, Raquel Luzón-Hidalgo, Juan M Suárez-Rivero, Gustavo Tiscornia, Manuel Oropesa-Ávila
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) describe a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic disorders that result from the absence or loss of function of lysosomal hydrolases or transporters, resulting in the progressive accumulation of undigested material in lysosomes. The accumulation of substances affects the function of lysosomes and other organelles, resulting in secondary alterations such as impairment of autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis. LSDs frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS), where neuronal dysfunction or loss results in progressive neurodegeneration and premature death...
October 11, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
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