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Phosphatidyl serine and Alzheimer's

Olga Simakova, Nelson J Arispe
We performed a fluorescent analysis of the binding of Aβ to the surface membrane of different types of cells lines such as PC12, GT1-7, and ex vivo neurons. Analyses were performed on sorted cells with membrane bound Aβ Competitive binding between Aβ phosphatidyl serine- (PtdSer-) specific binder annexin V and an anti-PtdSer antibody provided compelling data confirming the involvement of PtdSer as one of the surface membrane signal molecules for Aβ. We found that populations of cells that exhibited high surface membrane binding affinity for Aβ also show higher membrane cholesterol levels compared to cells that did not bind Aβ...
2011: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
G Acero, K Manoutcharian, V Vasilevko, M E Munguia, T Govezensky, G Coronas, A Luz-Madrigal, D H Cribbs, G Gevorkian
N-truncated and N-modified forms of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide are found in diffused and dense core plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome patients as well as transgenic mouse models of AD. Although the pathological significance of these shortened forms Abeta is not completely understood, previous studies have demonstrated that these peptides are significantly more resistant to degradation, aggregate more rapidly in vitro and exhibit similar or, in some cases, increased toxicity in hippocampal neuronal cultures compared to the full length peptides...
August 18, 2009: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Olga Simakova, Nelson J Arispe
Measurement of Abeta toxicity of cells in culture exposes a subpopulation of cells with resistance to Abeta, even at high concentrations and after long periods of treatment. The cell-selective toxicity of Abeta resembles the selective damage observed in cells of specific regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and suggests that there must be particular characteristics or stages of these cells that make them exceptionally sensitive or resistant to the effect of Abeta. Using flow cytometry and cell sorting, we efficiently separated and analyzed the Abeta-sensitive and the Abeta-resistant subpopulations within a variety of neuronal cell lines (PC12, GT1-7) and primary cultured neurons (hippocampal, cortex)...
December 12, 2007: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Pei I Ho, Daniela Ortiz, Eugene Rogers, Thomas B Shea
Homocysteine (HC) is a neurotoxic amino acid that accumulates in several neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the consequences of treatment of cultured murine cortical neurons with HC. Homocysteine-induced increases in cytosolic calcium, reactive oxygen species, phospho-tau immunoreactivity and externalized phosphatidyl serine (indicative of apoptosis). Homocysteine-induced calcium influx through NMDA channel activation, which stimulated glutamate excitotoxicity, as evidenced by treatment with antagonists of the NMDA channel and metabotropic glutamate receptors, respectively...
December 1, 2002: Journal of Neuroscience Research
T B Shea
Discerning the in situ functions of the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau is of interest both in terms of neuronal differentiation and homeostasis as well as in terms of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, exposure to excess phosphatidyl serine (PS) for < 1 min induced antigenic alterations in multiple N-terminal, C-terminal and central epitopes of purified human brain tau. Notably, "AD-like" epitopes (PHF-1, ALZ-50, AT-8) were decreased by PS; other epitopes (e...
October 1, 1997: Journal of Neuroscience Research
H Y Wang, M R Pisano, E Friedman
Protein kinase C (PKC) activity and its redistribution were determined in postmortem Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched control brains. Cytosolic and membrane-associated PKC activities were lower in frontal and temporal cortices and hippocampi of AD brains. Increased concentrations of phosphatidyl-L-serine, Ca2+ or phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate only weakly increased enzyme activity in AD tissues. Redistribution of cytosolic PKC to the membranous fraction was elicited in control brain slices by 162 nM PMA in the presence of K+ (65 mM)...
May 1994: Neurobiology of Aging
W D Heiss, B Szelies, J Kessler, K Herholz
Positron emission tomography (PET) is currently the only technology affording three-dimensional measurement of the brain's energy metabolism which is closely coupled to brain function. Studies of glucose metabolism by PET of (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose are therefore widely applied to show the contribution of various brain structures in the performance of a variety of tasks or their participation in functional deficits associated with various diseases. Although glucose metabolism decreases slightly with age to a regionally different degree, most types of dementia show severe changes in glucose metabolism...
1991: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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