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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150608/rapid-neo-sex-chromosome-evolution-and-incipient-speciation-in-a-major-forest-pest
#1
Ryan R Bracewell, Barbara J Bentz, Brian T Sullivan, Jeffrey M Good
Genome evolution is predicted to be rapid following the establishment of new (neo) sex chromosomes, but it is not known if neo-sex chromosome evolution plays an important role in speciation. Here we combine extensive crossing experiments with population and functional genomic data to examine neo-XY chromosome evolution and incipient speciation in the mountain pine beetle. We find a broad continuum of intrinsic incompatibilities in hybrid males that increase in strength with geographic distance between reproductively isolated populations...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137168/origin-and-evolution-of-the-neo-sex-chromosomes-in-pamphagidae-grasshoppers-through-chromosome-fusion-and-following-heteromorphization
#2
Ilyas Yerkinovich Jetybayev, Alexander Gennadievich Bugrov, Olesya Georgievna Buleu, Anton Gennadievich Bogomolov, Nikolay Borisovich Rubtsov
In most phylogenetic lineages, the evolution of sex chromosomes is accompanied by their heteromorphization and degradation of one of them. The neo-sex chromosomes are useful model for studying early stages of these processes. Recently two lineages of the neo-sex chromosomes on different stages of heteromorphization was discovered in Pamphagidae family. The neo-sex chromosome heteromorphization was analyzed by generation of DNA probes derived from the neo-Xs and neo-Ys followed with chromosome painting in nineteen species of Pamphagidae family...
November 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136178/identification-of-genomic-regions-associated-with-sex-in-pacific-halibut
#3
Daniel P Drinan, Timothy Loher, Lorenz Hauser
Understanding and identifying the genetic mechanisms responsible for sex-determination are important for species management, particularly in exploited fishes where sex biased harvest could have implications on population dynamics and long-term persistence. The Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) supports important fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean. The proportion of each sex in the annual harvest is currently estimated using growth curves, but genetic techniques may provide a more accurate method. We used restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to identify RAD-tags that were linked to genetic sex, based on differentiation (FST) between the sexes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134711/x-exceptionalism-in-caenorhabditis-speciation
#4
Asher D Cutter
Speciation genetics research in diverse organisms shows the X-chromosome to be exceptional in how it contributes to 'rules' of speciation. Until recently, however, the nematode phylum has been nearly silent on this issue, despite the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans having touched most other topics in biology. Studies of speciation with Caenorhabditis accelerated with the recent discovery of species pairs showing partial inter-fertility. The resulting genetic analyses of reproductive isolation in nematodes demonstrate key roles for the X-chromosome in hybrid male sterility and inviability, opening up new understanding of the genetic causes of Haldane's rule, Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, and enabling tests of the large-X effect hypothesis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133797/the-deep-conservation-of-the-lepidoptera-z-chromosome-suggests-a-non-canonical-origin-of-the-w
#5
Christelle Fraïsse, Marion A L Picard, Beatriz Vicoso
Moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) usually have a pair of differentiated WZ sex chromosomes. However, in most lineages outside of the division Ditrysia, as well as in the sister order Trichoptera, females lack a W chromosome. The W is therefore thought to have been acquired secondarily. Here we compare the genomes of three Lepidoptera species (one Dytrisia and two non-Dytrisia) to test three models accounting for the origin of the W: (1) a Z-autosome fusion; (2) a sex chromosome turnover; and (3) a non-canonical mechanism (e...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133310/convergent-origination-of-a-drosophila-like-dosage-compensation-mechanism-in-a-reptile-lineage
#6
Ray Marin, Diego Cortez, Francesco Lamanna, Madapura M Pradeepa, Evgeny Leushkin, Philippe Julien, Angélica Liechti, Jean Halbert, Thoomke Brüning, Katharina Mössinger, Timo Trefzer, Christian Conrad, Halie N Kerver, Juli Wade, Patrick Tschopp, Henrik Kaessmann
Sex chromosomes differentiated from different ancestral autosomes in various vertebrate lineages. Here, we trace the functional evolution of the XY Chromosomes of the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis), on the basis of extensive high-throughput genome, transcriptome and histone modification sequencing data and revisit dosage compensation evolution in representative mammals and birds with substantial new expression data. Our analyses show that Anolis sex chromosomes represent an ancient XY system that originated at least ≈160 million years ago in the ancestor of Iguania lizards, shortly after the separation from the snake lineage...
November 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131362/sex-discordance-identification-following-non-invasive-prenatal-testing
#7
Ebony J Richardson, Fergus P Scott, Andrew C McLennan
OBJECTIVE: To characterize genotype-phenotype discordance identified in the routine clinical setting, and explore the associated diagnostic and counseling challenges. METHOD: Cases were derived from a cohort of pregnant women who attended a multi-site specialist prenatal screening and ultrasound service for non-invasive prenatal testing by cell-free DNA analysis and mid-trimester fetal morphology assessment. RESULTS: Seven cases of genotype-phenotype discordance were identified from a cohort of 12,919 women between June 2013 - March 2017 (incidence 1/1845 pregnancies)...
November 13, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130975/karyotypes-versus-genomes-the-nymphalid-butterflies-melitaea-cinxia-danaus-plexippus-and-d-chrysippus
#8
Walther Traut, Virpi Ahola, David A S Smith, Ian J Gordon, Richard H Ffrench-Constant
The number of sequenced lepidopteran genomes is increasing rapidly. However, the corresponding assemblies rarely represent whole chromosomes and generally also lack the highly repetitive W sex chromosome. Knowledge of the karyotypes can facilitate genome assembly and further our understanding of sex chromosome evolution in Lepidoptera. Here, we describe the karyotypes of the Glanville fritillary Melitaea cinxia (n = 31), the monarch Danaus plexippus (n = 30), and the African queen D. chrysippus (2n = 60 or 59, depending on the source population)...
November 2, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126117/dynamic-reorganization-of-open-chromatin-underlies-diverse-transcriptomes-during-spermatogenesis
#9
So Maezawa, Masashi Yukawa, Kris G Alavattam, Artem Barski, Satoshi H Namekawa
During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo massive cellular reconstruction and dynamic chromatin remodeling to facilitate highly diverse transcriptomes, which are required for the production of functional sperm. However, it remains unknown how germline chromatin is organized to promote the dynamic, complex transcriptomes of spermatogenesis. Here, using ATAC-seq, we establish the varied landscape of open chromatin during spermatogenesis. We identify the reorganization of accessible chromatin in intergenic and intronic regions during the mitosis-to-meiosis transition...
November 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125628/genomics-based-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-for-detection-of-fetal-chromosomal-aneuploidy-in-pregnant-women
#10
REVIEW
Mylène Badeau, Carmen Lindsay, Jonatan Blais, Leon Nshimyumukiza, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sylvie Langlois, France Légaré, Yves Giguère, Alexis F Turgeon, William Witteman, François Rousseau
BACKGROUND: Common fetal aneuploidies include Down syndrome (trisomy 21 or T21), Edward syndrome (trisomy 18 or T18), Patau syndrome (trisomy 13 or T13), Turner syndrome (45,X), Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Triple X syndrome (47,XXX) and 47,XYY syndrome (47,XYY). Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies is standard care in many countries, but current biochemical and ultrasound tests have high false negative and false positive rates. The discovery of fetal circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in maternal blood offers the potential for genomics-based non-invasive prenatal testing (gNIPT) as a more accurate screening method...
November 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124392/tracking-the-evolutionary-pathway-of-sex-chromosomes-among-fishes-characterizing-the-unique-xx-xy1y2-system-in-hoplias-malabaricus-teleostei-characiformes
#11
Ezequiel Aguiar de Oliveira, Alexandr Sember, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Cassia Fernanda Yano, Tariq Ezaz, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Terumi Hatanaka, Vladimir Trifonov, Thomas Liehr, Ahmed Basheer Hamid Al-Rikabi, Petr Ráb, Hugmar Pains, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
The Neotropical fish, Hoplias malabaricus, is one of the most cytogenetically studied fish taxon with seven distinct karyomorphs (A-G) comprising varying degrees of sex chromosome differentiation, ranging from homomorphic to highly differentiated simple and multiple sex chromosomes. Therefore, this fish offers a unique opportunity to track evolutionary mechanisms standing behind the sex chromosome evolution and differentiation. Here, we focused on a high-resolution cytogenetic characterization of the unique XX/XY1Y2 multiple sex chromosome system found in one of its karyomorphs (G)...
November 9, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120459/informative-priors-on-fetal-fraction-increase-power-of-the-noninvasive-prenatal-screen
#12
Hanli Xu, Shaowei Wang, Lin-Lin Ma, Shuai Huang, Lin Liang, Qian Liu, Yang-Yang Liu, Ke-Di Liu, Ze-Min Tan, Hao Ban, Yongtao Guan, Zuhong Lu
PurposeNoninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) sequences a mixture of the maternal and fetal cell-free DNA. Fetal trisomy can be detected by examining chromosomal dosages estimated from sequencing reads. The traditional method uses the Z-test, which compares a subject against a set of euploid controls, where the information of fetal fraction is not fully utilized. Here we present a Bayesian method that leverages informative priors on the fetal fraction.MethodOur Bayesian method combines the Z-test likelihood and informative priors of the fetal fraction, which are learned from the sex chromosomes, to compute Bayes factors...
November 9, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118343/exosc10-rrp6-is-post-translationally-regulated-in-male-germ-cells-and-controls-the-onset-of-spermatogenesis
#13
Soazik P Jamin, Fabrice G Petit, Christine Kervarrec, Fatima Smagulova, Doris Illner, Harry Scherthan, Michael Primig
EXOSC10 is a catalytic subunit of the exosome that processes biologically active transcripts, degrades aberrant mRNAs and targets certain long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The yeast orthologue Rrp6 is required for efficient growth and gametogenesis, and becomes unstable during meiosis. However, nothing is known about the localization, stability and function of EXOSC10 in the rodent male germline. We detect the protein in nucleoli and the cytoplasm of mitotic and meiotic germ cells, and find that it transiently associates with the XY body, a structure targeted by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118296/mismatch-between-fetal-sexing-and-birth-phenotype-a%C3%A2-case-of-complete-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome
#14
Keisuke Yoshii, Yasuhiro Naiki, Yumiko Terada, Maki Fukami, Reiko Horikawa
With advancing maternal age, the number of prenatal genetic tests is increasing in many countries. Prenatal genetic tests, such as amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling and non-invasive prenatal testing, can disclose fetal chromosomal sex, although these tests were originally designed to prenatally diagnose chromosomal aneuploidies, such as trisomy 21, 18 and 13. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by an androgen receptor dysfunction leading to hormone resistance...
November 9, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117384/eshre-pgd-consortium-data-collection-xiv-xv-cycles-from-january-2011-to-december-2012-with-pregnancy-follow-up-to-october-2013
#15
M De Rycke, V Goossens, G Kokkali, M Meijer-Hoogeveen, E Coonen, C Moutou
STUDY QUESTION: How does the data collection XIV-XV of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) PGD Consortium compare with the cumulative data for data collections I-XIII? SUMMARY ANSWER: The 14th and 15th retrospective collection represents valuable data on PGD/PGS cycles, pregnancies and children: the main trend observed is the increased application of array technology at the cost of FISH testing in PGS cycles and in PGD cycles for chromosomal abnormalities...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117171/accounting-for-sex-in-the-genome
#16
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
Genetic association studies of the human genome often omit the X chromosome because of the unique analytical challenges it presents. A concerted effort to undo this exclusion could offer medically relevant insights into basic biology that might otherwise be missed.
November 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117127/amphibian-and-avian-karyotype-evolution-insights-from-lampbrush-chromosome-studies
#17
REVIEW
Anna Zlotina, Dmitry Dedukh, Alla Krasikova
Amphibian and bird karyotypes typically have a complex organization, which makes them difficult for standard cytogenetic analysis. That is, amphibian chromosomes are generally large, enriched with repetitive elements, and characterized by the absence of informative banding patterns. The majority of avian karyotypes comprise a small number of relatively large macrochromosomes and numerous tiny morphologically undistinguishable microchromosomes. A good progress in investigation of amphibian and avian chromosome evolution became possible with the usage of giant lampbrush chromosomes typical for growing oocytes...
November 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116991/association-between-polymorphisms-of-metabolic-enzyme-genes-and-chromosomal-damage-in-benzene-exposed-workers-in-china
#18
Yan Fang, Han-Tian Wu, Yun-Jie Ye, Li-Fang Zhou, Wei Hu, Guang-Hui Zhang, Pin Sun, William Au, Zhao-Lin Xia
OBJECTIVE: To provide better understanding of genetic susceptibility for health risk among current benzene-exposed workers. METHODS: Four hundred sixty one benzene-exposed workers and 88 matched controls were recruited, and their benzene exposure doses were monitored. Associations between genetic susceptibility for polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes CYP2E1 and NQO1, and expression of cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) were investigated. RESULTS: Mean MN frequency in the exposed workers was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0...
November 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115663/endogenous-annexin-a1-anxa1-modulates-early-phase-gestation-and-offspring-sex-ratio-skewing
#19
Cristina Bichels Hebeda, Isabel Daufenback Machado, Isadora Reif-Silva, Jusciele Brogin Moreli, Sonia Maria Oliani, Suchita Nadkarni, Mauro Perretti, Estela Bevilacqua, Sandra H P Farsky
Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a glucocorticoid-regulated anti-inflammatory protein secreted by phagocytes and other specialised cells. In the endocrine system, AnxA1 controls secretion of steroid hormones and it is abundantly expressed in the testis, ovaries, placenta and seminal fluid, yet its potential modulation of fertility has not been described. Here we observed that AnxA1 knockout (KO) mice delivered a higher number of pups, with a higher percentage of female offsprings. This profile was not dependent on the male features, as sperm from KO male mice did not present functional alterations, and had an equal proportion of Y and X chromosomes, comparable to wild type (WT) male mice...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114363/dual-mechanism-of-chromatin-remodeling-in-the-common-shrew-sex-trivalent-xy-1y-2
#20
Sergey N Matveevsky, Svetlana V Pavlova, Maret M Atsaeva, Jeremy B Searle, Oxana L Kolomiets
Here we focus on the XY1Y2 condition in male common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, applying electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry for a comprehensive analysis of structure, synapsis and behaviour of the sex trivalent in pachytene spermatocytes. The pachytene sex trivalent consists of three distinct parts: short and long synaptic SC fragments (between the X and Y1 and between the X and Y2, respectively) and a long asynaptic region of the X in-between. Chromatin inactivation was revealed in the XY1 synaptic region, the asynaptic region of the X and a very small asynaptic part of the Y2...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
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