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Botong Shen, Jicai Jiang, Eyal Seroussi, George E Liu, Li Ma
BACKGROUND: Crossover generated by meiotic recombination is a fundamental event that facilitates meiosis and sexual reproduction. Comparative studies have shown wide variation in recombination rate among species, but the characterization of recombination features between cattle breeds has not yet been performed. Cattle populations in North America count millions, and the dairy industry has genotyped millions of individuals with pedigree information that provide a unique opportunity to study breed-level variations in recombination...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Christoph G Engert, Rita Droste, Alexander van Oudenaarden, H Robert Horvitz
To better understand the tissue-specific regulation of chromatin state in cell-fate determination and animal development, we defined the tissue-specific expression of all 36 C. elegans presumptive lysine methyltransferase (KMT) genes using single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH). Most KMTs were expressed in only one or two tissues. The germline was the tissue with the broadest KMT expression. We found that the germline-expressed C. elegans protein SET-17, which has a SET domain similar to that of the PRDM9 and PRDM7 SET-domain proteins, promotes fertility by regulating gene expression in primary spermatocytes...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
Sarah Thibault-Sennett, Qi Yu, Fatima Smagulova, Jeff Cloutier, Kevin Brick, R Daniel Camerini-Otero, Galina V Petukhova
Homologous recombination is required for proper segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. It occurs predominantly at recombination hotspots that are defined by the DNA binding specificity of the PRDM9 protein. PRDM9 contains three conserved domains typically involved in regulation of transcription; yet, the role of PRDM9 in gene expression control is not clear. Here, we analyze the germline transcriptome of Prdm9-/- male mice in comparison to Prdm9+/+ males and find no apparent differences in the mRNA and miRNA profiles...
June 2018: Genetics
Sona Gregorova, Vaclav Gergelits, Irena Chvatalova, Tanmoy Bhattacharyya, Barbora Valiskova, Vladana Fotopulosova, Petr Jansa, Diana Wiatrowska, Jiri Forejt
Hybrid sterility is one of the reproductive isolation mechanisms leading to speciation. Prdm9 , the only known vertebrate hybrid-sterility gene, causes failure of meiotic chromosome synapsis and infertility in male hybrids that are the offspring of two mouse subspecies. Within species, Prdm9 determines the sites of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and meiotic recombination hotspots. To investigate the relation between Prdm9 -controlled meiotic arrest and asynapsis, we inserted random stretches of consubspecific homology on several autosomal pairs in sterile hybrids, and analyzed their ability to form synaptonemal complexes and to rescue male fertility...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Rhea Kang, Maciej J Zelazowski, Francesca Cole
PRDM9 determines the localization of meiotic recombination hotspots, which are associated with histone H3 methylation. It is not known whether PRDM9's methyltransferase activity is required or how some PRDM9 alleles can dominate the distribution of hotspots over other alleles. Diagouraga, Clément, and colleagues (2018) show that methyltransferase activity is required for hotspot localization and that this activity is additive in combination, suggesting that the dominance of particular alleles is simply proportional to the frequency of targeted sites...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Cell
Boubou Diagouraga, Julie A J Clément, Laurent Duret, Jan Kadlec, Bernard de Massy, Frédéric Baudat
The programmed formation of hundreds of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for proper meiosis and fertility. In mice and humans, the location of these breaks is determined by the meiosis-specific protein PRDM9, through the DNA-binding specificity of its zinc-finger domain. PRDM9 also has methyltransferase activity. Here, we show that this activity is required for H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 deposition and for DSB formation at PRDM9-binding sites. By analyzing mice that express two PRDM9 variants with distinct DNA-binding specificities, we show that each variant generates its own set of H3K4me3 marks independently from the other variant...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Cell
Meagan A Beatty, Jorge Borges-González, Nicholas J Sinclair, Aidan T Pye, Fraser Hof
Many indicator displacement assays can detect biological analytes in water, but these often have reduced performance in the presence of an unavoidable component: NaCl. We report here a new self-assembled sensor, DimerDye, that uses a novel photochemical guest-sensing mechanism and that is intrinsically tolerant of cosolutes. We synthetically integrated a dye into a calixarene macrocycle, forming two new merocyanine calixarenes (MCx-1 and MCx-2). Both compounds self-assemble into nonemissive dimers in water...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kenneth Paigen, Petko M Petkov
PRDM9 is a zinc finger protein that binds DNA at specific locations in the genome where it trimethylates histone H3 at lysines 4 and 36 at surrounding nucleosomes. During meiosis in many species, including humans and mice where PRDM9 has been most intensely studied, these actions determine the location of recombination hotspots, where genetic recombination occurs. In addition, PRDM9 facilitates the association of hotspots with the chromosome axis, the site of the programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that give rise to genetic exchange between chromosomes...
April 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Yang Zhou, Botong Shen, Jicai Jiang, Abinash Padhi, Ki-Eun Park, Adam Oswalt, Charles G Sattler, Bhanu P Telugu, Hong Chen, John B Cole, George E Liu, Li Ma
PRDM9 contributes to hybrid sterility and species evolution. However, its role is to be confirmed in cattle, a major domesticated livestock species. We previously found an association near PRDM9 with cattle recombination features, but the causative variants are still unknown. Using millions of genotyped cattle with pedigree information, we characterized five PRDM9 alleles and generated allele-specific recombination maps. By examining allele-specific recombination patterns, we observed the impact of PRDM9 on global distribution of recombination, especially in the two ends of chromosomes...
April 1, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Thibault Latrille, Laurent Duret, Nicolas Lartillot
In humans and many other species, recombination events cluster in narrow and short-lived hot spots distributed across the genome, whose location is determined by the Zn-finger protein PRDM9. To explain these fast evolutionary dynamics, an intra-genomic Red Queen model has been proposed, based on the interplay between two antagonistic forces: biased gene conversion, mediated by double-strand breaks, resulting in hot-spot extinction, followed by positive selection favouring new PRDM9 alleles recognizing new sequence motifs...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Irene Tiemann-Boege, Theresa Schwarz, Yasmin Striedner, Angelika Heissl
Meiosis is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) introduced in the DNA by a highly controlled process that is repaired by recombination. In many organisms, recombination occurs at specific and narrow regions of the genome, known as recombination hotspots, which overlap with regions enriched for DSBs. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that conversions and mutations resulting from the repair of DSBs lead to a rapid sequence evolution at recombination hotspots eroding target sites for DSBs. We still do not fully understand the effect of this erosion in the recombination activity, but evidence has shown that the binding of trans -acting factors like PRDM9 is affected...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Nicolas Altemose, Nudrat Noor, Emmanuelle Bitoun, Afidalina Tumian, Michael Imbeault, J Ross Chapman, A Radu Aricescu, Simon R Myers
PRDM9 binding localizes almost all meiotic recombination sites in humans and mice. However, most PRDM9-bound loci do not become recombination hotspots. To explore factors that affect binding and subsequent recombination outcomes, we mapped human PRDM9 binding sites in a transfected human cell line and measured PRDM9-induced histone modifications. These data reveal varied DNA-binding modalities of PRDM9. We also find that human PRDM9 frequently binds promoters, despite their low recombination rates, and it can activate expression of a small number of genes including CTCFL and VCX ...
October 26, 2017: ELife
Morten Hillmer, Anna Summerer, Victor-Felix Mautner, Josef Högel, David N Cooper, Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki
Precise characterization of nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) breakpoints is key to identifying those features that influence NAHR frequency. Until now, analysis of NAHR-mediated rearrangements has generally been performed by comparison of the breakpoint-spanning sequences with the human genome reference sequence. We show here that the haplotype diversity of NAHR hotspots may interfere with breakpoint-mapping. We studied the transmitting parents of individuals with germline type-1 NF1 deletions mediated by NAHR within the paralogous recombination site 1 (PRS1) or paralogous recombination site 2 (PRS2) hotspots...
September 1, 2017: Human Mutation
Anusha M Gopalakrishnan, Ahmed S I Aly, L Aravind, Nirbhay Kumar
In sexually reproducing organisms, meiosis is an essential step responsible for generation of haploid gametes from diploid somatic cells. The quest for understanding regulatory mechanisms of meiotic recombination in Plasmodium led to identification of a gene encoding a protein that contains 11 copies of C2 H2 zinc fingers (ZnF). Reverse genetic approaches were used to create Plasmodium berghei parasites either lacking expression of full-length Plasmodium berghei zinc finger protein (PbZfp) (knockout [KO]) or expressing PbZfp lacking C-terminal zinc finger region (truncated [Trunc])...
August 29, 2017: MBio
Shintaro Yamada, Seoyoung Kim, Sam E Tischfield, Maria Jasin, Julian Lange, Scott Keeney
The SPO11-generated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination occur non-randomly across genomes, but mechanisms shaping their distribution and repair remain incompletely understood. Here, we expand on recent studies of nucleotide-resolution DSB maps in mouse spermatocytes. We find that trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 36 around DSB hotspots is highly correlated, both spatially and quantitatively, with trimethylation of H3 lysine 4, consistent with coordinated formation and action of both PRDM9-dependent histone modifications...
October 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
Anamika Patel, Xing Zhang, Robert M Blumenthal, Xiaodong Cheng
PRDM9 is the only mammalian gene that has been associated with speciation. The PR/SET domain 9 (PRDM9) protein is a major determinant of meiotic recombination hot spots and acts through sequence-specific DNA binding via its C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) tandem array, which is highly polymorphic within and between species. The most common human variant, PRDM9 allele A (PRDM9a), contains 13 fingers (ZF1-13). Allele C (PRDM9c) is the second-most common among African populations and differs from PRDM9a by an arginine-to-serine change (R764S) in ZF9 and by replacement of ZF11 with two other fingers, yielding 14 fingers in PRDM9c...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yang Liu, Lizeth Perez, Adam D Gill, Magi Mettry, Lin Li, Yinsheng Wang, Richard J Hooley, Wenwan Zhong
Arrayed deep cavitands can be coupled to a fluorescence-based supramolecular tandem assay that allows site-selective in situ monitoring of post-translational modifications catalyzed by the lysine methyltransferase PRDM9 or the lysine demethylase JMJD2E. An arrayed sensor system containing only three cavitand components can detect the specific substrates of enzyme modification, in the presence of other histone peptides in the enzyme assay, enabling investigation of cross-reactivity over multiple methylation sites and interference from nonsubstrate peptides...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tiffany Renee Oliver, Candace Middlebrooks, Ariel Harden, Nyeisha Scott, Blair Johnson, Jillian Jones, Christin Walker, Corinthia Wilkerson, Sha-Hanna Saffold, Abisola Akinseye, Tunde Smith, Eleanor Feingold, Stephanie L Sherman
Variation in the zinc finger-binding domain (ZFBD) of the protein PR Domain-Containing Protein 9 (PRDM9) is associated with altered placement of recombination in the human genome. As both the absence and altered placement of recombination are observed among chromosomes 21 that nondisjoin, we genotyped the PRDM9 ZFBD among mothers of children with Trisomy 21 in efforts to determine if variation within this region is associated with the recombination-related risk for chromosome 21 nondisjunction (NDJ). In our approach, PCR was used to amplify the ZFBD of PRDM9 and products were then subjected to bi-directional Sanger sequencing...
December 2016: Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities
Serap Gonen, Mara Battagin, Susan E Johnston, Gregor Gorjanc, John M Hickey
BACKGROUND: This study uses simulation to explore and quantify the potential effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain in livestock breeding programs. METHODS: We simulated three scenarios that differed in the locations of quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) and recombination hotspots in the genome. In scenario 1, QTN were randomly distributed along the chromosomes and recombination was restricted to occur within specific genomic regions (i.e. recombination hotspots)...
July 4, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Zachary Baker, Molly Schumer, Yuki Haba, Lisa Bashkirova, Chris Holland, Gil G Rosenthal, Molly Przeworski
Studies of highly diverged species have revealed two mechanisms by which meiotic recombination is directed to the genome-through PRDM9 binding or by targeting promoter-like features-that lead to dramatically different evolutionary dynamics of hotspots. Here, we identify PRDM9 orthologs from genome and transcriptome data in 225 species. We find the complete PRDM9 ortholog across distantly related vertebrates but, despite this broad conservation, infer a minimum of six partial and three complete losses. Strikingly, taxa carrying the complete ortholog of PRDM9 are precisely those with rapid evolution of its predicted binding affinity, suggesting that all domains are necessary for directing recombination...
June 6, 2017: ELife
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