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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050360/immunomodulatory-and-antitumor-effects-of-type-i-interferons-and-their-application-in-cancer-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Ruan F V Medrano, Aline Hunger, Samir Andrade Mendonça, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Bryan E Strauss
During the last decades, the pleiotropic antitumor functions exerted by type I interferons (IFNs) have become universally acknowledged, especially their role in mediating interactions between the tumor and the immune system. Indeed, type I IFNs are now appreciated as a critical component of dendritic cell (DC) driven T cell responses to cancer. Here we focus on IFN-α and IFN-β, and their antitumor effects, impact on immune responses and their use as therapeutic agents. IFN-α/β share many properties, including activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and induction of a variety of cellular phenotypes...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050319/clinical-efficacy-of-endostar-combined-with-chemotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-in-gastric-cancer-results-from-a-retrospective-study
#2
Jing Yao, Li Fan, Chunfen Peng, Ai Huang, Tao Liu, Zhenyu Lin, Qin Yang, Tao Zhang, Hong Ma
Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) resulting from metastatic dissemination of gastric cancer (GC) cells carries a dismal prognosis, and current treatments have shown little efficacy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human endostatin (Endostar), a broad-spectrum anti-angiogenic peptide, in combination with chemotherapy in PC derived from GC. From January 2014 to December 2016, 33 patients with advanced stage GC associated with PC were enrolled. Pathological, imaging, and treatment data were retrospectively analyzed...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050212/recombination-activating-gene-2-null-severe-combined-immunodeficient-pigs-and-mice-engraft-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-differently
#3
Yun-Jung Choi, EunSu Kim, Abu Musa Md Talimur Reza, Kwonho Hong, Hyuk Song, Chankyu Park, Seong-Keun Cho, Kiho Lee, Randall S Prather, Jin-Hoi Kim
This study comparatively investigated the transcriptional, physiological, and phenotypic differences of the immune disorder between severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse and pig models. We discovered that the recombination activating gene-2 (Rag-2) SCID mice, but not RAG-2 SCID pigs, showed intense, infrequent, and mild cluster of CD3(+)-, CD4(+)-, and CD8(+) signals respectively, suggesting that distinct species-specific effects exist. Furthermore, the expression of six relevant genes (NFATC1, CD79B, CD2, BLNK, FOXO1, and CD40) was more downregulated than that in the Rag-2 SCID mice, which provides a partial rationale for the death of T/B cells in the lymphoid organs of RAG-2 SCID pigs but not in Rag-2 SCID mice...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049190/chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection-as-the-initial-symptom-in-a-janus-kinase-3-deficiency-child-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Linqing Zhong, Wei Wang, Mingsheng Ma, Lijuan Gou, Xiaoyan Tang, Hongmei Song
RATIONALE: With the progress of sequencing technology, an increasing number of atypical primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients have been discovered, including Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) gene deficiency. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a patient who presented with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection but responded poorly to treatment with ganciclovir. DIAGNOSES: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed, including all known PID genes, after which Sanger sequencing was performed to verify the results...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049070/noninfectious-fever-in-the-near-term-pregnant-rat-induces-fetal-brain-inflammation-a-model-for-the-consequences-of-epidural-associated-maternal-fever
#5
Scott Segal, Carlo Pancaro, Iwona Bonney, James E Marchand
BACKGROUND: Women laboring with epidural analgesia experience fever much more frequently than do women who chose other forms of analgesia, and maternal intrapartum fever is associated with numerous adverse consequences, including brain injury in the fetus. We developed a model of noninfectious inflammatory fever in the near-term pregnant rat to simulate the pathophysiology of epidural-associated fever and hypothesized that it would produce fetal brain inflammation. METHODS: Twenty-four pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were studied at 20 days gestation (term: 22 days)...
October 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048985/commentary-impact-of-meningococcal-group-b-omv-vaccines-beyond-their-brief
#6
Helen Petousis-Harris
Meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccines have been used widely in Cuba, New Zealand, and Brazil. They are immunogenic and initially assessed largely by their ability to induce serum bactericidal activity. Measures of efficacy indicate good protection against homologous strains in older children and adults. Effectiveness appears broader than predicted by immunogenicity and efficacy studies. The recent discovery that meningococcal group B OMVs may protect against the related Neisseria species N.gonorrhoeae suggests more to these interesting antigen collections than meets the eye...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048978/antitumor-effect-of-oral-cancer-vaccine-with-bifidobacterium-delivering-wt1-protein-to-gut-immune-system-is-superior-to-wt1-peptide-vaccine
#7
Toshiro Shirakawa, Koichi Kitagawa
Despite the revolutionary progress of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) for cancer immunotherapy, CPIs are effective only in a subset of patients. Combining CPIs and cancer vaccines to achieve better clinical outcomes is a reasonable approach since CPI enhances cancer vaccine-induced tumor-associated antigen (TAA) specific CTL. Among the various TAAs so far identified, WT1 protein is one of the most promising TAAs as a cancer vaccine target. Until now clinical trials of WT1 vaccine have demonstrated only modest clinical efficacy...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048721/the-immune-profile-induced-is-crucial-to-determine-the-effects-of-immunocastration-over-gonadal-function-fertility-and-gnrh-i-expression
#8
Daniela Siel, Alexandra Loaiza, Sonia Vidal, Mario Caruffo, Rodolfo Paredes, Galia Ramirez, Lisette Lapierre, Cristóbal Briceño, Oliver Pérez, Leonardo Sáenz
PROBLEM: Immunocastration or vaccination against the GnRH-I hormone is a promising alternative to reproductive control in different animal species. Given the low immunogenicity of this hormone, the use of adjuvants becomes necessary. METHOD OF STUDY: This study evaluated the effects of three adjuvants that induce different immune response profiles over gonadal function, fertility, and expression of GnRH-I. Female mice (n = 6) were vaccinated at days 1 and 30 with a recombinant antigen for immunocastration and different adjuvants that induced preferentially Th1/Th2, Th2, and Th1 immune profiles...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048712/efficacy-and-safety-of-nuwiq-%C3%A2-human-cl-rhfviii-in-patients-with-severe-haemophilia-a-undergoing-surgical-procedures
#9
N Zozulya, C M Kessler, A Klukowska, M von Depka, K Hampton, C R M Hay, M Jansen, J Bichler, S Knaub, S Rangarajan
INTRODUCTION: Haemophilia A patients are at a high risk of excess bleeding during surgeries. The aim of haemostatic therapy during the perioperative period is to normalize FVIII level perioperatively and postoperatively to maintain normal haemostasis until wound healing is complete. AIMS/METHODS: To examine the efficacy of Nuwiq(®) (simoctocog alfa, human-cl rhFVIII), a 4(th) generation recombinant FVIII produced in a human cell line, for surgical prophylaxis in patients with severe haemophilia A...
October 19, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048644/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-inhibit-growth-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-mediated-cell-cycle-arrest
#10
Shixia Bu, Qiuwan Zhang, Qian Wang, Dongmei Lai
It is reported that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) endow intrinsic antitumor effects on certain kinds of cancer. This research was designed to evaluate whether hAECs endowed potential anticancer properties on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vivo and in vitro, which has not been reported before. In this study, we established a xenografted BALB/c nude mouse model by subcutaneously co-injecting ovarian cancer cell line, SK-OV-3, and hAECs for 28 days. In ex vivo experiments, CCK‑8 cell viability assay, real-time PCR, cell counting assay, cell cycle analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay were used to detect the effects of hAEC‑secreted factors on the proliferation and cell cycle progression of EOC cells...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048426/fgf1-protects-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-from-p53-dependent-apoptosis-through-an-intracrine-pathway-regulated-by-fgf1-phosphorylation
#11
Caroline Pirou, Fatemeh Montazer-Torbati, Nadège Jah, Elisabeth Delmas, Christelle Lasbleiz, Bernard Mignotte, Flore Renaud
Neuroblastoma, a sympathetic nervous system tumor, accounts for 15% of cancer deaths in children. In contrast to most human tumors, p53 is rarely mutated in human primary neuroblastoma, suggesting impaired p53 activation in neuroblastoma. Various studies have shown correlations between fgf1 expression levels and both prognosis severity and tumor chemoresistance. As we previously showed that fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) inhibited p53-dependent apoptosis in neuron-like PC12 cells, we initiated the study of the interaction between the FGF1 and p53 pathways in neuroblastoma...
August 31, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048423/identification-of-cross-talk-between-sumoylation-and-ubiquitylation-using-a-sequential-peptide-immunopurification-approach
#12
Francis P McManus, Frédéric Lamoliatte, Pierre Thibault
Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) such as small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) can act as antagonists to one another by competing to occupy similar residues in the proteome. In addition, SUMO and ubiquitin can be coupled to each other at key lysine residues to form highly branched protein networks. The interplay between these modifications governs important biological processes such as double-strand break repair and meiotic recombination. We recently developed an approach that permits the identification of proteins that are modified by both SUMOylation and ubiquitylation...
November 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048294/increased-detection-of-emergent-recombinant-norovirus-gii-p16-gii-2-strains-in-young-adults-hong-kong-china-2016-2017
#13
Kirsty Kwok, Sandra Niendorf, Nelson Lee, Tin-Nok Hung, Lok-Yi Chan, Sonja Jacobsen, E Anthony S Nelson, Ting F Leung, Raymond W M Lai, Paul K S Chan, Martin C W Chan
A new recombinant norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 outnumbered pandemic GII.4 as the predominant GII genotype in the winter of 2016-2017 in Hong Kong, China. Half of hospitalized case-patients were older children and adults, including 13 young adults. This emergent norovirus targets a wider age population compared with circulating pandemic GII.4 strains.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048269/an-improved-collagen-zymography-approach-for-evaluating-the-collagenases-mmp-1-mmp-8-and-mmp-13
#14
Seniz Inanc, Didem Keles, Gulgun Oktay
Collagen zymography is an SDS-PAGE-based method for detecting both the proenzyme and active forms of collagenases. Although collagen zymography is used for assessment of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-13, it can be difficult to detect these collagenases due to technical issues. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the collagenase activity of MMP-8 can be detected by this method. Here, we present an improved collagen zymography method that allows quantification of the activities of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13...
October 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048166/an-atomistic-explanation-for-interlayer-charge-transfer-in-metal-semiconductor-nanocomposites-the-case-of-silver-and-anatase
#15
Giovanni DI Liberto, Valentina Pifferi, Leonardo Lo Presti, Michele Ceotto, Luigi Falciola
A concerted theoretical and experimental investigation of the silver/anatase hybrid nanocomposite, a very promising material for advanced sensing applications, is presented. We measure its exceptional electrochemical virtues in terms of current densities and reproducibility, providing their explanation at the atomic-scale level, and demonstrating how and why silver acts as a positive electrode. Using periodic plane-wave DFT calculations, we estimate the overall amount of electron transfer toward the semiconductor side of the interface at equilibrium...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048086/oleylamine-functionalized-graphene-oxide-as-an-electron-block-layer-towards-high-performance-and-photostable-fullerene-free-polymer-solar-cells
#16
Zhiyong Liu, Shengli Niu, Ning Wang
Oleylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) has a shallower energy level of conduction band (ECB) and a deeper energy level of the valence band (EVB) as compared to common hole extraction layer (HEL) materials, which make the electron block layer (EBL). Photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and current density-voltage (J-V) curves with a large reverse bias voltage range obtained under dark conditions are used to determine whether GO layers play important roles in blocking the electron transport to the MoO3/Ag composite anode and prevent MoO3 diffusion into a photoactive layer under light illumination...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048085/solution-processed-indium-oxide-electron-transporting-layers-for-high-performance-and-photo-stable-perovskite-and-organic-solar-cells
#17
Seokhyun Yoon, Si Joon Kim, Harrison S Kim, Joon-Suh Park, Il Ki Han, Jae Woong Jung, Minwoo Park
Interface engineering is considered the key to improving the device performance and stability of solar cells. In particular, TiO2 nanostructures, when used as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), led to excellent power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 20%. They effectively transferred charge carriers from the perovskite and suppressed charge recombination at the interfaces. However, the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 on the perovskite can significantly degrade the device performance under ultraviolet illumination...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048033/effect-of-laser-intensity-on-temporal-and-spectral-features-of-laser-generated-acoustic-shock-waves-ns-versus-ps-laser-pulses
#18
E Manikanta, L Vinoth Kumar, Ch Leela, P Prem Kiran
Evolution of acoustic shock wave (ASW) properties generated during nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) laser-induced breakdown (LIB) of atmospheric air at different input intensities is presented. The intensity is varied by changing the focal geometry of ns and ps pulses. The ASW pressures are observed to follow the dynamic interplay between the plasma density and recombination of plasma species. The conversion of laser energy to acoustic energy has increased from loose to tight focusing conditions. The central frequencies have moved toward the lower side with increasing laser intensities for both ns-LIB (76-48 kHz) and ps-LIB (111...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047541/effect-of-cu-ga-ratio-on-deep-level-defects-in-cugase2-thin-films-studied-by-photocapacitance-measurements-with-two-wavelength-excitation
#19
Xiaobo Hu, Juanjuan Xue, Jiao Tian, Guoen Weng, Shaoqiang Chen
The effect of the Cu/Ga ratio on properties of deep-level defects in CuGaSe2 thin films were studied, using photocapacitance methods with two-wavelength excitation. The transient photocapacitance method, using a monochromatic probe light, determined two kinds of defects located at 0.8 eV and 1.5 eV above the valence band, respectively, the positions of which kept almost constant regardless of Cu/Ga ratio. In addition to the probe light, laser light with a wavelength of 1550 nm corresponding to 0.8 eV was then used to study the saturation effect of the deep-level defect at 0...
May 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047456/a-reusable-osl-film-for-2d-radiotherapy-dosimetry
#20
Crijns Wouter, Vandenbroucke Dirk, Leblans Paul, Depuydt Tom
Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) combines reusability, sub-mm resolution, and a linear dose response in a single radiation detection technology. Such a combination is currently lacking in radiotherapy dosimetry. But OSL-films have a strong energy dependent response to keV photons due to a relative high effective atomic number (Z eff). The current work studied the applicability of a 2D OSL-film with a reduced Z eff as (IMRT/VMAT) dosimeter. Based on their commercial OSL-film experience, Agfa Healthcare N...
October 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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