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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904421/cannabis-induced-moto-cognitive-dysfunction-in-wistar-rats-ameliorative-efficacy-of-nigella-sativa
#1
Aminu Imam, Moyosore Saliu Ajao, Abdulbasit Amin, Wahab Imam Abdulmajeed, Abdulmumin Ibrahim, Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Musa Iyiola Ajibola, Abdulmusawir Alli-Oluwafuyi, Wasiu Gbolahan Balogun
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. METHODS: Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days...
September 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904305/minnesota-pharmacists-and-medical-cannabis-a-survey-of-knowledge-concerns-and-interest-prior-to-program-launch
#2
Joy Hwang, Tom Arneson, Wendy St Peter
OBJECTIVES: To assess Minnesota pharmacists' preparedness for the state's medical cannabis program in terms of professional competency in policies and regulations and in pharmacotherapy, as well as their concerns and perceptions about the impact on their practice. The secondary objective was to identify pharmacists' perceptions about ways to reduce potential gaps in knowledge. METHODS: A Web-based 14-item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy...
November 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903036/cannabis-use-and-its-associated-disorders-clinical-care
#3
Jan Copeland
BACKGROUND: Globally, cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated illicit drug. The rates of use appeared to be stable in Australia at the time of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, but levels of cannabis use disorder are rising and treatment seeking is increasing internationally. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the prevalence of cannabis use, associated disorders (eg harms with early and frequent use), and information on assessment and management...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#4
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900531/accidental-cannabis-poisoning-in-the-elderly
#5
Anja Zupan Mežnar, Miran Brvar, Gregor Kralj, Dragan Kovačič
There are two main varieties of Cannabis sativa plant, namely, hemp which is cultivated for fiber and seeds and contains low amounts of psychoactive cannabinoids and the other which is cultivated for the drug cannabis or marijuana. Increasing popularity of hemp food products and alleged beneficial effects of cannabinoids in the drug variety of cannabis might lead to confusion in the lay population and unintentional ingestion of marijuana, as described in this case report. During a workshop on the use of hemp for medicinal purposes, there was a degustation of various hemp food products including also cookies that were brought by one of the attendees...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899456/free-and-glucuronide-whole-blood-cannabinoids-pharmacokinetics-after-controlled-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration-in-frequent-and-occasional-cannabis-users-identification-of-recent-cannabis-intake
#6
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Allan J Barnes, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in markers of recent cannabis use because following frequent cannabis intake, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be detected in blood for up to 30 days. The minor cannabinoids cannabidiol, cannabinol (CBN), and THC-glucuronide were previously detected for ≤2.1 h in frequent and occasional smokers' blood after cannabis smoking. Cannabigerol (CBG), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV might also be recent use markers, but their blood pharmacokinetics have not been investigated...
December 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899300/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-control-of-mouse-myometrium-contractility-during-the-menstrual-cycle
#7
Ester Pagano, Pierangelo Orlando, Stefania Finizio, Antonietta Rossi, Lorena Buono, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Angelo A Izzo, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Francesca Borrelli
Cannabis and cannabinoids are known to affect female reproduction. However, the role of the endocannabinoid system in mouse uterine contractility in the dioestrus and oestrus phases has not been previously investigated. The present study aimed at filling this gap. Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) levels were measured in mouse uterus at dioestrus and oestrus phases by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; quantitative reverse transcription-PCR measured mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors and enzymes involved in the metabolism of endocannabinoids...
November 26, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898071/are-adolescents-more-vulnerable-to-the-harmful-effects-of-cannabis-than-adults-a-placebo-controlled-study-in-human-males
#8
C Mokrysz, T P Freeman, S Korkki, K Griffiths, H V Curran
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis')...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895829/correlates-of-cannabis-use-among-high-school-students-in-shamva-district-zimbabwe-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#9
Charmaine T Chivandire, James January
BACKGROUND: We set out to determine the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors that influence cannabis use in young people aged 13 to 19 years in Shamva District, Zimbabwe. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study focusing on the correlates of cannabis use was conducted among 311 school-going adolescents who were selected using multistage sampling. RESULTS: Eight percent of the students in our sample reported current use of cannabis...
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894043/treatment-seeking-in-cannabis-dependence-the-role-of-social-cognition
#10
Zoe E Papinczak, Jason P Connor, Gerald F X Feeney, Ross McD Young, Matthew J Gullo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Relatively few cannabis dependent individuals seek treatment and little is known about the determinants of treatment seeking. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) provides a useful framework for examining human behaviour and motivation which may be helpful in explaining treatment seeking. This study examined the differences in cannabis outcome expectancies and cannabis refusal self-efficacy between treatment seekers and non-treatment seekers with cannabis dependence. DESIGN: Non-treatment seekers were referred to an illicit drug diversion program...
November 14, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893213/reliability-and-validity-of-data-obtained-from-alcohol-cannabis-and-gambling-populations-on-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#11
Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins
Researchers recently have begun using Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, to recruit addiction populations. However, whether the data obtained from substance users and gamblers on MTurk are reliable and valid is unknown. Herein, we assessed the internal and retest reliability of and concurrent and convergent validity of data obtained from addiction populations on MTurk. Current drinkers (N = 208), cannabis users (N = 200), and gamblers (N = 200) residing in the United States completed measures of alcohol, cannabis, and gambling severity, psychological constructs (e...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891693/understanding-and-learning-from-the-diversification-of-cannabis-supply-laws
#12
Beau Kilmer, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prohibitions on producing, distributing and selling cannabis are loosening in various jurisdictions around the world. This paper describes the diversification of cannabis supply laws and discusses the challenges to and opportunities for learning from these changes. METHODS: We document changes in cannabis supply laws that de jure legalized cannabis production for medical and/or non-medical purposes (excluding industrial hemp) in Australasia, Europe, North America and South America...
November 27, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890818/the-anabolic-steroid-nandrolone-alters-cannabinoid-self-administration-and-brain-cb1-receptor-density-and-function
#13
Dicky Struik, Paola Fadda, Tamara Zara, Erica Zamberletti, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro, Walter Fratta, Liana Fattore
Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890370/acetylcholinesterase-butyrylcholinesterase-and-paraoxonase-1-activities-in-rats-treated-with-cannabis-tramadol-or-both
#14
Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman R Youness, Yasser A Khadrawy, Amany A Sleem
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa resin and/or tramadol, two commonly drugs of abuse on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities as a possible cholinergic biomarkers of neurotoxicity induced by these agents. METHODS: Rats were treated with cannabis resin (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) (equivalent to the active constituent Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol), tramadol (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or tramadol (10 mg/kg) combined with cannabis resin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) subcutaneously daily for 6 weeks...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889412/cannabidiol-reduces-neuroinflammation-and-promotes-neuroplasticity-and-functional-recovery-after-brain-ischemia
#15
Marco Aurélio Mori, Erika Meyer, Ligia Mendes Soares, Humberto Milani, Francisco Silveira Guimarães, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira
This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic phytochemical present in Cannabis sativa, on the cognitive and emotional impairments induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice. Using a multi-tiered behavioral testing battery during 21days, we found that BCCAO mice exhibited long-lasting functional deficits reflected by increase in anxiety-like behavior (day 9), memory impairments (days 12-18) and despair-like behavior (day 21). Short-term CBD 10mg/kg treatment prevented the cognitive and emotional impairments, attenuated hippocampal neurodegeneration and white matter (WM) injury, and reduced glial response that were induced by BCCAO...
November 23, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889374/-consumption-of-cannabis-in-adolescents
#16
O Phan, I Obradovic, A Har
Over the past 10 years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescents has dramatically increased. Today, adolescent cannabis use is a major public health problem. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: herb (marijuana) and resin. These forms have a high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Recent research has helped understand how the cannabinoid system works. This system combines specific receptors and specific molecules: the endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabis use are now well documented...
November 23, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888680/symptomatic-and-functional-outcomes-of-substance-use-disorder-persistence-2-years-after-admission-to-a-first-episode-psychosis-program
#17
Amal Abdel-Baki, Clairélaine Ouellet-Plamondon, Émilie Salvat, Kawthar Grar, Stéphane Potvin
Substance use disorders (SUD) in first-episode psychosis (FEP) are highly prevalent and linked with poor outcomes. However, most longitudinal studies investigating their impacts in FEP have not reported proportions of patients who ceased SUD. Our aim was to examine the influence of SUD course on functional and symptomatic outcomes as well as service use in FEP. We performed a 2-year longitudinal study of 212 FEP patients, aged between 18 and 30 years, admitted to 2 early psychosis services in Montréal, Québec, Canada...
November 10, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886010/discriminative-properties-of-hippocampal-hypoperfusion-in-marijuana-users-compared-to-healthy-controls-implications%C3%A2-for-marijuana-administration%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-dementia
#18
Daniel G Amen, Borhan Darmal, Cyrus A Raji, Weining Bao, Lantie Jorandby, Somayeh Meysami, Cauligi S Raghavendra
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the impact of marijuana use on regional cerebral blood flow. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perfusion in specific brain regions on functional neuroimaging, including those affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology, are abnormal in marijuana users compared to controls. METHOD: Persons with a diagnosis of cannabis use disorder by DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria (n = 982) were compared to controls (n = 92) with perfusion neuroimaging with SPECT at rest and at a concentration task...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884751/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-cannabidiol-on-cognitive-function-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#19
REVIEW
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Katrina Weston-Green
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a core symptom domain of schizophrenia, neurological disorders and substance abuse. It is characterised by deficits in learning, memory, attention and executive functioning and can severely impact daily living. Antipsychotic drugs prescribed to treat schizophrenia provide limited cognitive benefits and novel therapeutic targets are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), a component of the cannabis plant, has anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve cognitive impairment has not been thoroughly explored...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884725/endocannabinoid-system-in-sexual-motivational-processes-is-it-a-novel-therapeutic-horizon
#20
REVIEW
Renata Androvicova, Jiri Horacek, Tibor Stark, Filippo Drago, Vincenzo Micale
The endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is composed of the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) for marijuana's psychoactive ingredient Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the endogenous ligands (AEA and 2-AG) and the enzymatic systems involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, recently emerged as important modulator of emotional and non-emotional behaviors. For centuries, in addition to its recreational actions, several contradictory claims regarding the effects of Cannabis use in sexual functioning and behavior (e...
November 21, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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