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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098771/breast-cancer-brain-metastases-clonal-evolution-in-clinical-context
#1
REVIEW
Jodi M Saunus, Amy E McCart Reed, Zhun Leong Lim, Sunil R Lakhani
Brain metastases are highly-evolved manifestations of breast cancer arising in a unique microenvironment, giving them exceptional adaptability in the face of new extrinsic pressures. The incidence is rising in line with population ageing, and use of newer therapies that stabilise metastatic disease burden with variable efficacy throughout the body. Historically, there has been a widely-held view that brain metastases do not respond to circulating therapeutics because the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) restricts their uptake...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097979/-this-diagnosis-can-be-extremely-scary
#2
Tamsin Newton-Snow
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare genetic disorder that occurs in an estimated one in 35,000 people. The condition is often life-limiting and involves tumours growing on the nervous system, typically on the hearing nerves, brain and spine. While the tumours are mainly benign, they can lead to hearing loss, deafness and problems with balance and mobility. Most patients will need surgery or other treatments for NF2-related brain or spinal cord tumours at some point in their lives.
January 18, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094268/contribution-of-classical-end-joining-to-pten-inactivation-in-p53-mediated-glioblastoma-formation-and-drug-resistant-survival
#3
Youn-Jung Kang, Barbara Balter, Eva Csizmadia, Brian Haas, Himanshu Sharma, Roderick Bronson, Catherine T Yan
DNA repair gene defects are found in virtually all human glioblastomas, but the genetic evidence for a direct role remains lacking. Here we demonstrate that combined inactivation of the XRCC4 non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair gene and p53 efficiently induces brain tumours with hallmark characteristics of human proneural/classical glioblastoma. The murine tumours exhibit PTEN loss of function instigated by reduced PTEN mRNA, and increased phosphorylated inactivation and stability as a consequence of aberrantly elevated CK2 provoked by p53 ablation and irrevocably deregulated by NHEJ inactivation...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092958/moments-of-von-mises-and-fisher-distributions-and-applications
#4
Thomas Hillen, Kevin J Painter, Amanda C Swan, Albert D Murtha
The von Mises and Fisher distributions are spherical analogues to the Normal distribution on the unit circle and unit sphere, respectively. The computation of their moments, and in particular the second moment, usually involves solving tedious trigonometric integrals. Here we present a new method to compute the moments of spherical distributions, based on the divergence theorem. This method allows a clear derivation of the second moments and can be easily generalized to higher dimensions. In particular we note that, to our knowledge, the variance-covariance matrix of the three dimensional Fisher distribution has not previously been explicitly computed...
June 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079628/interleukin-6-is-increased-in-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-community-dwelling-domestic-dogs-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#5
Hanne Gredal, Barbara B Thomsen, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Laurent Garosi, Clare Rusbridge, Daniel Anthony, Arne Møller, Bente Finsen, Tomas Deierborg, Kate L Lambertsen, Mette Berendt
Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up...
January 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078351/outcomes-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin-treatment-for-venous-thromboembolism-in-patients-with-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumours
#6
Chatree Chai-Adisaksopha, Lori-Ann Linkins, Said Y ALKindi, Matthew Cheah, Mark A Crowther, Alfonso Iorio
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common complications in patients with brain tumours. There is limited data available in the literature on VTE treatment in these patients. We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study of patients with primary or metastatic brain cancer who were diagnosed with cancer-associated VTE. Patients were selected after a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who were diagnosed with cancer-associated VTE between January 2010 and January 2014 at the Juravinski Thrombosis Clinic, Hamilton, Canada...
January 12, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071746/allergy-reduces-the-risk-of-meningioma-a-meta-analysis
#7
Peng-Fei Wang, Wen-Jun Ji, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Shou-Wei Li, Chang-Xiang Yan
Meningiomas are the most common brain tumours; however, little is known regarding their aetiology. The data are inconsistent concerning atopic disease and the risk of developing meningioma. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between allergic conditions and the risk of developing meningioma. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Web of SCI from Jan 1979 to Feb 2016. Two investigators independently selected the relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068941/looking-beyond-the-brain-to-improve-the-pathogenic-understanding-of-parkinson-s-disease-implications-of-whole-transcriptome-profiling-of-patients-skin
#8
Anu Planken, Lille Kurvits, Ene Reimann, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Külli Kingo, Sulev Kõks, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by symptoms of motor impairment, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, however non-neuronal symptoms are also common. Although great advances have been made in the pathogenic understanding of Parkinson's Disease in the nervous system, little is known about the molecular alterations occurring in other non-neuronal organ systems. In addition, a higher rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer has been observed in the Parkinson's Disease population, indicating crosstalk between these diseases...
January 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056463/soluble-ve-cadherin-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-an-independent-prognostic-factor-for-both-progression-free-survival-and-overall-survival
#9
Pauline Rochefort, Sylvie Chabaud, Jean-Yves Pierga, Olivier Tredan, Etienne Brain, François-Clément Bidard, Camille Schiffler, Helena Polena, Abir Khalil-Mgharbel, Isabelle Vilgrain, Thomas Bachelot
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) represent a heterogeneous group, with large differences in outcomes from individual patients. VE-cadherin, an endothelial-specific cadherin, was shown to promote tumour proliferation and angiogenesis. Soluble VE-cadherin has been recently associated to breast cancer progression. This study was designed to investigate the prognosis significance of soluble VE-cadherin in hormone-refractory MBC. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2007, 150 patients with a fully documented history of hormone-refractory MBC were included in the prospective SEMTOF study...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054353/factors-related-to-pregnancy-and-birth-and-the-risk-of-childhood-brain-tumours-the-estelle-and-escale-studies-sfce-france
#10
Helen D Bailey, Paula Rios, Brigitte Lacour, Lea Guerrini-Rousseau, Anne-Isabelle Bertozzi, Pierre Leblond, Cécile Faure-Conter, Isabelle Pellier, Claire Freycon, Jean Michon, Stéphanie Puget, Stéphane Ducassou, Laurent Orsi, Jacqueline Clavel
Little is known of the causes of childhood brain tumors (CBT). The aims of this study were to investigate whether extremes of birth weight were associated with increased risk of CBT and whether maternal pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation or breastfeeding reduced the risk. In addition, other maternal characteristics and birth related factors were also investigated. We pooled data from two French national population-based case-control studies with similar designs conducted in 2003-2004 and 2010-2011...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050345/functional-mri-vs-navigated-tms-to-optimize-m1-seed-volume-delineation-for-dti-tractography-a-prospective-study-in-patients-with-brain-tumours-adjacent-to-the-corticospinal-tract
#11
Carolin Weiss Lucas, Irada Tursunova, Volker Neuschmelting, Charlotte Nettekoven, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, Gabriele Stoffels, Andrea Maria Faymonville, Shah N Jon, Karl Josef Langen, Hannah Lockau, Roland Goldbrunner, Christian Grefkes
BACKGROUND: DTI-based tractography is an increasingly important tool for planning brain surgery in patients suffering from brain tumours. However, there is an ongoing debate which tracking approaches yield the most valid results. Especially the use of functional localizer data such as navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) seem to improve fibre tracking data in conditions where anatomical landmarks are less informative due to tumour-induced distortions of the gyral anatomy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048657/tu-ab-bra-02-an-efficient-atlas-based-synthetic-ct-generation-method
#12
X Han
PURPOSE: A major obstacle for MR-only radiotherapy is the need to generate an accurate synthetic CT (sCT) from MR image(s) of a patient for the purposes of dose calculation and DRR generation. We propose here an accurate and efficient atlas-based sCT generation method, which has a computation speed largely independent of the number of atlases used. METHODS: Atlas-based sCT generation requires a set of atlases with co-registered CT and MR images. Unlike existing methods that align each atlas to the new patient independently, we first create an average atlas and pre-align every atlas to the average atlas space...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047734/su-f-t-599-volume-independent-conformity-index-for-stereotactic-brain-tumors
#13
S Kim, H Kim, S Lee, M Awan, D Rangaraj, Y Zheng, J Monroe, R Partel, S Lo, M Machtay, A Sloan, J Sohn
PURPOSE: To develop a volume-independent metric called the Gaussian Weighted Conformity Index (GWCI) for assessing conformality of stereotactic radiosurgery plans for small brain tumors. METHODS: The GWCI calculates bi-directional distance by searching for corresponding points between the prescription isodose line and tumor contour, assigning different scoring weights to tumor coverage with a score of 1.0 being ideal assuming an idealized Gaussian distribution of dose around the tumor...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046453/su-g-tep3-09-proton-minibeam-radiation-therapy-increases-normal-tissue-resistance
#14
Y Prezado, W Gonzalez-Infantes, S Heinrich, D Labiod, M Juchaux, I Martinez-Rovira, C Nauraye, A Patriarca, C Peucelle, C Sebrie
PURPOSE: The dose tolerances of normal tissues continue being the main limitation in radiotherapy. To overcome it, we recently proposed a novel concept: proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) [1]. It allies the physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams (minibeam radiation therapy) [2]. The dose distributions are such that the tumor receives a homogeneous dose distribution, while normal tissues benefit from the spatial fractionation of the dose...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046447/su-f-t-612-investigation-of-acoustic-neuroma-planning-for-stereotactic-radiosurgery-utilizing-linac-based-cone-collimators
#15
C Yeboah, M Ruschin, Y Lee, A Sarfehnia, B Chugh, S Myrehaug, M Tsao, H Soliman, A Sahgal
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of designing clinically-acceptable stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans utilizing linac-based cone collimators for patients presenting with acoustic neuroma. METHODS: Five acoustic neuroma patients with gross tumour volumes (GTVs) of sizes from 1.3 to 2.7 cc were studied. The cranial-caudal extent of the GTVs range from 1.1 to 1.7 cm whereas the largest cross-sectional extent of the lesions varied from 2.0 to 2.4 cm. No PTV margin was added...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042991/external-validation-of-a-published-nomogram-for-prediction-of-brain-metastasis-in-patients-with-extra-cerebral-metastatic-breast-cancer-and-risk-regression-analysis
#16
Ludivine Genre, Henri Roché, Léonel Varela, Dorra Kanoun, Monia Ouali, Thomas Filleron, Florence Dalenc
BACKGROUND: Survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) suffering from brain metastasis (BM) is limited and this event is usually fatal. In 2010, the Graesslin's nomogram was published in order to predict subsequent BM in patients with breast cancer (BC) with extra-cerebral metastatic disease. This model aims to select a patient population at high risk for BM and thus will facilitate the design of prevention strategies and/or the impact of early treatment of BM in prospective clinical studies...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031049/clinical-and-radiological-features-driving-patient-selection-for-antiangiogenic-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#17
Cesare Gridelli, Andrea Camerini, Giovanni Pappagallo, Angelo Pennella, Michele Anzidei, Massimo Bellomi, Roberta Buosi, Rosario Francesco Grasso
BACKGROUND: The use of antiangiogenic therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requires thorough evaluation of patient characteristics in order to avoid potential safety issues, particularly pulmonary haemorrhage (PH). The aim of this consensus by a panel of experts was to identify important criteria for the selection of patients with NSCLC who would benefit from antiangiogenic therapy. METHODS: Radiologists and oncologists were selected for the expert panel...
December 28, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030918/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-drug-refractory-epilepsy-by-the-ketogenic-diet-that-is-the-question
#18
REVIEW
Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Ryszard Pluta, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Stanisław J Czuczwar
Epilepsy is a serious neurologic disorder worldwide which affects about 1% of the population (ca. 50 million people), the highest prevalence occurring in both children and elderly. Apart from idiopathic forms, etiology of the disease involves multiple brain risk factors - the most frequent being cerebrovascular diseases, tumours and traumatic injuries. Several treatment options exist, including, for instance, pharmacotherapy, vagal nerve stimulation or epilepsy surgery. In spite of treatment, about 30% of patients with epilepsy still have seizures and become drug-refractory...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028856/british-association-of-dermatologists-national-audit-on-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-excision-2014
#19
D J Keith, D A R de Berker, A P Bray, S T Cheung, A Brain, M F Mohd Mustapa
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and management of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents a large part of the dermatology workload, and complete excision is a required surgical standard for treatment. AIM: To conduct an audit of the surgical practice for the treatment of NMSC by dermatologists in the UK. METHODS: Data on 10 consecutive nonmicrographic excisions of nonmelanoma skin cancer by UK dermatologists. Data collected included site, preoperative diagnosis, histological diagnosis, proximity to previous scars, and histological deep and peripheral margins...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025990/focal-cortical-dysplasia-molecular-disturbances-and-clinicopathological-classification-review
#20
Monika Siedlecka, Wiesława Grajkowska, Ryszard Galus, Bożenna Dembowska-Bagińska, Jarosław Jóźwiak
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of the most important causes of drug-resistant epilepsy in paediatric patients, particularly in those below the age of 3. Even though over 40 years have passed since the first description of the entity by Taylor, the exact mechanisms causing these cortical abnormalities remain unelucidated. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on clinical and histopathological aspects, taking into account the new classification system proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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