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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664032/expression-of-p53-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-glioblastoma
#1
Sameera Karnam, Radhika Kottu, Amit Kumar Chowhan, Prasad Chandramouleswara Bodepati
Background & objectives: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent brain tumour, manifesting at any age, with a peak incidence between 45 and 75 years. Primary and secondary GBs constitute relatively distinct disease entities in evolution, in expression profiles and in therapeutic response. Histopathologically, primary and secondary GBs are indistinguishable. The aim of this investigation was to study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in GB with the objective of categorizing the morphological variants of GB into primary and secondary based on the presence of low-grade areas and knowing the variable expression of p53 and EGFR in primary and secondary GB...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662531/cystic-brain-metastases-in-alk-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Guilherme Nader Marta, Renata Rodrigues da Cunha Colombo Bonadio, Renata Eiras Martins, Henrique Bortot Zuppani, Gilberto de Castro
The central nervous system (CNS) is a common site of disease progression in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearrangement treated with crizotinib. Cystic brain metastases (CBM) have been recently identified as one possible variant of this disease. An illustrative case report is presented along with a literature review performed in order to track relevant papers about CBM in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, including possible pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options for this condition...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660368/flow-cytometry-for-receptor-analysis-from-ex-vivo-brain-tissue-in-adult-rat
#3
A Benoit, M Guillamin, P Aitken, P F Smith, B Philoxene, B Sola, L Poulain, A Coquerel, S Besnard
BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry allows single-cell analysis of peripheral biological samples and is useful in many fields of research and clinical applications, mainly in hematology, immunology, and oncology. In the neurosciences, the flow cytometry separation method was first applied to stem cell extraction from healthy or cerebral tumour tissue and was more recently tested in order to phenotype brain cells, hippocampal neurogenesis, and to detect prion proteins. However, it remains sparsely applied in quantifying membrane receptors in relation to synaptic plasticity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657889/pre-operative-versus-post-operative-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastasis-effects-on-treatment-volume-and-inter-observer-variability
#4
B A Vellayappan, J Doody, E Vandervoort, J Szanto, J Sinclair, J M Caudrelier, S Malone
Purpose/Objectives: Compared to post-operative whole brain radiotherapy, resection cavity radiosurgery reduces impact on neuro-cognitive function and improves quality-of-life. However, coverage of the operative tract, in addition to tumour bed, may lead to large treatment volumes and inter-observer variability. We hypothesized that pre-operative radiosurgery reduces target volume size and inter-observer variability compared to post-operative radiosurgery. Materials/Methods: We identified 10 consecutive patients, with solitary brain metastasis, treated with post-operative cavity radiosurgery...
2018: Journal of Radiosurgery and SBRT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656878/postoperative-headache-following-treatment-of-vestibular-schwannoma-a-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Ahad Sabab, Jaspreet Sandhu, Stephen Bacchi, Alistair Jukes, Andrew Zacest
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a brain tumour arising from Schwann cells that is typically closely associated with the vestibulocochlear nerve. Post-operative headaches (POH) are a potentially common complication of surgery for VS. Greatly differing rates of POH have previously been reported, particularly with different surgical approaches. The aim of this review is to identify and summarise the available peer-reviewed evidence on rates of POH following operative (or radiosurgery) treatment for VS, in addition to information about the treatment and prognosis of POH in these patients...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656021/next-generation-neuro-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Michael Weller
Neuro-oncology has evolved as a growing, but still small, highly specialised and multidisciplinary field at the interface of several diagnostic and therapeutic disciplines. The major challenge in the field of primary tumours is to translate the almost unique progress in deciphering the highly complex molecular genetic nature of many primary brain tumours, notably glioblastoma, into advances that allow for clinical benefit for affected patients. Furthermore, metastases to the central nervous system are an increasingly prevalent complication in many systemic cancers...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651771/remote-brain-microhaemorrhages-may-predict-haematoma-in-glioma-patients-treated-with-radiation-therapy
#7
Augustin Lecler, Frédérique Charbonneau, Dimitri Psimaras, Marie-Astrid Metten, Antoine Gueguen, Khe Hoang Xuan, Loic Feuvret, Julien Savatovsky
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cerebral remote microhaemorrhages (RMH) and remote haematomas (RH) using magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) among patients treated for gliomas during follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single centre longitudinal study on 58 consecutive patients treated for gliomas from January 2009 through December 2010. Our institutional review board approved this study. We evaluated the presence and number of RMH and RH found outside the brain tumour on follow-up MR imaging...
April 12, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643471/current-state-of-immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#8
REVIEW
Michael Lim, Yuanxuan Xia, Chetan Bettegowda, Michael Weller
Glioma is the most common primary cancer of the central nervous system, and around 50% of patients present with the most aggressive form of the disease, glioblastoma. Conventional therapies, including surgery, radiotherapy, and pharmacotherapy (typically chemotherapy with temozolomide), have not resulted in major improvements in the survival outcomes of patients with glioblastoma. Reasons for this lack of progress include invasive tumour growth in an essential organ, which limits the utility of local therapy, as well as the protection of tumour cells by the blood-brain barrier, their intrinsic resistance to the induction of cell death, and lack of dependence on single, targetable oncogenic pathways, all of which impose challenges for systemic therapy...
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628799/clinical-and-immunological-correlates-of-long-term-survival-in-glioblastoma
#9
REVIEW
Bartosz Czapski, Szymon Baluszek, Christel Herold-Mende, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in adults. It represents 54% of all gliomas and 16% of all brain tumours (Ostrom et al. 2016). Despite surgery and treatment with radiotherapy plus an oral alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), tumours invariably recur, and the patient survival is an average of ~14-16 months. In this review we summarise the current understanding of multiple factors that may affect survival of patients with GBMs. In particular, we discuss recent advancements in surgery and detection of genomic-based markers with prognostic values, such as IDH1/2 mutations, MGMT gene promoter methylation, and TERT gene promoter alterations...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628192/synchronous-glioblastoma-multiforme-and-chondrosarcoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Charles Xin Li, Yoni Goldenberg, Catriona McLean, Keith Savio Gomes
This case report describes the rare occurrence of two individually uncommon tumours found in synchronous manner in an otherwise healthy patient with no history of malignancy. We believe this to be the first reported case of synchronous glioblastoma and chondrosarcoma. While primary rib lesions metastasising to brain are rarely reported and primary brain lesions metastasising to rib are even rarer still, there were no previous reports in the literature of synchronous brain and rib dual primary pathology that we could identify...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621662/plasma-membrane-depolarization-and-permeabilization-due-to-electric-pulses-in-cell-lines-of-different-excitability
#11
Janja Dermol-Černe, Damijan Miklavčič, Matej Reberšek, Primož Mekuč, Sylvia M Bardet, Ryan Burke, Delia Arnaud-Cormos, Philippe Leveque, Rodney O'Connor
In electroporation-based medical treatments, excitable tissues are treated, either intentionally (irreversible electroporation of brain cancer, gene electrotransfer or ablation of the heart muscle, gene electrotransfer of skeletal muscles), or unintentionally (excitable tissues near the target area). We investigated how excitable and non-excitable cells respond to electric pulses, and if electroporation could be an effective treatment of the tumours of the central nervous system. For three non-excitable and one excitable cell line, we determined a strength-duration curve for a single pulse of 10ns-10ms...
March 21, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618868/alveolar-soft-part-sarcoma-of-the-forearm
#12
B Asokan, P Ramanan, M Sundararaj, E Kovarthini
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare form of soft-tissue sarcoma arising from connective tissue. It is most often seen in adolescents and young adults and has high propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Clinically, it mimics haemangioma or arteriovenous malformations. In our case report, an 18-year-old female presented with markedly vascular tumour in the left forearm, for which excision biopsy was done. Histopathological report revealed ASPS. The patient was screened for metastasis. Ultrasound abdomen, computed tomography (CT) chest, CT brain and whole-body skeletal survey was done...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616127/therapeutic-approach-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-with-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-components-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Arsela Prelaj, Sara Elena Rebuzzi, Giovanni Caffarena, Julio Rodrigo Giròn Berrìos, Silvia Pecorari, Carmela Fusto, Alessandro Caporlingua, Federico Caporlingua, Annamaria Di Palma, Fabio Massimo Magliocca, Maurizio Salvati, Silverio Tomao, Vincenzo Bianco
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant glioma that is treated with first-line therapy, using surgical resection followed by local radiotherapy and concomitant/adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. GBM is characterised by a high local recurrence rate and a low response to therapy. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the brain revealed a low local recurrence rate; however, it also exhibited a high risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination. PNET is treated with surgery followed by craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and platinum-based chemotherapy in order to prevent CSF dissemination...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615809/tagln2-polymerizes-g-actin-in-a-low-ionic-state-but-blocks-arp2-3-nucleated-actin-branching-in-physiological-conditions
#14
Hye-Ran Kim, Min-Sung Kwon, Sangmin Lee, YeVin Mun, Kyung-Sik Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Bo-Ra Na, Bit Na Rae Kim, Indre Piragyte, Hyun-Su Lee, Youngsoo Jun, Mi Sun Jin, Young-Min Hyun, Hyun Suk Jung, Ji Young Mun, Chang-Duk Jun
TAGLN is an actin-binding protein family that comprises three isoforms with theorized roles in smooth muscle differentiation, tumour development, lymphocyte activation, and brain chemistry. However, their fundamental characteristics in regulation of the actin-based cytoskeleton are not fully understood. Here we show that TAGLN2 (including TAGLN1 and TAGLN3) extensively nucleates G-actin polymerization under low-salt conditions, where polymerization would be completely suppressed. The calponin homology domain and actin-binding loop are essential to mechanically connect two adjacent G-actins, thereby mediating multimeric interactions...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615749/blocking-distinct-interactions-between-glioblastoma-cells-and-their-tissue-microenvironment-a-novel-multi-targeted-therapeutic-approach
#15
Melanie Mettang, Viola Meyer-Pannwitt, Georg Karpel-Massler, Shaoxia Zhou, Neil O Carragher, Karl Josef Föhr, Bernd Baumann, Lisa Nonnenmacher, Stefanie Enzenmüller, Meike Dahlhaus, Markus D Siegelin, Sebastien Stroh, Daniel Mertens, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, E Marion Schneider, Marc-Eric Halatsch, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Mike-Andrew Westhoff
Due to the highly invasive nature of Glioblastoma (GB), complete surgical resection is not feasible, while motile tumour cells are often associated with several specific brain structures that enhance treatment-resistance. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of Disulfiram and Carbenoxolone, that inhibit two distinct interactions between GB and the brain tissue microenvironment: stress-induced cell-matrix adhesion and gap junction mediated cell-cell communication, respectively. Increase in cell numbers of tumour-initiating cells, which are cultured in suspension as cell clusters, and adherent differentiated cells can be blocked to a similar extent by Carbenoxolone, as both cell populations form gap junctions, but the adherent differentiated cells are much more sensitive to Disulfiram treatment, which - via modulation of NF-κB signalling - interferes with cell-substrate adhesion...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615461/molecular-diagnosis-of-diffuse-gliomas-through-sequencing-of-cell-free-circulating-tumour-dna-from-cerebrospinal-fluid
#16
Francisco Martínez-Ricarte, Regina Mayor, Elena Martínez-Sáez, Carlota Rubio-Pérez, Estela Pineda, Esteban Cordero, Marta Cicuéndez, Maria A Poca, Nuria Lopez-Bigas, Santiago Ramón Y Cajal, María Vieito, Joan Carles, Josep Tabernero, Ana Vivancos, Soledad Gallego, Francesc Graus, Juan Sahuquillo, Joan Seoane
PURPOSE: Diffuse gliomas are the most common primary tumour of the brain and include different subtypes with diverse prognosis. The genomic characterization of diffuse gliomas facilitates their molecular diagnosis. The anatomical localization of diffuse gliomas complicates access to tumour specimens for diagnosis, in some cases incurring high-risk surgical procedures and stereotactic biopsies. Recently, cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with brain malignancies...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615284/external-beam-radiotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-a-systematic-review
#17
D L Chan, R Thompson, M Lam, N Pavlakis, J Hallet, C Law, S Singh, S Myrehaug
AIMS: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is infrequently used to treat gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEPNETS), with little published data to date. We carried out a systematic review to assess the activity of EBRT for GEPNETS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Major databases were searched for papers including at least five patients treated with contemporary EBRT techniques. Eligible studies underwent dual independent review. The primary end points were response rate for lesions treated with definitive intent and recurrence-free survival for primary lesions treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant intent...
March 31, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609574/utility-of-serum-igf-1-for-diagnosis-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-following-traumatic-brain-injury-and-sport-related-concussion
#18
Kirstie Lithgow, Alex Chin, Chantel T Debert, Gregory A Kline
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a potential consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC). GH stimulation testing is required for definitive diagnosis; however, this is resource intensive and can be associated with adverse symptoms or risks. Measurement of serum IGF-1 is more practical and accessible, and pituitary tumour patients with hypopituitarism and low serum IGF-1 have been shown to have a high probability of GHD. We aimed to evaluate IGF-1 measurement for diagnosing GHD in our local TBI population...
April 2, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609145/seizure-characteristics-and-the-use-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-children-and-young-people-with-brain-tumours-and-epileptic-seizures-analysis-of-regional-paediatric-cancer-service-population
#19
Chiara Pilotto, Jo-Fen Liu, David A Walker, William P Whitehouse
PURPOSE: Epileptic seizures complicate the management of childhood brain tumours. There are no published standards for clinical practice concerning risk factors, treatment selection or strategies to withdraw treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED). METHOD: we undertook a case note review of 120 patients with newly diagnosed brain tumours, referred to a regional paediatric cancer service. RESULTS: data was available on 117/120 (98%) children <18 years: median age at tumour presentation was 8...
March 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605121/an-audit-of-clinical-practice-referral-patterns-and-appropriateness-of-clinical-indications-for-brain-mri-examinations-a-single-centre-study-in-ghana
#20
A D Piersson, G Nunoo, P N Gorleku
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate current brain MRI practice, pattern of brain MRI requests, and their appropriateness using the American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used direct observation and questionnaires to obtain data concerning routine brain MRI practice. We then retrospectively analyzed (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) clinical history, and (iii) appropriateness of brain MRI requests against published criteria...
May 2018: Radiography
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