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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526854/induction-of-senescence-in-primary-glioblastoma-cells-by-serum-and-tgf%C3%AE
#1
Ritesh Kumar, Alexander Gont, Theodore J Perkins, Jennifer E L Hanson, Ian A J Lorimer
Glioblastoma is the most common type of adult brain tumour and has a median survival after diagnosis of a little more than a year. Glioblastomas have a high frequency of mutations in the TERT promoter and CDKN2A locus that are expected to render them resistant to both replicative and oncogene-induced senescence. However, exposure of PriGO8A primary glioblastoma cells to media with 10% serum induced a senescence-like phenotype characterized by increased senescence-associated β galactosidase activity, PML bodies and p21 and morphological changes typical of senescence...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526761/a-retrospective-chart-review-of-the-features-of-pten-hamartoma-tumour-syndrome-in-children
#2
Emily Hansen-Kiss, Sarah Beinkampen, Brent Adler, Thomas Frazier, Thomas Prior, Steven Erdman, Charis Eng, Gail Herman
OBJECTIVE: It is recognised that 5% - 10 % of children with macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability (ID) have a heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene that is associated with PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. However, the clinical features and course in children with a pathogenic PTEN mutation are unclear and have not been well documented. STUDY OBJECTIVES: We undertook a retrospective chart review of children (< 18  years) with pathogenic PTEN mutations to ascertain clinical findings, clinical course and possible outcomes...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512506/case-of-primary-leptomeningeal-lymphoma-presenting-with-papilloedema-and-characteristics-of-pseudotumor-syndrome
#3
Mai Takagi, Hidehiro Oku, Teruyo Kida, Toshikazu Akioka, Tsunehiko Ikeda
The authors describe an immunocompetent, 50-year-old man who complained of a daily transient blurring of his vision with bilateral papilloedema. His visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and the blind spot was enlarged bilaterally. There was intracranial hypertension, but imaging for systemic and brain tumours were negative. These findings suggested a diagnosis of the pseudotumor syndrome. However, MRI showed leptomeningeal enhancement, and acetazolamide successfully resolved his visual symptoms and papilloedema. Cytology and flow cytometry of the CSF led to the final diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal lymphoma (PLML)...
June 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511952/lithium-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-the-adult-rat-brain
#4
Muhammad Sohail Khan, Tahir Ali, Muhammad Noman Abid, Myeung Hoon Jo, Amjad Khan, Min Woo Kim, Gwang Ho Yoon, Eun Woo Cheon, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Myeong Ok Kim
Lithium an effective mood stabilizer, primary used in the treatment of bipolar disorders, has been reported as a protective agent in various neurological disorders. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective role of lithium chloride (LiCl) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain. We determined that LiCl -attenuated LPS-induced activated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling and significantly reduced the nuclear factor-kB (NF-KB) translation factor and various other inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
May 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509337/impact-of-induction-chemotherapy-hyperfractionated-accelerated-radiotherapy-and-high-dose-thiotepa-on-brain-volume-loss-and-functional-status-of-children-with-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumour
#5
Elwira Szychot, Kiran Seunarine, Kshitij Mankad, Steffi Thust, Chris Clark, Mark N Gaze, Antony Michalski
BACKGROUND: The introduction of aggressive chemo-radiotherapy regimens has improved overall survival in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET). However, these combinations may result in neurotoxicity. Previously reported magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in children receiving intensive sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) and high-dose thiotepa prompted us to investigate the degree of brain volume loss and patients' functional status after therapy...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507382/prognostic-significance-of-idh-1-mutation-in-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme
#6
Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim
Focus of brain tumour research is shifting towards tumour genesis and genetics, and possible development of individualized treatment plans. Genetic analysis shows recurrent mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) gene in most Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. In this review we evaluated the prognostic significance of IDH 1 mutation on the basis of published evidence. Multiple retrospective clinical analyses correlate the presence of IDH1 mutation in GBM with good prognostic outcomes compared to wild-type IDH1...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501939/dianthin-30-or-gelonin-versus-monomethyl-auristatin-e-each-configured-with-an-anti-calcitonin-receptor-antibody-are-differentially-potent-in-vitro-in-high-grade-glioma-cell-lines-derived-from-glioblastoma
#7
Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Sebastian G B Furness, Brett W Stringer, Alexander Weng, Hendrik Fuchs, Bryan W Day, Angela Kourakis, Andrew W Boyd, David L Hare, Mayank Thakur, Terrance G Johns, Peter J Wookey
We have reported that calcitonin receptor (CTR) is widely expressed in biopsies from the lethal brain tumour glioblastoma by malignant glioma and brain tumour-initiating cells (glioma stem cells) using anti-human CTR antibodies. A monoclonal antibody against an epitope within the extracellular domain of CTR was raised (mAb2C4) and chemically conjugated to either plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) dianthin-30 or gelonin, or the drug monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), and purified. In the high-grade glioma cell line (HGG, representing glioma stem cells) SB2b, in the presence of the triterpene glycoside SO1861, the EC50 for mAb2C4:dianthin was 10...
May 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501763/optimal-duration-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-high-risk-node-negative-n-breast-cancer-patients-6-year-results-of-the-prospective-randomised-multicentre-phase-iii-unicancer-pacs-05-trial-ucbg-0106
#8
Pierre Kerbrat, Isabelle Desmoulins, Lise Roca, Christelle Levy, Alain Lortholary, Alain Marre, Rémy Delva, Maria Rios, Patrice Viens, Étienne Brain, Daniel Serin, Magali Edel, Marc Debled, Mario Campone, Marie-Ange Mourret-Reynier, Thomas Bachelot, Marie-Josèphe Foucher-Goudier, Bernard Asselain, Jérôme Lemonnier, Anne-Laure Martin, Henri Roché
PURPOSE: Optimal duration of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer remained to be investigated rigorously for the standard regimens in widespread use in North America (doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide, AC) and Europe (5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide, FEC). Whether six cycles of FEC 100 present an advantage, or not, compared with only four cycles was tested directly in a phase III prospective multicentre trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006, 1515 women between 18 and 65°years of age, with node negative N(-) high-risk early-stage breast cancer, were included in the study following breast surgery and axillary lymph node dissection or procedure by sentinel node technique...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497804/vaccine-based-immunotherapeutic-approaches-to-gliomas-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Michael Weller, Patrick Roth, Matthias Preusser, Wolfgang Wick, David A Reardon, Michael Platten, John H Sampson
Astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas are intrinsic brain tumours characterized by infiltrative growth and resistance to classic cancer therapies, which renders them inevitably lethal. Glioblastoma, the most common type of glioma, also exhibits neoangiogenesis and profound immunosuppressive properties. Accordingly, strategies to revert glioma-associated immunosuppression and promote tumour-directed immune responses have been extensively explored in rodent models and in large clinical trials of tumour immunotherapy...
May 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497778/pten-regulates-glioblastoma-oncogenesis-through-chromatin-associated-complexes-of-daxx-and-histone-h3-3
#10
Jorge A Benitez, Jianhui Ma, Matteo D'Antonio, Antonia Boyer, Maria Fernanda Camargo, Ciro Zanca, Stephen Kelly, Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Nathan M Jameson, Michael Andersen, Hrvoje Miletic, Shahram Saberi, Kelly A Frazer, Webster K Cavenee, Frank B Furnari
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal type of human brain cancer, where deletions and mutations in the tumour suppressor gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) are frequent events and are associated with therapeutic resistance. Herein, we report a novel chromatin-associated function of PTEN in complex with the histone chaperone DAXX and the histone variant H3.3. We show that PTEN interacts with DAXX and, in turn PTEN directly regulates oncogene expression by modulating DAXX-H3.3 association on the chromatin, independently of PTEN enzymatic activity...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497668/potential-brain-dead-organ-donation-in-neurocritical-care-mortality
#11
Vera Spatenkova, Ondrej Bradac, Petr Suchomel
BACKGROUND: Mortality is a marker of quality in neurocritical care, but it also provides potential for donors after brain death (DBD) following irreversible acute brain damage. The aim of this study was to analyse the neurointensive care unit (NICU) mortality rate and recovery of potential DBD. METHODS: We performed a 10-year prospective observational cohort computer database analysis of 6138 acute neurological and neurosurgical patients (pts, 58.2% male, mean: age 55...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493055/a-patient-specific-anisotropic-diffusion-model-for-brain-tumour-spread
#12
Amanda Swan, Thomas Hillen, John C Bowman, Albert D Murtha
Gliomas are primary brain tumours arising from the glial cells of the nervous system. The diffuse nature of spread, coupled with proximity to critical brain structures, makes treatment a challenge. Pathological analysis confirms that the extent of glioma spread exceeds the extent of the grossly visible mass, seen on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Gliomas show faster spread along white matter tracts than in grey matter, leading to irregular patterns of spread. We propose a mathematical model based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging, a new MRI imaging technique that offers a methodology to delineate the major white matter tracts in the brain...
May 10, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492338/headache-as-a-presenting-symptom-of-glioma-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Marco Russo, Veronica Villani, Arens Taga, Antonio Genovese, Irene Terrenato, Gian Camillo Manzoni, Franco Servadei, Paola Torelli, Andrea Pace
Objective The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence and the clinical features of headache as a presenting symptom of glioma. Methods We interviewed 527 consecutive adult patients with histologically confirmed glioma, admitted to the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute between 2010 and 2015. We defined four headache phenotypes: Tension-type-like headache (TTH), migraine-like headache, worsening of a pre-existing headache (WPH) and classic brain tumour headache (BTH). Logistic regression analysis was carried out to investigate potential risk factors for headache at presentation of glioma...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492209/some-characteristics-of-gliomas-managed-at-a-neurosurgery-centre-in-nigeria
#14
Chika A Ndubuisi, Samuel C Ohaegbulam, Mark O Chikani, Wilfred C Mezue, Tobechi Mbadugha, Mark Okhueleigbe
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are important primary brain tumours with varying prognosis. AIM: To study the histology characteristics of brain gliomas managed in a Neurosurgical centre in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of patients managed for intracranial gliomas at our Hospital for Neurosurgery, between year 2006 and 2015. Only the patients with conclusive histology diagnosis following surgery were analysed...
January 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490268/more-than-meets-the-mri-case-report-of-a-carcinoid-tumour-metastasis-mimicking-a-meningioma
#15
Conrad J Harrison, Sean C Martin, Monika Hofer, Rufus Corkill, D Sanjeeva Jeyaretna, Stewart J Griffiths
Cerebral metastases from carcinoid tumours are rarely reported and confer a much poorer prognosis than carcinoid metastases elsewhere in the body. We describe a case of carcinoid brain metastasis closely resembling a meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and review current treatment options.
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489075/lipoprotein-biomimetic-nanostructure-enables-efficient-targeting-delivery-of-sirna-to-ras-activated-glioblastoma-cells-via-macropinocytosis
#16
Jia-Lin Huang, Gan Jiang, Qing-Xiang Song, Xiao Gu, Meng Hu, Xiao-Lin Wang, Hua-Hua Song, Le-Pei Chen, Ying-Ying Lin, Di Jiang, Jun Chen, Jun-Feng Feng, Yong-Ming Qiu, Ji-Yao Jiang, Xin-Guo Jiang, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Xiao-Ling Gao
Hyperactivated Ras regulates many oncogenic pathways in several malignant human cancers including glioblastoma and it is an attractive target for cancer therapies. Ras activation in cancer cells drives protein internalization via macropinocytosis as a key nutrient-gaining process. By utilizing this unique endocytosis pathway, here we create a biologically inspired nanostructure that can induce cancer cells to 'drink drugs' for targeting activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5), an overexpressed anti-apoptotic transcription factor in glioblastoma...
May 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481715/efflux-proteins-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-review-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#17
Massoud Saidijam, Fatemeh Karimi Dermani, Sareh Sohrabi, Simon G Patching
1. Efflux proteins at the blood-brain barrier provide a mechanism for export of waste products of normal metabolism from the brain and help to maintain brain homeostasis. They also prevent entry into the brain of a wide range of potentially harmful compounds such as drugs and xenobiotics. 2. Conversely, efflux proteins also hinder delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain and central nervous system used to treat brain tumours and neurological disorders. For bypassing efflux proteins, a comprehensive understanding of their structures, functions and molecular mechanisms is necessary, along with new strategies and technologies for delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier...
May 8, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480741/a-practical-guide-to-the-use-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-by-neurosurgeons
#18
Fardad T Afshari, Sophia Michael, Ismail Ughratdar, Shanika Samarasekera
Initiation of anti-epileptic drugs is increasingly relevant to daily neurosurgical practice. Intracranial pathologies ranging from brain tumours to subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury are commonly associated with the subsequent development of seizures. The scope and range of anti-epileptic drugs available has increased dramatically in recent years and understanding the evidence base behind this class of drugs in addition to their interaction/side effect profiles is essential. In this review we aim to generate a practical guide for neurosurgeons regarding the use of different anti-epileptic medications in common neurosurgical conditions, including considerations for their use in pregnancy...
May 8, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480569/expression-and-targeting-of-transcription-factor-atf5-in-dog-gliomas
#19
D York, C D Sproul, N Chikere, P J Dickinson, J M Angelastro
BACKGROUND: Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in undifferentiated neural progenitor/stem cells as well as a variety of human cancers including gliomas. AIMS: In this study, we examined the expression and localization of ATF5 protein in canine gliomas, and targeting of ATF5 function in canine glioma cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded canine brain glioma tissue sections and western blots of tumours and glioma cells were immunoassayed with anti-ATF5 antibody...
May 8, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478966/a-rare-case-of-multiple-brain-abscess-and-probably-disseminated-phaeohyphomycosis-due-to-cladophialophora-bantiana-in-an-immunosuppressed-individual-from-india
#20
S Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, A Mahadevan, V H Bahubali, R Dawn Bharath, A R Prabhuraj, S Maji, N Siddaiah
Cladophialophora bantiana, a dematiaceous neurotropic mold causes rare and lethal brain abscess, commonly in immunocompetent hosts. We report a rare and probably a case of disseminated infection with this black mold in an immunosuppressed individual from India. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with severe headache, blurred-vision, behavioural abnormalities, eye-pain and ear-discharge. He was undergoing treatment for hypertension, prostatomegaly and obstructive pulmonary disease. He was on steroids for the past six years for uveitis...
May 3, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
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