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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222067/role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-glioma-progression
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Quezada, Ángelo Torres, Ignacio Niechi, Daniel Uribe, Susana Contreras Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Rody San Martín, Jaime Gutiérrez, Luis Sobrevia
The role of extracellular vesicles in cancer biology has emerged as a focus of the study of great importance and has been shown to directly influence tumour development in several cancers including brain tumours, such as gliomas. Gliomas are the most aggressive brain tumours, and in the last time, a considerable effort has been made to understand their biology. Studies focus in the signalling pathways involved in the processes of angiogenesis, viability, drug resistance and immune response evasion, as well as gliomas ability to infiltrate healthy tissue, a phenomenon regulated by the migratory and invasive capacity of the cells within a tumour...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209798/-two-synchronous-malignancies-in-a%C3%A2-single-nephrectomy-specimen
#2
J Hrudka, V Eis, J Šach, P Klézl, S Schilling, D Bandke
We report a case of a 65-year-old man examined for hematuria and neurologic symptoms. Radiologically a tumour of the kidney was suspected, with metastatic involvement of the brain and both lungs. The urologists then performed a cytoreductive nephrectomy.In histopathological examination of the nephrectomy specimen a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (clear cell RCC) was found. However, an additional focus of a high-grade adenocarcinoma was discovered that turned out to be a metastasis of a poor differentiated lung adenocarcinoma...
December 5, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209515/ketogenic-diets-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-in-glioblastoma-the-keating-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-pilot-study
#3
Kirsty J Martin-McGill, Anthony G Marson, Catrin Tudur Smith, Michael D Jenkinson
Background: Glioblastoma is the commonest form of malignant brain tumour in adults, affecting 2-3 people per 100,000 per year. Despite current treatment options including surgical resection, radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy, overall survival at 2 years is approximately 27%, with a median survival of 12-14 months. The ketogenic diet (KD) is postulated to work by simulating the metabolic response to fasting by promoting the utilisation of ketones as a primary energy source, and depriving the glycolytic pathways utilised by malignant glioma cells for growth...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205995/volume-and-health-outcomes-evidence-from-systematic-reviews-and-from-evaluation-of-italian-hospital-data
#4
Laura Amato, Danilo Fusco, Anna Acampora, Katia Bontempi, Alessandro Cesare Rosa, Paola Colais, Fabio Cruciani, Mariangela D'Ovidio, Francesca Mataloni, Silvia Minozzi, Zuzana Mitrova, Luigi Pinnarelli, Rosella Saulle, Salvatore Soldati, Chiara Sorge, Simona Vecchi, Martina Ventura, Marina Davoli
BACKGROUND Improving quality and effectiveness of healthcare is one of the priorities of health policies. Hospital or physician volume represents a measurable variable with an impact on effectiveness of healthcare. An Italian law calls for the definition of «qualitative, structural, technological, and quantitative standards of hospital care». There is a need for an evaluation of the available scientific evidence in order to identify qualitative, structural, technological, and quantitative standards of hospital care, including the volume of care above or below which the public and private hospitals may be accredited (or not) to provide specific healthcare interventions...
September 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202213/rivaroxaban-for-preventing-venous-thromboembolism-in-high-risk-ambulatory-patients-with-cancer-rationale-and-design-of-the-cassini-trial
#5
Alok A Khorana, Saroj Vadhan-Raj, Nicole M Kuderer, Ted Wun, Howard Liebman, Gerald Soff, Chandra Belani, Eileen M O'Reilly, Robert McBane, John Eikelboom, C V Damaraju, Karen Beyers, Flavia Dietrich, Ajay K Kakkar, Hanno Riess, Renata D'Alpino Peixoto, Gary H Lyman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of cancer associated with morbidity, mortality, increased hospitalizations and higher health care costs. Cancer patients at increased risk for VTE can be identified using a validated risk assessment score, and the incidence of VTE can be reduced in high-risk settings using anticoagulation. Rivaroxaban is a potent, oral, direct, factor Xa inhibitor approved for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic events, including VTE. CASSINI is a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, multicentre study comparing rivaroxaban with placebo in adult ambulatory patients with various cancers who are initiating systemic cancer therapy and are at high risk of VTE (Khorana score ≥ 2)...
November 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198588/how-much-is-enough-can-resting-state-fmri-provide-a-demarcation-for-neurosurgical-resection-in-glioma
#6
REVIEW
Diana C Ghinda, Jin-Song Wu, Niall W Duncan, Georg Northoff
This study represents a systematic review of the insights provided by resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) use in the glioma population. Following PRISMA guidelines, 45 studies were included in the review and were classified in glioma-related neuronal changes (n=28) and eloquent area localization (n=17). Despite the heterogeneous nature of the studies, there is considerable evidence of diffuse functional reorganization occurring in the setting of gliomas with local and interhemispheric functional connectivity alterations involving different functional networks...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198055/phase-ii-study-of-buparlisib-bkm120-and-trastuzumab-in-patients-with-her2-%C3%A2-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-breast-cancer-resistant-to-trastuzumab-based-therapy
#7
B Pistilli, T Pluard, A Urruticoechea, D Farci, A Kong, T Bachelot, S Chan, H S Han, G Jerusalem, P Urban, D Robinson, S L Mouhaër, E D Tomaso, C Massacesi, C Saura
PURPOSE: A Phase Ib study in patients with trastuzumab-resistant, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2- (HER2)-positive advanced breast cancer defined the recommended Phase II dose of buparlisib as 100 mg/day in combination with 2 mg/kg weekly trastuzumab, and reported preliminary signs of clinical activity. Here we present results from the Phase II portion. METHODS: Patients with trastuzumab-resistant, HER2-positive advanced breast cancer received buparlisib plus trastuzumab...
December 2, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197281/trends-in-peri-operative-performance-status-following-resection-of-high-grade-glioma-and-brain-metastases-the-impact-on-survival
#8
Chirag K Patel, Ravi Vemaraju, James Glasby, Joanne Shires, Tessa Northmore, Malik Zaben, Caroline Hayhurst
OBJECTIVES: Maximal surgical resection of high grade brain tumours is associated with improved overall survival (OS). It carries the risk of neurological deterioration leading to worsening performance status (PS), which may affect overall survival and preclude patients from adjuvant therapy. We aim to review the changes in performance status of patients undergoing resection of high grade tumours and metastases and the impact of changes on overall survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of the perioperative performance status of 75 patients who underwent primary resection of malignant primary brain tumour or solitary metastasis in a single centre...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196443/modelling-glioblastoma-tumour-host-cell-interactions-using-adult-brain-organotypic-slice-co-culture
#9
Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon, Ester Gangoso, Steven M Pollard
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as GBM stem cells (GSCs). Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human)...
December 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191822/systemic-thrombolysis-in-a-patient-with-massive-pulmonary-embolism-and-recent-glioblastoma-multiforme-resection
#10
Joshua Lampert, Behnood Bikdeli, Philip Green, Matthew R Baldwin
While trials of systemic thrombolysis for submassive and massive pulmonary embolism (PE) report intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) rates of 2%-3%, the risk of ICH in patients with recent brain surgery or intracranial neoplasm is unknown since these patients were excluded from these trials. We report a case of massive PE treated with systemic thrombolysis in a patient with recent neurosurgery for an intracranial neoplasm. We discuss the risks and benefits of systemic thrombolysis for massive PE in the context of previous case reports, prior cohort studies and trials, and current guidelines...
November 29, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189740/aptamers-and-glioblastoma-their-potential-use-for-imaging-and-therapeutic-applications
#11
REVIEW
Emma M Hays, Wei Duan, Sarah Shigdar
Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive primary brain tumour, renowned for its infiltrative growth and varied genetic profiles. The current treatment options are insufficient, and their off-target effects greatly reduce patient quality of life. The major challenge in improving glioblastoma diagnosis and treatment involves the development of a targeted imaging and drug delivery platform, capable of circumventing the blood brain barrier and specifically targeting glioblastoma tumours. The unique properties of aptamers demonstrate their capability of bridging the gap to the development of successful diagnosis and treatment options, where antibodies have previously failed...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188366/pre-operative-neutrophil-count-and-neutrophil-lymphocyte-count-ratio-nlcr-in-predicting-the-histological-grade-of-paediatric-brain-tumours-a-preliminary-study
#12
J R F Wilson, F Saeed, A K Tyagi, J R Goodden, G Sivakumar, D Crimmins, M Elliott, S Picton, P D Chumas
INTRODUCTION: The neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) is an established prognostic marker for renal, lung and colorectal carcinomas and has been suggested to be predictive of histological grade and outcome in adult intracranial tumours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a correlation of the pre-operative neutrophil count (NC) and NLCR with the final histological grade exists in paediatric intracranial tumours. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken at a single centre...
November 29, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187298/regional-specificity-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-expression-in-the-brain-voxel-level-mapping-in-primary-glioblastomas
#13
X Fan, C Qi, X Liu, Y Wang, S Liu, S Li, L Wang, Y Wang
AIM: To investigate the anatomical specificity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in glioblastomas by using voxel-based neuroimaging analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical information and preoperative magnetic resonance images of 133 patients with glioblastomas were reviewed. Evaluation of MMP-9 expression was performed by using immunohistochemistry. Tumour lesions were segmented manually basing on the structural image of each patient, then registered to a standard brain atlas...
November 26, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184057/the-effects-of-pi3k-mediated-signalling-on-glioblastoma-cell-behaviour
#14
Julia Langhans, Lukas Schneele, Nancy Trenkler, Hélène von Bandemer, Lisa Nonnenmacher, Georg Karpel-Massler, Markus D Siegelin, Shaoxia Zhou, Marc-Eric Halatsch, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Mike-Andrew Westhoff
The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling network is activated in almost 90% of all glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumour, which is almost invariably lethal within 15 months of diagnosis. Despite intensive research, modulation of this signalling cascade has so far yielded little therapeutic benefit, suggesting that the role of the PI3K network as a pro-survival factor in glioblastoma and therefore a potential target in combination therapy should be re-evaluated. Therefore, we used two distinct pharmacological inhibitors that block signalling at different points of the cascade, namely, GDC-0941 (Pictilisib), a direct inhibitor of the near apical PI3K, and Rapamycin which blocks the side arm of the network that is regulated by mTOR complex 1...
November 29, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178401/childhood-cancer-incidence-and-survival-in-japan-and-england-a-population-based-study-1993-2010
#15
Kayo Nakata, Yuri Ito, Winnie Magadi, Audrey Bonaventure, Charles A Stiller, Kota Katanoda, Tomohiro Matsuda, Isao Miyashiro, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Bernard Rachet
This study aimed to compare cancer incidence and trends in survival for children diagnosed in Japan and England, using population-based cancer registry data. The analysis was based on 5,192 children with cancer (age 0-14 years) from six prefectural cancer registries in Japan and 21,295 children diagnosed in England during 1993-2010. Differences in incidence rates between the two countries were measured with Poisson regression models. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumours, and Ewing sarcomas in England were more than twice as high as those in Japan...
November 24, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178031/a-predictive-model-for-distinguishing-radiation-necrosis-from-tumour-progression-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-based-on-radiomic-features-from-mr-images
#16
Zijian Zhang, Jinzhong Yang, Angela Ho, Wen Jiang, Jennifer Logan, Xin Wang, Paul D Brown, Susan L McGovern, Nandita Guha-Thakurta, Sherise D Ferguson, Xenia Fave, Lifei Zhang, Dennis Mackin, Laurence E Court, Jing Li
OBJECTIVES: To develop a model using radiomic features extracted from MR images to distinguish radiation necrosis from tumour progression in brain metastases after Gamma Knife radiosurgery. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 87 patients with pathologically confirmed necrosis (24 lesions) or progression (73 lesions) and calculated 285 radiomic features from four MR sequences (T1, T1 post-contrast, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) obtained at two follow-up time points per lesion per patient...
November 24, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173147/recent-developments-of-18f-fet-pet-in-neuro-oncology
#17
Barbara Muoio, Luca Giovanella, Giorgio Treglia
From the past decade to date several studies about O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET) in brain tumours have been published in the literature. Objective The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the recent developments and the current role of 18F-FET PET in brain tumours according to recent literature data. Methods Main findings from selected recently published and relevant articles on the role of 18F-FET PET in neuro-oncology were described. Results 18F-FET PET may be useful in the differential diagnosis between brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions and between low-grade and high-grade gliomas...
November 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168254/ethanol-iris-tenuifolia-extract-reduces-brain-damage-in-a-mouse-model-of-cerebral-ischaemia
#18
Aldarmaa Jalsrai, Annegret Reinhold, Axel Becker
In the previous experiments, the neuroprotective role of Iris tenuifolia Pall. (IT) in the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated. In addition, the concentrations of the cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in blood plasma were measured. It was found that IT administered 1 hr prior to MCAO or immediately after MCAO reduced infarct volume significantly. IT application 1 and 4 hr after MCAO, respectively, was without any effect on infarct volume. There were no significant changes as regards tumour necrosis factor-alpha, whereas interleukin-6 concentrations were increased in blood plasma...
November 23, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159062/evaluation-of-factors-influencing-18f-fet-uptake-in-the-brain
#19
Antoine Verger, Carina Stegmayr, Norbert Galldiks, Axel Van Der Gucht, Philipp Lohmann, Gabriele Stoffels, Nadim J Shah, Gereon R Fink, Simon B Eickhoff, Eric Guedj, Karl-Josef Langen
PET using the amino-acid O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (18F-FET) is gaining increasing interest for brain tumour management. Semi-quantitative analysis of tracer uptake in brain tumours is based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) and the tumour-to-brain ratio (TBR). The aim of this study was to explore physiological factors that might influence the relationship of SUV of 18F-FET uptake in various brain areas, and thus affect quantification of 18F-FET uptake in brain tumours. Negative 18F-FET PET scans of 107 subjects, showing an inconspicuous brain distribution of 18F-FET, were evaluated retrospectively...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158591/surgical-oncology-for-gliomas-the-state-of-the-art
#20
REVIEW
Nader Sanai, Mitchel S Berger
Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with glioma of any grade. Maximal resection of the tumour is central to achieving long-term disease control; however, the relationship between the extent of glioma resection and actual clinical benefit for the patient is predicated on the balance between cytoreduction and neurological morbidity. For the neurosurgical oncologist, the clinical rationale for undertaking increasingly extensive resections has gained traction. In parallel, novel surgical techniques and technologies have been developed that help improve patient outcomes...
November 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
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