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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447407/the-feasibility-of-venovenous-ecmo-at-role-2-facilities-in-austere-military-environments
#1
Mohamed A T Mohamed, Tareq Maraqa, Matthew D Bacchetta, Michael McShane, Kenneth L Wilson
Introduction: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has been gaining use to bridge the recovery from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refractory to conventional treatment. However, these interventions are often limited to higher echelons of military care. We present a case of lung salvage from severe ARDS in an Afghani soldier with VV-ECMO at a Role-2 (R2) facility in an austere military environment in Afghanistan. Case: A 25-year-old Afghani soldier presented to an R2 facility with blast lung injury and multiple penetrating injuries following an explosion...
February 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447399/the-relationship-between-soldier-performance-on-the-two-mile-run-and-the-20-m-shuttle-run-test
#2
Maria C Canino, Bruce S Cohen, Jan E Redmond, Marilyn A Sharp, Edward J Zambraski, Stephen A Foulis
Background: The 20-m shuttle run test (MSRT) is a common field test used to measure aerobic fitness in controlled environments. The U.S. Army currently assesses aerobic fitness with the two-mile run (TMR), but external factors may impact test performance. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the Army Physical Fitness Test TMR performance and the MSRT in military personnel. Methods: A group of 531 (403 males and 128 females) active duty soldiers (age: 24...
February 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447398/secular-trends-in-the-physical-fitness-of-united-states-army-infantry-units-and-infantry-soldiers-1976-2015
#3
Joseph J Knapik, Jan E Redmond, Tyson L Grier, Marilyn A Sharp
Introduction: The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes over time in the physical fitness of the United States (US) Army infantry. A systematic review was conducted to identify and analyze articles and databases that reported on physical characteristics (height, weight, and body mass index) and/or Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores of male infantrymen or men in infantry units. Materials and Methods: The National Library of Medicine's PubMed and the Defense Technical Information Center were searched using specific keywords...
February 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445019/wound-treatment-and-selective-help-in-a-termite-hunting-ant
#4
Erik T Frank, Marten Wehrhahn, K Eduard Linsenmair
Open wounds are a major health risk in animals, with species prone to injuries likely developing means to reduce these risks. We therefore analysed the behavioural response towards open wounds on the social and individual level in the termite group-hunting ant Megaponera analis During termite raids, some ants get injured by termite soldiers (biting off extremities), after the fight injured ants get carried back to the nest by nest-mates. We observed treatment of the injury by nest-mates inside the nest through intense allogrooming at the wound...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443918/error-modelling-for-multi-sensor-measurements-in-infrastructure-free-indoor-navigation
#5
Laura Ruotsalainen, Martti Kirkko-Jaakkola, Jesperi Rantanen, Maija Mäkelä
The long-term objective of our research is to develop a method for infrastructure-free simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and context recognition for tactical situational awareness. Localization will be realized by propagating motion measurements obtained using a monocular camera, a foot-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), sonar, and a barometer. Due to the size and weight requirements set by tactical applications, Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEMS) sensors will be used. However, MEMS sensors suffer from biases and drift errors that may substantially decrease the position accuracy...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440469/air-drop-blood-supply-in-the-french-army
#6
Olivier Javaudin, A Baillon, N Varin, C Martinaud, T Pouget, C Civadier, B Clavier, A Sailliol
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhagic shock remains the leading cause of preventable death in overseas and austere settings. Transfusion of blood components is critical in the management of this kind of injury. For French naval and ground military units, this supply often takes too long considering the short shelf-life of red blood cell concentrates (RBCs) and the limited duration of transport in cooling containers (five to six days). Air-drop supply could be an alternative to overcome these difficulties on the condition that air-drop does not cause damage to blood units...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435284/18f-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-computed-tomography-in-a-rare-cutaneous-form-of-rosai-dorfman-disease-a-case-report
#7
Joya Hadchiti, Francois G Kamar, Jean Abi Ghosn, Mohamad Haidar, Ahmad Younes, Antoine Obeid, Marwan Haddad, Fadi Farhat, Feras Chehade
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), or sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, commonly involves the lymph nodes but may secondarily involve the skin. Purely cutaneous disease without lymphatics or internal organ involvement occurs rarely. The present report detailed a rare case of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission-computed tomography (18FDG PET-CT) performed in a 33-year-old male soldier with a purely cutaneous form of RDD. Staging with 18FDG PET-CT was ordered prior to excisional biopsies of the aforedescribed masses and pathology reported RDD...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435237/save-your-host-save-yourself-caste-ratio-adjustment-in-a-parasite-with-division-of-labor-and-snail-host-survival-following-shell-damage
#8
Colin MacLeod, Robert Poulin, Clément Lagrue
Shell damage and parasitic infections are frequent in gastropods, influencing key snail host life-history traits such as survival, growth, and reproduction. However, their interactions and potential effects on hosts and parasites have never been tested. Host-parasite interactions are particularly interesting in the context of the recently discovered division of labor in trematodes infecting marine snails. Some species have colonies consisting of two different castes present at varying ratios; reproductive members and nonreproductive soldiers specialized in defending the colony...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433277/composition-of-black-soldier-fly-prepupae-and-systematic-approaches-for-extraction-and-fractionation-of-proteins-lipids-and-chitin
#9
Augusta Caligiani, Angela Marseglia, Giulia Leni, Stefania Baldassarre, Lara Maistrello, Arnaldo Dossena, Stefano Sforza
Black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) constitutes an economic way to convert residual biomasses into a valuable source of biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids and chitin. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of applying different extraction protocols, either chemical extractions or enzymatic assisted extraction, to recover pure fat, protein and chitin fractions. First, exact proximate composition, total amino acids, fatty acids profile, and N-acetylglucosamine content of the prepupae samples were determined...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431146/does-the-addition-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-to-conventional-treatment-modalities-influence-the-outcome-of-soldiers-with-idiopathic-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
Tzu-Hang Chi, M C Chiang, R F Chen, C H Yuan
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) is defined as a 30-decibel (dB) loss in hearing over three contiguous frequencies within 3 days. The cause remains unknown, and there is currently no consensus in the literature as to how it is best treated. Conventional treatment in our unit comprises steroids, pentoxyphiline and dextran, with the potential addition of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). METHODS: A prospective randomised trial was performed on all soldiers diagnosed with ISSNHL in our institution from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2016...
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428505/optimising-training-adaptations-and-performance-in-military-environment
#11
REVIEW
Heikki Kyröläinen, Kai Pihlainen, Jani P Vaara, Tommi Ojanen, Matti Santtila
OBJECTIVES: Worldwide decreases in physical fitness and increases in body fat among youth have set challenges for armed forces to recruit physically capable soldiers. Therefore, knowledge of optimizing physical adaptation and performance through physical training is vital. In addition, maintaining or improving physical performance among professional soldiers in various military environments is crucial for overall military readiness. The present review focuses on the effects of military training on physical performance by searching for optimal methods to do it...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428504/examining-the-association-of-injury-with-the-functional-movement-screen-and-landing-error-scoring-system-in-military-recruits-undergoing-16-weeks-of-introductory-fitness-training
#12
Eoin Everard, Mark Lyons, Andrew J Harrison
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of injury with the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) in military recruits undergoing an intensive 16-week training block. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two entry-level male soldiers (18-25years) were tested using the FMS and LESS. The participants underwent an intensive 16-week training program with injury data recorded daily. Chi-squared statistics were used to examine associations between injury risk and (1) poor LESS scores, (2) any score of 1 on the FMS and (3) composite FMS score of ≤14...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425320/treatment-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-french-soldiers-deployed-in-sub-saharan-africa-gaps-between-policy-and-field-practice
#13
Anne Perisse, Guillaume Velut, Emilie Javelle, Gwion Loarer, Remy Michel, F Simon
Background: Malaria prevention and treatment are big challenges for the French forces deployed in sub-Saharan Africa. Since December 2013, 1,800 French soldiers have been deployed at any one time in the Central African Republic in the framework of "Operation Sangaris" and European Union Force (EUFOR). Over the 2014-2015 period, about 500 cases of malaria were notified in these troops during the operation or after their return (annual incidence: 13.4 p.100 person-year). The recommendation to use dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) as the first-line treatment for French soldiers suffering from uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in endemic areas is not always followed in practice in the field by French military general practitioners (GPs)...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425319/changes-in-temporary-disability-reporting-following-the-implementation-of-the-army-medical-readiness-transformation
#14
Jason E Sapp, Matthew J Cody, Kevin M Douglas
Introduction: In November 2014, the U.S. Army held a readiness summit to address concerns about the accuracy of medical reporting systems. At the time, soldiers on temporary disability were tracked as a medical readiness classification (MRC) 3A or 3B. MRC 3A soldiers had a medical condition with recovery expected within 30 d and MRC 3B soldiers were expected to take longer than 30 d to recover. Both groups were considered "non-available" and presumably non-deployable. Starting June 1, 2016, with the implementation of the Army Medical Readiness Transformation, soldiers on temporary disability longer than 14 d began to be reported as MRC 3s and are considered "non-deployable...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424278/culture-as-a-double-edged-sword-the-posttraumatic-experience-of-indigenous-ethnic-minority-veterans
#15
Shai Shorer, Hadass Goldblatt, Yael Caspi, Faisal Azaiza
The applicability of Western concepts regarding the treatment of trauma in soldiers from indigenous ethnic minority backgrounds has scarcely been researched. This study explored the subjective meaning of living with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among indigenous Bedouin veterans of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), who are of Arab ethnicity and Muslim faith. In-depth, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 Bedouin veterans suffering from PTSD and three Bedouin mental health clinicians working with this population...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421790/edgar-adrian-1889-1977-and-shell-shock-electrotherapy-a-forgotten-history
#16
Laurent Tatu
The English electrophysiologist Edgar Adrian (1889-1977) was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for physiology in 1932 for his research on the functions of neurons. During World War I, at Queen Square in London, he devised an intensive electrotherapeutic treatment for shell-shocked soldiers. The procedure, developed with Lewis Yealland (1884-1954), was similar to "torpillage," the faradic psychotherapy used in France. Adrian and Yealland considered that the pain accompanying the use of faradic current was necessary for both therapeutic and disciplinary reasons, especially because of the suspicion of malingering...
February 8, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420813/sport-psychology-for-the-soldier-athlete-a-paradigm-shift
#17
Vanessa M Meyer
Background: Competitive athletes train body and mind in preparation for competition with mental fortitude often providing the "winning edge." Similarly, the current-day warfighter faces significant physical and psychological challenges and must be prepared to respond to life-threatening danger with mental and physical agility. Sport Psychology for the Soldier Athlete recognizes the soldier as an elite athlete and provides training required to perform at the highest caliber. Through this curriculum, mental skills coaching in goal setting, imagery, positive self-talk, and heart rate control is integrated into routine physical fitness training...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414381/dexmedetomidine-stops-benzodiazepine-refractory-nerve-agent-induced-status-epilepticus
#18
Hilary S McCarren, Julia A Arbutus, Cherish Ardinger, Emily N Dunn, Cecelia E Jackson, John H McDonough
Nerve agents are highly toxic chemicals that pose an imminent threat to soldiers and civilians alike. Nerve agent exposure leads to an increase in acetylcholine within the central nervous system, resulting in development of protracted seizures known as status epilepticus (SE). Currently, benzodiazepines are the standard of care for nerve agent-induced SE, but their efficacy quickly wanes as the time to treatment increases. Here, we examine the role of the α2-adrenoceptor in termination of nerve agent-induced SE using the highly specific agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX)...
January 29, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413785/an-evaluation-of-measurement-systems-estimating-gait-speed-during-a-loaded-military-march-over-graded-terrain
#19
Bertil J Veenstra, Thomas Wyss, Lilian Roos, Simon K Delves, Mark Buller, Nadja Beeler
This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of three measurement systems estimating gait speed during a loaded military march over graded terrain. Systems developed by the Swiss and Netherlands Armed Forces and a commercial wrist-based device were evaluated in comparison to a Global Positioning System. The first part of the paper focuses on the development of the Dutch system, where speed is estimated from a chest worn accelerometer and body measurements. For this validation study 36 subjects were walking or running 13 laps of 200 m at different speeds...
January 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411855/gel-based-supramolecular-on-off-switch-from-aryl-triazolyl-peptides-with-excellent-chiro-optical-thixotropic-and-self-healing-characteristics
#20
Bhartendu K Srivastava, Kannoth M Muraleedharan
Systematic structure-property optimization of an achiral gelator (aryl-triazolyl homo dipeptide, 1.0) through a fragment replacement approach led to the identification of a new chiral system (aryl-triazolyl dipeptide 1.4 having leucine as the C-terminal residue) which exhibits consistent and perfectly reversible chiro-optical responses on sol-gel transition that can work like an ON-OFF switch. The gelator 1.4 could also direct the assembly of 1.0 in a sergeant-soldier mode to give similar CD responses. In addition, its gels are mouldable, self-healing and highly thixotropic, making it important from an application standpoint...
February 7, 2018: Soft Matter
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