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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525620/cold-hardiness-of-the-black-soldier-fly-diptera-stratiomyidae
#1
Thomas Spranghers, Annelies Noyez, Kristof Schildermans, Patrick De Clercq
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), shows potential as a resource for animal feed. However, industrial production in regions where the insect is not native, like northwestern Europe, could lead to permanent establishment, which might entail environmental risks. In temperate climates, establishment depends on the insect's ability to overwinter. This study assessed the insect's cold hardiness by determining the supercooling point (SCP) and lower lethal time at 5 °C (LTime10,50,90) for different life stages...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521942/regulation-development-and-evolution-of-caste-ratios-in-the-hyperdiverse-ant-genus-pheidole
#2
REVIEW
Angelica Lillico-Ouachour, Ehab Abouheif
Ant colonies are considered complex biological systems because many individuals are divided into different castes that interact to efficiently perform their tasks. Colonies in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole have evolved a worker caste with at least two subcastes: soldiers and minor workers. The proportion of soldiers and minor workers in a colony has a major impact on the colony's fitness and is tightly regulated. Here, we summarize over 100 years of research on the internal, external, and developmental factors that regulate subcaste production as well as influence subcaste evolution in Pheidole...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521722/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-syphilis-infections-among-military-personnel-in-sierra-leone
#3
Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Foday Sahr, J Allen McCutchan, Sonia Jain, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Stephanie K Brodine, Richard A Shaffer
CONTEXT: HIV and syphilis infections are common in military personnel in sub-Saharan Africa, which impact combat preparedness and increase demands on the military health care system. The prevalence of HIV is estimated at 1.5% among the general population (15-49 years of age) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for these two common sexually transmitted infections in the Sierra Leone military personnel...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521718/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-among-rwanda-defense-force-members
#4
Michael P Grillo, Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Caroline A Macera, Charles Murego, Eugene Zimulinda, Marcellin Sebagabo, Valentin Gatsinzi
INTRODUCTION: Strong scientific evidence supports voluntary medical male circumcision as part of an overall HIV prevention strategy, but self-report information on circumcision status may be inaccurate. The study objectives were to obtain estimates of male circumcision within the Rwanda Defense Force (RDF), to assess the ability of soldiers to correctly report their own circumcision status, and to document the uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in the RDF. METHODS: Data were collected from members of the Rwandan military during their annual physical examination...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511307/-influence-of-long-time-video-operation-on-hemodynamics-of-the-retrobulbar-arteries-in-operators
#5
X Y Huang, X Y Yang, L P Zhu, J P Yang, Z L Zhang
Objective: To investigate the influence of long-time video operation on hemodynamics of the retrobulbar arteries in operators. Methods: From March to October, 2015, a total of 120 soldiers for office work engaged in video surveillance were enrolled as study group, and 155 fire fighters were enrolled as control group. The incidence of eye discomfort was compared between the two groups. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to measure and compare the peak systolic velocity (PSV) , end-diastolic velocity (EDV) , and resistance index (RI) of the central retinal artery (CRA) and the short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) , and the correlation of video operation time with the hemodynamic parameters of the retrobulbar arteries was analyzed...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511300/-mediator-effect-analysis-of-the-trait-coping-style-on-job-stress-and-fatigue-of-the-military-personnel-stationed-in-plateau-and-high-cold-region
#6
J J Zhang, J M Jia, N Tao, Z X Song, H Ge, Y Jiang, H Tian, E C Qiu, J H Tang, J W Liu
Objective: To investigate the fatigue status of military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region, and to analyze the mediator effect of trait coping style on job stress and fatigue. Methods: In October 2010, with the method of cluster random sampling survey, 531 military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region were chosen as subject. The fatigue status were evaluated by the Chinese version multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) , job stress were evaluated by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) , and trait coping style were evaluated by the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) ...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510134/paramagnetics-melanin-and-mn-2-in-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens
#7
N A Ushakova, A E Dontsov, A I Bastrakov, N Y Garmash, D S Pavlov
Larva, prepupa (last instar larva), pupa, and an empty shell of pupa after hatching of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens contain eumelanin, an active synthesis of which is observed at the prepupal stage, which is probably due to the release of prepupa from the feed substrate thickness to the open space for pupation. It was shown for the first time that prepupa contains high quantities of the magnetically active form of manganese Mn(2+). This fact indicates that Mn(2+) stimulates the copper-containing tyrosinase-the key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin in the period of migration and adaptation of the insect to the solar radiation...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508134/effect-of-combat-stress-in-the-psychophysiological-response-of-elite-and-non-elite-soldiers
#8
José Francisco Tornero-Aguilera, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
We aimed to analyse the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological responses of elite and non-elite soldiers. We analysed heart rate, cortical arousal, skin temperature, blood lactate concentration and lower body muscular strength before and after a tactical combat simulation in 40 warfighters divided in two groups: elite (n: 20; 28.5 ± 6.38 years) and non-elite (n:20; 31.94 ± 6.24 years) group. Elite presented a significantly higher lactate concentration after combat than non elite soldiers (3...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502409/field-evaluation-of-a-wearable-multimodal-soldier-navigation-system
#9
Iina Aaltonen, Jari Laarni
Challenging environments pose difficulties for terrain navigation, and therefore wearable and multimodal navigation systems have been proposed to overcome these difficulties. Few such navigation systems, however, have been evaluated in field conditions. We evaluated how a multimodal system can aid in navigating in a forest in the context of a military exercise. The system included a head-mounted display, headphones, and a tactile vibrating vest. Visual, auditory, and tactile modalities were tested and evaluated using unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal conditions...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502265/psychological-autopsy-study-comparing-suicide-decedents-suicide-ideators-and-propensity-score-matched-controls-results-from-the-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-service-members-army-starrs
#10
M K Nock, C L Dempsey, P A Aliaga, D A Brent, S G Heeringa, R C Kessler, M B Stein, R J Ursano, D Benedek
BACKGROUND: The suicide rate has increased significantly among US Army soldiers over the past decade. Here we report the first results from a large psychological autopsy study using two control groups designed to reveal risk factors for suicide death among soldiers beyond known sociodemographic factors and the presence of suicide ideation. METHODS: Informants were next-of-kin and Army supervisors for: 135 suicide cases, 137 control soldiers propensity-score-matched on known sociodemographic risk factors for suicide and Army history variables, and 118 control soldiers who reported suicide ideation in the past year...
May 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501968/effect-of-parachute-jump-in-the-psychophysiological-response-of-soldiers-in-urban-combat
#11
Joaquín Sánchez-Molina, José J Robles-Pérez, Vicente J Clemente-Suárez
The study of organic and psychological response during combat situations has been poorly reported despite its importance for soldiers training and specific instruction, so it was proposed as aim of the present investigation to analyze the effect of a tactical parachute simulated jump in psycho-physiological response of paratroopers' warfighters during an urban combat simulation. 19 male paratroopers (31.9 ± 6.2 year old; 173.6 ± 5.3 cm; 73.8 ± 8.3 Kg) of the Spanish Army were divided in two groups: parachute jump group (n:11) that conducted a simulated parachute jump and a urban combat maneuver and a non-parachute jump group (n:8) that only conducted an urban combat maneuver...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500661/is-mealworm-or-shrimp-allergy-indicative-for-food-allergy-to-insects
#12
Henrike Chp Broekman, André C Knulst, Govardus de Jong, Marco Gaspari, Constance F den Hartog Jager, Geert F Houben, Kitty Cm Verhoeckx
SCOPE: The growing world population is a key driver for the exploration of sustainable protein sources to ensure food security. Mealworm and other insects are promising candidates. Previously we found that shrimp allergic patients are at risk for mealworm allergy, and that mealworm can induce a primary allergy 3.This study set out to investigate the allergenic potential of edible insects, suggested for human consumption by agencies such as WHO/FAO, in both the shrimp (potentially cross-reactive) and primary mealworm allergic population...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499856/measuring-soldier-performance-during-the-patrol-exertion-multitask-preliminary-validation-of-a-post-concussive-functional-return-to-duty-metric
#13
Matthew Scherer, Margaret M Weightman, Mary Vining Radomski, Laurel Smith, Marsha Finkelstein, Amy Cecchini, Kristin Jensen Heaton, Karen McCulloch
OBJECTIVE: To assess the discriminant validity of the Patrol-Exertion Multitask (PEMT), a novel, multi-domain, functional return-to-duty clinical assessment for Active Duty military personnel. DESIGN: Measurement development study SETTING: Non-clinical indoor testing facility, Fort Bragg NC PARTICIPANTS: 51 healthy control (HC) Service Members and 33 military personnel with persistent post-concussive symptoms receiving rehabilitation (mTBI) INTERVENTION: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Known-groups discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing performance on the PEMT in two groups of Active Duty SM, HC and personnel with mTBI residual symptoms...
May 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495659/social-inclusion-of-individuals-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-the-military
#14
Shirli Werner, Yael Hochman
BACKGROUND: Despite policies advocating the social inclusion of persons with disabilities in all settings that are a part of everyday life within society, individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are usually excluded from service in the military. AIMS: This study examined the meaning of service in the military for individuals with ID from the perspective of various stakeholder groups. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with ID, 36 relatives, and 28 commanders...
May 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493557/couples-coping-through-deployment-findings-from-a-sample-of-national-guard-families
#15
Adrian J Blow, Ryan P Bowles, Adam Farero, Sailaja Subramaniam, Sara Lappan, Emily Nichols, Lisa Gorman, Michelle Kees, Danielle Guty
OBJECTIVE: Military families face numerous changes and stresses as they negotiate deployments and other life transitions. How they cope with these events is an important part of their overall well-being and resilience. This longitudinal study on coping in a sample of National Guard couples examined the association between the predeployment coping (active vs. avoidant) of each in the relationship, and their own and their significant others' mental health (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) and family well-being (dyadic adjustment and parenting stress) postdeployment...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491158/an-unusual-cause-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-young-active-duty-soldier
#16
Rafik BenAbda, Anne Gunn, Eric Roberge, Ting-Wei Yang
Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an abnormality in which the coronary artery has an anomalous connection with a venous structure such as the coronary sinus or atrium. CAF is usually congenital, but may be acquired. The prevalence in the general population is low with many asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. When symptomatic, CAF may present with dyspnea, decreasing functional capacity, and/or arrhythmia. We report a case of a young otherwise healthy active duty male with progressive symptoms of dizziness and exertional fatigue with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation...
June 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485145/supramolecular-copolymers-structure-and-composition-revealed-by-theoretical-modeling
#17
Anindita Das, Ghislaine Vantomme, Albert J Markvoort, Huub M M Ten Eikelder, Miguel Garcia-Iglesias, Anja R A Palmans, E W Meijer
Supramolecular copolymers, non-covalent analogues of synthetic copolymers, constitute a new and promising class of polymers. In contrast to their covalent counterparts, the details of their mechanism of formation, as well as the factors determining their composition and length are still poorly understood. Here, the supramolecular copolymerization between two structurally slightly different benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides (BTAs) monomers functionalized with either oligodimethylsiloxane (oDMSi) or alkyl side chains is unraveled by combining an experimental and theoretical approach...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479217/physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-testosterone-during-severe-energy-deficit-and-recovery-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-for-optimizing-performance-for-soldiers-ops
#18
Stefan M Pasiakos, Claire E Berryman, J Philip Karl, Harris R Lieberman, Jeb S Orr, Lee M Margolis, John A Caldwell, Andrew J Young, Monty A Montano, William J Evans, Oshin Vartanian, Owen T Carmichael, Kishore M Gadde, Melissa Harris, Jennifer C Rood
BACKGROUND: The physiological consequences of severe energy deficit include hypogonadism and the loss of fat-free mass. Prolonged energy deficit also impacts physical performance, mood, attentiveness, and decision-making capabilities. This study will determine whether maintaining a eugonadal state during severe, sustained energy deficit attenuates physiological decrements and maintains mental performance. This study will also assess the effects of normalizing testosterone levels during severe energy deficit and recovery on gut health and appetite regulation...
May 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471062/pharmacologically-increasing-microtubule-acetylation-corrects-stress-exacerbated-effects-of-organophosphates-on-neurons
#19
Anand N Rao, Ankita Patil, Zachary D Brodnik, Liang Qiang, Rodrigo A Espana, Kimberly A Sullivan, Mark M Black, Peter W Baas
Many veterans of the 1990-1991 Gulf War contracted Gulf War Illness, a multi-symptom disease that primarily affects the nervous system. Here we treated cultures of human or rat neurons with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), an analog of sarin, one of the organophosphate toxicants to which the military veterans were exposed. All observed cellular defects produced by DFP were exacerbated by pretreatment with corticosterone or cortisol, which, in the rat and human neurons respectively, serves in our experiments to mimic the physical stress endured by soldiers during the war...
May 4, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470013/pyogenic-pericarditis-and-cardiac-tamponade-due-to-streptococcus-anginosus-in-a-combat-theater
#20
Ryan C Maves, Michael S Tripp, Tracy Franzos, Scott C Wallace, Benjamin J Drinkwine, Todd C Villines
Streptococcus anginosus group pericarditis is rare. A 24-year-old male soldier presented for care at a military clinic in Afghanistan with shock and cardiac tamponade requiring emergent pericardial drainage and aeromedical evacuation. We review the patient's case, the need for serial pericardial drainage, and the available literature on this disorder.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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