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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665517/depression-and-impulsiveness-among-soldiers-who-died-by-suicide-a-psychological-autopsy-study
#1
Leah Shelef, Neta Korem, Nirit Yavnai, Rinat Yedidya, Keren Ginat, Golan Shahar, Assaf Yacobi
INTRODUCTION: Despite the accumulated knowledge about suicide, suicidal acts remain difficult to predict, and many suicides are acted out impulsively. METHODS: We performed a psychological autopsy study based on inquiries about the deaths of all male soldiers aged 18-21 years who served in the Israeli army and died by suicide between 2009 and 2013 (n = 69). The study population was first divided into two groups: those who had depressive disorder (n = 31); and those who did not (n = 38)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663551/termite-soldiers-contribute-to-social-immunity-by-synthesizing-potent-oral-secretions
#2
Shulin He, Paul R Johnston, Benno Kuropka, Sophie Lokatis, Christoph Weise, Rudy Plarre, Hans-Jörg Kunte, Dino P McMahon
The importance of soldiers to termite society defense has long been recognized, but the contribution of soldiers to other societal functions, such as colony immunity, is less well understood. We explore this issue by examining the role of soldiers in protecting nestmates against pathogen infection. Even though they are unable to engage in grooming behavior, we find that the presence of soldiers of the Darwin termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis, significantly improves the survival of nestmates following entomopathogenic infection...
April 17, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662256/analysis-of-combat-casualties-admitted-to-the-emergency-department-during-the-negotiation-of-the-comprehensive-colombian-process-of-peace
#3
Carlos A Ordoñez, Ramiro Manzano Nunez, Michael W Parra, Juan Pablo Herrera, Maria Paula Naranjo, Sara Sofia Escobar, Marisol Badiel, Monica Morales, Cecibel Cevallos, Juan G Bayona, Alvaro Ignacio Sanchez, Juan Carlos Puyana, Alberto F García
Aim: Our objective was to describe the variations in casualties admitted to the emergency department during the period of the negotiation of the comprehensive peace agreement in Colombia between 2011 and 2016. Methods: A retrospective study of all hostile military casualties managed at a regional Level I trauma center from January 2011 to December 2016. Patients were subsequently divided into two groups: those seen before the declaration of the process of peace truce (November 2012) and those after (negotiation period)...
December 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657236/black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-larvae-enhances-immune-activities-and-increases-survivability-of-broiler-chicks-against-experimental-infection-of-salmonella-gallinarum
#4
Jin-A Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Young-Kyu Park, Young-Cheol Yang, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) are rich in protein and have the potential to be used in animal feed. The aim of the present study was to determine the immunoprophylactic effect of BSFL against Salmonella Gallinarum in broiler chicks as an alternative feed additive. Results showed that BSFL improved body weight gain and increased frequency of CD4+ T lymphocyte, serum lysozyme activity, and spleen lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, BSFL reinforced bacterial clearance and increased survivability of broiler chicks against S...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652094/from-in-vivo-to-in-vitro-how-the-guatemala-std-experiments-transformed-bodies-into-biospecimens
#5
Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Paul A Lombardo
Policy Points: While most scholarship regarding the US Public Health Service's STD experiments in Guatemala during the 1940s has focused on the intentional exposure experiments, secondary research was also conducted on biospecimens collected from these subjects. These biospecimen experiments continued after the Guatemala grant ended, and the specimens were used in conjunction with those from the Tuskegee syphilis experiments for ongoing research. We argue there should be a public accounting of whether there are still biospecimens from the Guatemala and Tuskegee experiments held in US government biorepositories today...
April 13, 2018: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648986/a-single-primary-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rodent-model-causes-cell-type-dependent-increase-in-nadph-oxidase-isoforms-in-vulnerable-brain-regions
#6
Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Stephanie Iring, Daniel Younger, Matthew Kuriakose, Maciej Skotak, Eren Alay, Raj K Gupta, Namas Chandra
Blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) is a leading cause of morbidity in soldiers on the battlefield and in the training sites with long-term neurological and psychological pathologies. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated activation of oxidative stress pathways following blast injury, but their distribution among different brain regions and their impact on the pathogenesis of bTBI have not been explored. The present study examined the protein expression of two isoforms: NADPH oxidase 1 and 2 (NOX1, NOX2), corresponding superoxide production, a downstream event of NOX activation, and the extent of lipid peroxidation adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) to a range of proteins...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648857/associations-of-patient-rated-emotional-bond-and-vocally-encoded-emotional-arousal-among-clinicians-and-acutely-suicidal-military-personnel
#7
Craig J Bryan, Brian R Baucom, Alex O Crenshaw, Zac Imel, David C Atkins, Tracy A Clemans, Bruce Leeson, T Scott Burch, Jim Mintz, M David Rudd
OBJECTIVE: To determine if synchrony in emotional arousal and affective regulation between patients and clinicians reflect emotional bonding during emergency behavioral health appointments. METHOD: Audio recordings of suicide risk assessment interviews and crisis intervention planning with 54 suicidal active duty soldiers presenting to an emergency department or behavioral health clinic were analyzed. Emotional arousal was assessed using mean fundamental frequency...
April 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648477/acute-intensive-care-unit-management-of-mustard-gas-victims-the-turkish-experience
#8
Ertugrul Kilic, Mesut Ortatatli, Sermet Sezigen, Rusen Koray Eyison, Levent Kenar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims. Thirteen Free Syrian Army soldiers near Al-Bab region of North Syria were reportedly exposed to oily blackish smoke with garlic smell due to the explosion of a trapped bomb without causing any blast or thermal effect on 26th November 2016...
April 12, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629971/found-in-the-field-a-soldier-with-heat-stroke-exercise-associated-hyponatremia-and-kidney-injury
#9
Robert C Oh, Meghan Galer, Michael M Bursey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627582/life-on-a-napoleonic-battlefield-a-bioarchaeological-analysis-of-soldiers-from-the-battle-of-aspern-austria
#10
Leslie Quade, Michaela Binder
On the 21st-22nd of May 1809, French and Austrian soldiers engaged in battle near the village of Aspern on the outskirts of Vienna. This battle, the first defeat of Napoleon's army on land, was one of the largest and deadliest encounters during the Napoleonic Wars (1798-1815). Salvage excavations between 2009 and 2016 have revealed several battlefield burial sites in Aspern. The remains of 30 individuals were evaluated for a series of pathological conditions which develop during childhood and adulthood to elucidate the impact of Napoleonic military conditions on health...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626343/a-neural-correlate-for-common-trait-dissociation-decreased-eeg-connectivity-is-related-to-dissociative-absorption
#11
Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Doron Todder, Leah Shelef, Inbal Deutsch, Shirley Gordon
OBJECTIVE: Dissociation refers to a disintegration between psychological elements; common manifestations are embodied in "absorption and imaginative involvement", a propensity for being immersed in a stimulus while oblivious to the environment, and acting without awareness. Trait dissociation was hypothesized to relate to lower EEG signal connectivity, but studies on healthy populations are scarce. The present study set out to examine whether dissociative absorption in a non-clinical sample will be associated with decreased intra-hemispheric coherence...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625207/synaptic-organization-and-division-of-labor-in-the-exceptionally-polymorphic-ant-pheidole-rhea
#12
Darcy G Gordon, James F A Traniello
Social insect polyphenisms provide models to examine the neural basis of division of labor and anatomy of the invertebrate social brain. Worker size-related behavior is hypothesized to enhance task performance, raising questions concerning the integration of morphology, behavior, and cellular neuroarchitecture, and how variation in sensory inputs and cognitive demands of behaviorally differentiated workers is reflected in higher-order processing ability. We used the highly polymorphic ant Pheidole rhea, which has three distinct worker size classes - minors, soldiers, and supersoldiers - to examine variation in synaptic circuitry across worker size and social role...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623254/cd8-t-cells-and-nk-cells-parallel-and-complementary-soldiers-of-immunotherapy
#13
Jillian Rosenberg, Jun Huang
CD8+ T cells and NK cells are both cytotoxic effector cells of the immune system, but the recognition, specificity, sensitivity, and memory mechanisms are drastically different. While many of these topics have been extensively studied in CD8+ T cells, very little is known about NK cells. Current cancer immunotherapies mainly focus on CD8+ T cells, but have many issues of toxicity and efficacy. Given the heterogeneous nature of cancer, personalized cancer immunotherapy that integrates the power of both CD8+ T cells in adaptive immunity and NK cells in innate immunity might be the future direction, along with precision targeting and effective delivery of tumor-specific, memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621324/self-reported-musculoskeletal-complaints-and-injuries-and-exposure-of-physical-workload-in-swedish-soldiers-serving-in-afghanistan
#14
Alexandra Halvarsson, Ingela Hagman, Matthias Tegern, Lisbet Broman, Helena Larsson
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal complaints and injuries (MSCI) are common in military populations. However, only a limited number of studies have followed soldiers during international deployments and investigated the prevalence of MSCI during and at the end of their deployment. The aim was to describe the prevalence of MSCI in different military occupational specialties and categorise their most common tasks in terms of exposures to physical workloads during a six-month long international deployment in Afghanistan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618098/impact-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-disorder-on-sleep-and-comorbid-symptoms-in-military-personnel-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Daniel J Taylor, Alan L Peterson, Kristi E Pruiksma, Willie J Hale, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Allison Wilkerson, Karin Nicholson, Brett T Litz, Katherine A Dondanville, John D Roache, Elisa V Borah, Antoinette Brundige, Jim Mintz
Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) disorder and a Control condition on reducing insomnia and comorbid symptoms in a sample of active duty military personnel. Methods: Randomized clinical trial of 151 active duty US Army personnel at Fort Hood, Texas. Results: This study replicated Original (n = 66) findings (CBTi outperformed Control) in a Follow-on sample (n = 85) on diary-assessed sleep efficiency (d = 1...
March 29, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617949/re-deployment-and-preterm-birth-among-us-army-soldiers
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616376/chemical-fertility-signaling-in-termites-idiosyncrasies-and-commonalities-in-comparison-with-ants
#17
REVIEW
Judith Korb
Termites evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. As a common trait, reproductive monopoly is maintained through chemical communication. The queen (and in termites also a king) prevents workers from reproduction by conveying their reproductive status. In termites all soldiers are sterile, but workers' potential to reproduce differs between species. It ranges from totipotency in wood-dwelling lower termites where workers are a transient stage from which all other castes develop, to sterile workers in some higher termites...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615005/improving-risk-prediction-accuracy-for-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army-by-adding-self-report-survey-data-to-administrative-data
#18
Samantha L Bernecker, Anthony J Rosellini, Matthew K Nock, Wai Tat Chiu, Peter M Gutierrez, Irving Hwang, Thomas E Joiner, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: High rates of mental disorders, suicidality, and interpersonal violence early in the military career have raised interest in implementing preventive interventions with high-risk new enlistees. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS) developed risk-targeting systems for these outcomes based on machine learning methods using administrative data predictors. However, administrative data omit many risk factors, raising the question whether risk targeting could be improved by adding self-report survey data to prediction models...
April 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614459/height-in-eighteenth-century-chilean-men-evidence-from-military-records-1730-1800s
#19
Manuel Llorca-Jaña, Juan Navarrete-Montalvo, Federico Droller, Roberto Araya-Valenzuela
This article provides the first height estimates for the adult population for any period of Chilean history. Based on military records, it gives an analysis of the average heights of male soldiers in the last eight decades of the colonial period, c.1730-1800s. The average height of Chilean men was around 167 centimetres, making them on average taller than men from Mexico, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Venezuela, but of a similar height to men from Sweden. However, Chilean men were clearly shorter than men in neighbouring Argentina, the USA and the UK...
March 26, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614000/biomechanical-model-for-stress-fracture-related-factors-in-athletes-and-soldiers
#20
Amir Hadid, Yoram Epstein, Nogah Shabshin, Amit Gefen
Stress fractures (SFs) are one of the most common and potentially serious overuse injuries. PURPOSE: to develop a computational biomechanical model of strain in human tibial bone that will facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiology of SFs. METHODS: MRI of a healthy, young male, was used for full anatomical segmentation of the calf tissues, which considered hard-soft tissues biomechanical interactions. From the undeformed coronal MR images, the geometry of bones, muscles, connecting ligaments, and fat were reconstructed in three-dimensions, and meshed to a finite element model...
April 2, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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