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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043322/chirality-in-adsorption-on-solid-surfaces
#1
REVIEW
Francisco Zaera
In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level...
October 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043152/tattoos-as-a-window-to-the-psyche-how-talking-about-skin-art-can-inform-psychiatric-practice
#2
REVIEW
Hannah Roggenkamp, Andrew Nicholls, Joseph M Pierre
Tattooing the skin as a means of personal expression is a ritualized practice that has been around for centuries across many different cultures. Accordingly, the symbolic meaning of tattoos has evolved over time and is highly individualized, from both the internal perspective of the wearer and the external perspective of an observer. Within modern Western societies through the 1970s, tattoos represented a cultural taboo, typically associated with those outside of the mainstream such as soldiers, incarcerated criminals, gang members, and others belonging to marginalized and counter-cultural groups...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042341/pain-self-management-for-veterans-development-and-pilot-test-of-a-stage-based-mobile-optimized-intervention
#3
Sara S Johnson, Deborah A Levesque, Lynne E Broderick, Dustin G Bailey, Robert D Kerns
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a significant public health burden affecting more Americans than cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer combined. Veterans are disproportionately affected by chronic pain. Among previously deployed soldiers and veterans, the prevalence of chronic pain is estimated between 44% and 60%. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to develop and pilot-test Health eRide: Your Journey to Managing Pain, a mobile pain self-management program for chronic musculoskeletal pain for veterans...
October 17, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042033/serious-game-training-improves-performance-in-combat-life-saving-interventions
#4
Jerome Planchon, Anthony Vacher, Jeremy Comblet, Eric Rabatel, Françoise Darses, Alexandre Mignon, Pierre Pasquier
AIM: In modern warfare, almost 25% of combat-related deaths are considered preventable if life-saving interventions are performed. Therefore, Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training for soldiers is a major challenge. In 2014, the French Military Medical Service supported the development of 3D-SC1(®), a serious game designed for the French TCCC program, entitled Sauvetage au Combat de niveau 1 (SC1). Our study aimed to evaluate the impact on performance of additional training with 3D-SC1(®)...
October 12, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039285/prospective-risk-factors-for-post-deployment-heavy-drinking-and-alcohol-or-substance-use-disorder-among-us-army-soldiers
#5
Laura Campbell-Sills, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Xiaoying Sun, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Sonia Jain, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Investigations of drinking behavior across military deployment cycles are scarce, and few prospective studies have examined risk factors for post-deployment alcohol misuse. METHODS: Prevalence of alcohol misuse was estimated among 4645 US Army soldiers who participated in a longitudinal survey. Assessment occurred 1-2 months before soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 (T0), upon their return to the USA (T1), 3 months later (T2), and 9 months later (T3)...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036498/british-widows-of-the-south-african-war-and-the-origins-of-war-widows-pensions
#6
Eliza Riedi
The South African War of 1899-1902 cost the lives of 22,000 British and colonial soldiers and created almost 5,000 British war widows. It was in this context that the first state pensions for the widows of rank and file soldiers were introduced in 1901. Triggered by unexpectedly high casualty rates and widespread dissatisfaction with charitable provision, the introduction of state pensions also reflected changing public attitudes towards soldiers and their dependants in the context of an imperial war. Dismissed in the historiography as insignificant because of its low rates and restrictive eligibility clauses, the 1901 scheme in fact delivered pensions to the majority of war widows and made the Edwardian state their most important source of financial support...
September 23, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030028/-alberic-pont-the-great-war-and-the-broken-faces
#7
N Sigaux, M Amiel, S Piotrovitch d'Orlik, P Breton
The First World War and the number of facial injuries made specialized trauma centers necessary. Alberic Pont was trained both in medicine and dentistry. He founded in Lyon one of the first French specialized wards, which received more than 7000 soldiers overall. Through his charisma, his skills, his creativity and his generosity, he must be considered as a symbol among the pioneers of maxillo-facial surgery, which was then at its early stage. The centenary of World War I is the occasion to shed light on this man who dedicated his career to those who were renamed "broken faces"...
October 10, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026783/knowledge-and-practice-on-malaria-among-korean-soldiers-in-nearby-demilitarized-zone-in-south-korea
#8
Yeong Seon Hong, Dong-Kyu Lee, Jin-Han Yoon, Aeree Sohn
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to provide evidence for developing intervention and effective management for the prevention of malaria based on epidemiological analysis and assessment of Korean soldiers' knowledge on malaria and malaria preventive behavior. METHODS: The data were collected from 294 Korean soldiers nearby the demilitarized zone in Gyeonggi Province in 2016. Multiple regression analyses were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The level of education (β=...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024727/interspecific-comparison-of-mushroom-body-synaptic-complexes-of-dimorphic-workers-in-the-ant-genus-pheidole
#9
Darcy G Gordon, Alejandra Zelaya, Katherine Ronk, James F A Traniello
Social insects may have morphologically and behaviorally specialized workers that vary in requirements for sensory information processing, making them excellent systems to examine the relationship between brain structure and behavior. The density and size of synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom bodies (MB) have served as proxies for processing ability and synaptic plasticity have been shown to vary among insect species that differ in behavioral complexity. To understand the relationship between behavioral specialization and synaptic structure, we examined age-related changes in MG density and size between minor worker and soldier subcastes in two species of Pheidole ants, P...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024363/prevalence-predictors-and-correlates-of-insomnia-in-us-army-soldiers
#10
Elizabeth A Klingaman, Janeese A Brownlow, Elaine M Boland, Caterina Mosti, Philip R Gehrman
The objective of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors and correlates of insomnia in a national sample of US Army soldiers. Data were gathered from the cross-sectional survey responses of the All-Army Study, of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. Participants were a representative sample of 21 499 US Army soldiers who responded to the All-Army Study self-administered questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Insomnia was defined by selected DSM-5 criteria using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023929/friendship-in-war-camaraderie-and-prevention-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-prevention
#11
Michael D Nevarez, Hannah M Yee, Robert J Waldinger
Aspects of social support during combat deployment, such as unit cohesion, have been shown to affect later posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development among veterans. We utilized a longitudinal database to assess how relationship quality with fellow soldiers in World War II (WWII) might be linked with postwar PTSD symptoms. Data were available on 101 men who experienced combat exposure in WWII, documented through postwar assessment. Upon study entry (1939 to 1942), data were collected on the quality of participants' early childhood relationships and their emotional adjustment during college...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023364/feature-weight-driven-interactive-mutual-information-modeling-for-heterogeneous-bio-signal-fusion-to-estimate-mental-workload
#12
Pengbo Zhang, Xue Wang, Junfeng Chen, Wei You
Many people suffer from high mental workload which may threaten human health and cause serious accidents. Mental workload estimation is especially important for particular people such as pilots, soldiers, crew and surgeons to guarantee the safety and security. Different physiological signals have been used to estimate mental workload based on the n-back task which is capable of inducing different mental workload levels. This paper explores a feature weight driven signal fusion method and proposes interactive mutual information modeling (IMIM) to increase the mental workload classification accuracy...
October 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020561/saving-life-limb-and-eyesight-assessing-the-medical-rules-of-eligibility-during-armed-conflict
#13
Michael L Gross
Medical rules of eligibility permit severely injured Iraqi and Afghan nationals to receive care in Coalition medical facilities only if bed space is available and their injuries result directly from Coalition fire. The first rule favors Coalition soldiers over host-nation nationals and contradicts the principle of impartial, needs-based medical care. To justify preferential care for compatriots, wartime medicine invokes associative obligations of care that favor friends, family, and comrades-in-arms. Associative obligations have little place in peacetime medical care but significantly affect wartime medicine...
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020553/physician-soldier-navigating-the-tension-between-military-and-medical-necessity
#14
Michael D April, Carolyn W April, Chetan U Kharod
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020197/sickle-cell-trait-and-heat-injury-among-u-s-army-soldiers
#15
D Alan Nelson, Patricia A Deuster, Francis G O'Connor, Lianne M Kurina
There is concern that sickle cell trait increases risk of exertional collapse, a primary cause of which is heat injury. However, no population-based studies among active individuals have addressed this, representing a critical evidence gap. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of sickle cell trait-tested African American soldiers on active-duty in the U.S. Army anytime between January 2011 and December 2014. Using Cox proportional hazards models and adjusting for demographic and medical factors, we observed no significant associations between sickle cell trait and either mild heat injury (hazard ratio (HR), 1...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018394/distress-levels-among-parents-of-active-duty-soldiers-during-wartime
#16
Shahar Bitton, Rivka Tuval-Mashiach, Sara Freedman
Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents' experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study's goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014. Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers) completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5) and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016337/the-multifactorial-epidemiology-of-blackwater-fever
#17
G Dennis Shanks
Blackwater fever is a massive hemolytic event usually occurring in the context of repeated falciparum malaria infections and intermittent quinine use. Its etiology is poorly understood, and it is rarely seen today. Historical epidemiological observations from the 20th century demonstrated variable patterns in prisoners in Andaman Islands, refugees in Macedonia, canal workers in Panama, expatriates in Rhodesia, and Second World War soldiers. Rates of blackwater fever per 1,000 malaria cases varied over two orders of magnitude...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016274/mind-the-hype-a-critical-evaluation-and-prescriptive-agenda-for-research-on-mindfulness-and-meditation
#18
Nicholas T Van Dam, Marieke K van Vugt, David R Vago, Laura Schmalzl, Clifford D Saron, Andrew Olendzki, Ted Meissner, Sara W Lazar, Catherine E Kerr, Jolie Gorchov, Kieran C R Fox, Brent A Field, Willoughby B Britton, Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, David E Meyer
During the past two decades, mindfulness meditation has gone from being a fringe topic of scientific investigation to being an occasional replacement for psychotherapy, tool of corporate well-being, widely implemented educational practice, and "key to building more resilient soldiers." Yet the mindfulness movement and empirical evidence supporting it have not gone without criticism. Misinformation and poor methodology associated with past studies of mindfulness may lead public consumers to be harmed, misled, and disappointed...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016155/association-of-posttraumatic-nightmares-and-psychopathology-in-a-military-sample
#19
Thérèse de Dassel, Lutz Wittmann, Sonja Protic, Helge Höllmer, Robert J Gorzka
Nightmares are among the most frequent and disturbing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, basic research questions regarding key associations between certain nightmare characteristics, especially replicativeness, and posttraumatic psychopathology need further empirical elaboration. Sixty-two German soldiers (mean age 33.8 years, 17.7% females) admitted to a hospital-based treatment program for veterans completed extensive assessments consisting of clinical interviews and self-rating measures with respect to sociodemographic characteristics and psychopathology as well as dream-related variables...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993756/trench-foot-or-non-freezing-cold-injury-as-a-painful-vaso-neuropathy-clinical-and-skin-biopsy-assessments
#20
Praveen Anand, Rosario Privitera, Yiangos Yiangou, Philippe Donatien, Rolfe Birch, Peter Misra
BACKGROUND: Trench foot, or non-freezing cold injury (NFCI), results from cold exposure of sufficient severity and duration above freezing point, with consequent sensory and vascular abnormalities which may persist for years. Based on observations of Trench foot in World War II, the condition was described as a vaso-neuropathy. While some reports have documented nerve damage after extreme cold exposure, sensory nerve fibres and vasculature have not been assessed with recent techniques in NFCI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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