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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914143/urologic-diseases-in-korean-military-population-a-6-year-epidemiological-review-of-medical-records
#1
Se Young Choi, Chang Gyo Yoon
We sought to describe the incidence rate of the urologic disease in the Korean military by reviewing diagnoses made in active duty soldiers from 2008 to 2013. A total of 72,248 first visits were generated in the Defense Medical Statistics Information System (DMSIS) with its gradually increasing trend over 6 years. A sharp increase of first visit was observed after implementation of the regular health check-up for all conscripted soldiers since 2013. Urolithiasis, prostatitis, epididymoorchitis, urethritis, and varicocele were prevalent...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905220/development-of-an-auditory-situation-awareness-test-battery-for-advanced-hearing-protectors-and-tcaps-detection-subtest-of-drilcom-detection-recognition-identification-localization-communication
#2
Kichol Lee, John G Casali
OBJECTIVE: To design a test battery and conduct a proof-of-concept experiment of a test method that can be used to measure the detection performance afforded by military advanced hearing protection devices (HPDs) and tactical communication and protective systems (TCAPS). DESIGN: The detection test was conducted with each of the four loudspeakers located at front, right, rear and left of the participant. Participants wore 2 in-ear-type TCAPS, 1 earmuff-type TCAPS, a passive Combat Arms Earplug in its "open" or pass-through setting and an EB-15LE™ electronic earplug...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897318/medically-documented-suicide-ideation-among-u-s-army-soldiers
#3
Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Murray B Stein, James A Naifeh, Matthew K Nock, Pablo A Aliaga, Carol S Fullerton, Gary H Wynn, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Hieu M Dinh, Nancy A Sampson, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Michael Schoenbaum, James E McCarroll, Kenneth L Cox, Steven G Heeringa
We used administrative data to examine predictors of medically documented suicide ideation (SI) among Regular Army soldiers from 2006 through 2009 (N = 10,466 ideators, 124,959 control person-months). Enlisted ideators (97.8% of all cases) were more likely than controls to be female, younger, older when entering service, less educated, never or previously deployed, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Officer ideators were more likely than controls to be female, younger, younger when entering service, never married, and have a recent mental health diagnosis...
November 29, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893035/suicide-attempts-among-us-army-soldiers
#4
Xiulu Ruan, Srinivas Chiravuri, Alan D Kaye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893022/suicide-attempts-among-us-army-soldiers-reply
#5
Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Murray B Stein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891109/pulling-rank-military-rank-affects-hormone-levels-and-fairness-in-an-allocation-experiment
#6
Benjamin Siart, Lena S Pflüger, Bernard Wallner
Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890664/do-alcohol-based-hand-rubs-reduce-the-incidence-of-acute-diarrhea-during-military-deployments-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#7
Tiphanie Succo, Franck De Laval, Sébastien Sicard, Didier Belleoud, Catherine Marimoutou, Aurélie Mayet, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Rémy Michel
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea remains a public health concern in armed forces deployed in tropical areas where access to water and soap is limited. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) on incidence of diarrhea in poor hygiene conditions. METHOD: A prospective randomized trial was conducted between November 2014 and January 2015 among French military troops deployed in Africa to compare a group of soldiers receiving usual hand hygiene recommendations (control group), to a group of soldiers who received ABHR in addition to usual hand hygiene recommendations (intervention group)...
November 23, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885790/hardiness-avoidance-coping-and-alcohol-consumption-in-war-veterans-a-moderated-mediation-study
#8
Paul T Bartone, Bjorn H Johnsen, Jarle Eid, Sigurd W Hystad, Jon C Laberg
Military personnel often engage in excessive alcohol use after returning from deployments. Thus far, research has paid scant attention to personality factors that may increase or diminish the risk for increased alcohol consumption in this population. The present study explores how psychological hardiness, avoidance coping, and stress exposure may interact to influence alcohol consumption patterns in soldiers following deployment. U.S. Army National Guard soldiers (N = 357) were surveyed shortly after returning from combat operations in Afghanistan...
November 24, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885651/barossa-night-cohesion-in-the-british-army-officer-corps
#9
Patrick Bury
Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period...
November 25, 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884941/developing-predictive-models-for-return-to-work-using-the-military-power-performance-and-prevention-mp3-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-algorithm-a-study-protocol-for-an-injury-risk-assessment-programme
#10
Daniel I Rhon, Deydre S Teyhen, Scott W Shaffer, Stephen L Goffar, Kyle Kiesel, Phil P Plisky
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are a primary source of disability in the US Military, and low back pain and lower extremity injuries account for over 44% of limited work days annually. History of prior musculoskeletal injury increases the risk for future injury. This study aims to determine the risk of injury after returning to work from a previous injury. The objective is to identify criteria that can help predict likelihood for future injury or re-injury. METHODS: There will be 480 active duty soldiers recruited from across four medical centres...
November 24, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884191/gender-differences-in-load-carriage-injuries-of-australian-army-soldiers
#11
Robin Marc Orr, Rodney Pope
BACKGROUND: With the removal of gender restrictions and the changing nature of warfare potentially increasing female soldier exposure to heavy military load carriage, the aim of this research was to determine relative risks and patterns of load carriage related injuries in female compared to male soldiers. METHODS: The Australian Defence Force Occupational Health, Safety and Compensation Analysis and Reporting workplace injury database was searched to identify all reported load carriage injuries...
November 25, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883222/alcohol-misuse-and-co-occurring-mental-disorders-among-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army
#12
Murray B Stein, Laura Campbell-Sills, Joel Gelernter, Feng He, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler, Robert J Ursano
BACKGROUND: Problem drinking that predates enlistment into military service may contribute to the overall burden of alcohol misuse in the Armed Forces; however, evidence bearing on this issue is limited. This study examines prevalence and correlates of alcohol misuse among new U.S. Army soldiers. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from soldiers reporting for basic combat training. The survey retrospectively assessed lifetime alcohol consumption and substance abuse/dependence, enabling estimation of the prevalence of lifetime binge drinking and heavy drinking in a sample of 30,583 soldiers and of probable alcohol use disorder (AUD) among 26,754 soldiers with no/minimal lifetime use of other drugs...
November 24, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883207/interpersonal-psychological-theory-alexithymia-and-personality-predict-suicide-ideation-among-maladjusted-soldiers-in-taiwan
#13
Kai-Cheng Huang, Dong-Sheng Tzeng, Chi-Hung Lin, Wei-Ching Chung
This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events...
November 24, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880039/importance-of-external-cause-coding-for-injury-surveillance-lessons-from-assessment-of-overexertion-injuries-among-u-s-army-soldiers-in-2014
#14
Michelle Canham-Chervak, Ryan A Steelman, Anna Schuh, Bruce H Jones
Injuries are a barrier to military medical readiness, and overexertion has historically been a leading mechanism of injury among active duty U.S. Army soldiers. Details are needed to inform prevention planning. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was queried for unique medical encounters among active duty Army soldiers consistent with the military injury definition and assigned an overexertion external cause code (ICD-9: E927.0-E927.9) in 2014 (n=21,891). Most (99.7%) were outpatient visits and 60% were attributed specifically to sudden strenuous movement...
November 2016: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878068/genome-methylation-patterns-across-castes-and-generations-in-a-parasitoid-wasp
#15
Roei Shaham, Rachel Ben-Shlomo, Uzi Motro, Tamar Keasar
Environmental influences shape phenotypes within and across generations, often through DNA methylations that modify gene expression. Methylations were proposed to mediate caste and task allocation in some eusocial insects, but how an insect's environment affects DNA methylation in its offspring is yet unknown. We characterized parental effects on methylation profiles in the polyembryonic parasitoid wasp Copidosoma koehleri, as well as methylation patterns associated with its simple caste system. We used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) to compare methylation patterns, among (1) reproductive and soldier larvae; and (2) offspring (larvae, pupae, and adults) of wasps that were reared at either high or low larval density and mated in the four possible combinations...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867878/prevalence-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-dysfunction-in-patients-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
K V S Hari Kumar, M N Swamy, M A Khan
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young soldiers of armed forces leading to significant morbidity and mortality. We studied the prevalence of hypopituitarism following TBI and its association with trauma severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective study of 56 TBI patients for the presence of hormonal dysfunction. Hormonal parameters were estimated during the early phase (0-10 days posttraumatically) and after 6 and 12 months...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867434/exploring-the-neurocircuitry-underpinning-predictability-of-threat-in-soldiers-with-ptsd-compared-to-deployment-exposed-controls
#17
Michael N Dretsch, Kimberly H Wood, Thomas A Daniel, Jeffrey S Katz, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Adam M Goodman, Muriah D Wheelock, Kayli B Wood, Thomas S Denney, Stephanie Traynham, David C Knight
BACKGROUND: Prior work examining emotional dysregulation observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has primarily been limited to fear-learning processes specific to anticipation, habituation, and extinction of threat. In contrast, the response to threat itself has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential disruption in fear conditioning neurocircuitry in service members with PTSD, specifically in response to predictable versus unpredictable threats...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859610/exploring-reliability-and-validity-of-the-deployment-risk-and-resilience-inventory-2-among-a-nonclinical-sample-of-discharged-soldiers-following-mandatory-military-service
#18
Hagai Maoz, Yiftach Goldwin, Yael Doreen Lewis, Yuval Bloch
The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory (DRRI) is a widely used questionnaire assessing deployment-related risk and resilience factors among war veterans. Its successor, the DRRI-2, has only been validated and used among veterans deployed for overseas military missions, but because many countries still enforce compulsory military service, validating it among nonclinical samples of healthy discharged soldiers following mandatory service is also a necessity. In the current study, a sample of 101 discharged Israeli soldiers (39 males, 62 females; mean time since discharge 13...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857960/heat-strain-during-military-training-activities-the-dilemma-of-balancing-force-protection-and-operational-capability
#19
Andrew P Hunt, Daniel C Billing, Mark J Patterson, Joanne N Caldwell
Military activities in hot environments pose 2 competing demands: the requirement to perform realistic training to develop operational capability with the necessity to protect armed forces personnel against heat-related illness. To ascertain whether work duration limits for protection against heat-related illness restrict military activities, this study examined the heat strain and risks of heat-related illness when conducting a military activity above the prescribed work duration limits. Thirty-seven soldiers conducted a march (10 km; ∼5...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854533/tuberculosis-screening-and-control-in-the-us-military-in-war-and-peace
#20
James D Mancuso
Tuberculosis (TB) has a well-established association with military populations, but the association of increased TB risk during armed conflict is less certain. This historical review focuses on the evolution of screening practices, the changing epidemiology of TB, and the risk of TB among US military service members during armed conflict from 1885 to the present. Overall, deployed soldiers were not at increased risk for TB compared with nondeployed soldiers in any of these conflicts, and the risk of TB in the US military largely reflected that of the underlying US population...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
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