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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535664/characterization-of-alphax-i-domain-binding-to-receptors-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-rage
#1
Dolgorsuren Buyannemekh, Sang-Uk Nham
The b2 integrins are cell surface transmembrane proteins regulating leukocyte functions, such as adhesion and migration. Two members of b2 integrin, aMb2 and aXb2, share the leukocyte distribution profile and integrin aXb2 is involved in antigen presentation in dendritic cells and transendothelial migration of monocytes and macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of cell adhesion molecules, plays an important role in chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis...
May 24, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535614/elucidating-bottlenecks-of-the-efficient-preparation-of-an-ab5-hexamer-mucosal-adjuvant-protein-ltm-by-genetic-engineering
#2
Di Liu, Fabiao Hu, Wenpeng Wang, Dong Wu, Xiujuan He, Wenyun Zheng, Haipeng Liu, Xingyuan Ma
Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and its non-toxic mutant (LTm) are well-known powerful mucosal adjuvants and immunogens. However, the yields of these adjuvants from genetically engineered strains remain at extremely low levels, thereby hindering their extensive application in fundamental and clinical research. Therefore, efficient production of these adjuvant proteins from genetically engineered microbes is a huge challenge in the field of molecular biology. In order to explore expression bottlenecks of LTm in E...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535613/expression-and-purification-of-biologically-active-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-in-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#3
Minyub Cha, Nara Han, Jia Pi, Yongsu Jeong, Kwanghee Baek, Jaeseung Yoon
Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is considered to have therapeutic potential for various diseases including cancers; however, the high expression of biologically active recombinant human BMP-4 (rhBMP-4) needed to manufacture rhBMP-4 for therapeutic purposes has yet to be established. In the current study, we established a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell line overexpressing rhBMP-4 as well as a production process using 7.5-l bioreactor (5 l working volume). The expression of the mature rhBMP-4 was significantly enhanced by recombinant furin expression...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535469/novel-propanamides-as-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitors
#4
Alessandro Deplano, Carmine Marco Morgillo, Monica Demurtas, Emmelie Björklund, Mariateresa Cipriano, Mona Svensson, Sanaz Hashemian, Giovanni Smaldone, Emilia Pedone, F Javier Luque, Maria G Cabiddu, Ettore Novellino, Christopher J Fowler, Bruno Catalanotti, Valentina Onnis
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has a key role in the control of the cannabinoid signaling, through the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoids anandamide and in some tissues 2-arachidonoylglycerol. FAAH inhibition represents a promising strategy to activate the cannabinoid system, since it does not result in the psychotropic and peripheral side effects characterizing the agonists of the cannabinoid receptors. Here we present the discovery of a novel class of profen derivatives, the N-(heteroaryl)-2-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)propanamides, as FAAH inhibitors...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535436/microcystin-lr-induces-changes-in-the-gaba-neurotransmitter-system-of-zebrafish
#5
Wei Yan, Li Li, Guangyu Li, Sujuan Zhao
It has been reported that exposure to microcystins altered adult zebrafish swimming performance parameters, but the possible mechanisms of action remain unknown. Neuronal activity depends on the balance between the number of excitatory and inhibitory processes which are associated with neurotransmitters. In the present study, zebrafish embryos (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L (microcystin-LR) MCLR for 90day until reaching sexual maturity. To investigate the effects of MCLR on the neurotransmitter system, mRNA levels involved in amino acid g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate metabolic pathways were tested using quantitative real-time PCR...
May 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535416/the-role-of-timing-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#6
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
Regeneration failure after primary spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to diverse clinical complications in a severity- and level of SCI-dependent manner. The cost of treating both of them (initial regeneration failure and following complications) would be prohibitive, particularly in less developed nations. The well-recognized circumstances arose from primary SCI include excitotoxicity and inflammation. SCI increases concentrations of extracellular amino acids (EAAs) in the severity-dependent manner and the maximum level of EAAs at the injury site will be reduced by distance from the injury site...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535307/intergenerational-impact-of-paternal-lifetime-exposures-to-both-folic-acid-deficiency-and-supplementation-on-reproductive-outcomes-and-imprinted-gene-methylation
#7
Lundi Ly, Donovan Chan, Mahmoud Aarabi, Mylène Landry, Nathalie A Behan, Amanda J MacFarlane, Jacquetta Trasler
STUDY QUESTION: Do paternal exposures to folic acid deficient (FD), and/or folic acid supplemented (FS) diets, throughout germ cell development adversely affect male germ cells and consequently offspring health outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Male mice exposed over their lifetimes to both FD and FS diets showed decreased sperm counts and altered imprinted gene methylation with evidence of transmission of adverse effects to the offspring, including increased postnatal-preweaning mortality and variability in imprinted gene methylation...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535274/development-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-is-associated-with-oprd-polymorphisms-particularly-the-amino-acid-substitution-at-codon-170
#8
Jwu-Ching Shu, An-Jing Kuo, Lin-Hui Su, Tsui-Ping Liu, Ming-Hsun Lee, I-Ning Su, Tsu-Lan Wu
Objectives: Pan-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSPA) clinical isolates carrying an OprD with loop 7 shortening (the group-1A allele) were found to rapidly develop carbapenem resistance under continuous selection pressure. We further studied whether OprD polymorphisms are associated with the potential to develop carbapenem resistance. Methods: OprD amino acid sequences of 126 PSPA clinical isolates were analysed to determine their STs using P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 as the control strain...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535034/p450-mediated-non-natural-cyclopropanation-of-dehydro-alanine-containing-thiopeptides
#9
Joshua G Gober, Swapnil V Ghodge, Jonathan W Bogart, Walter J Wever, Richard R Watkins, Eric M Brustad, Albert A Bowers
Thiopeptides are a growing class of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products. Many biosynthetic enzymes for RiPPs, especially thiopeptides, are promiscuous and can accept a wide range of peptide substrates with different amino acid sequence; thus, these enzymes have been used as tools to generate new natural product derivatives. Here, we explore an alternative route to molecular complexity by engineering thiopeptide tailoring enzymes to do new or non-native chemistry...
May 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534993/analysis-of-the-cdr3-length-repertoire-and-the-diversity-of-t-cell-receptor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-chains-in-swine-cd4-and-cd8-t-lymphocytes
#10
Chun-Yan Wang, Yong-Xiang Fang, Guo-Hua Chen, Huai-Jie Jia, Shuang Zeng, Xiao-Bing He, Yuan Feng, Shou-Jie Li, Qi-Wang Jin, Wen-Yu Cheng, Zhi-Zhong Jing
The T cell receptor (TCR) is a complex heterodimer that recognizes fragments of antigens as peptides and binds to major histocompatibility complex molecules. The TCR α and β chains possess three hypervariable regions termed complementarity determining regions (CDR1, 2 and 3). CDR3 is responsible for recognizing processed antigen peptides. Immunoscope spectratyping is a simple technique for analyzing CDR3 polymorphisms and sequence length diversity, in order to investigate T cell function and the pattern of TCR utilization...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534849/evaluation-and-comparison-of-the-pathogenicity-and-host-immune-responses-induced-by-a-g2b-taiwan-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strain-pintung-52-and-its-highly-cell-culture-passaged-strain-in-conventional-5-week-old-pigs
#11
Yen-Chen Chang, Chi-Fei Kao, Chia-Yu Chang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Victor Fei Pang, Hue-Ying Chiou, Ju-Yi Peng, Ivan-Chen Cheng, Hui-Wen Chang
A genogroup 2b (G2b) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain was isolated in 2014. The pathogenicity and host antibody responses elicited by low-passage (passage 5; PEDVPT-P5) and high-passage (passage 96; PEDVPT-P96) PEDVPT strains were compared in post-weaning PEDV-seronegative pigs by oral inoculation. PEDVPT-P5-inoculation induced typical diarrhea during 1-9 days post inoculation with fecal viral shedding persisting for 26 days. Compared to PEDVPT-P5, PEDVPT-P96 inoculation induced none-to-mild diarrhea and lower, delayed fecal viral shedding...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534829/variation-in-the-genetic-repertoire-of-viruses-infecting-micromonas-pusilla-reflects-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-links-to-their-environmental-distribution
#12
Jan F Finke, Danielle M Winget, Amy M Chan, Curtis A Suttle
Prasinophytes, a group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has a global distribution and is infected by large double-stranded DNA viruses (prasinoviruses) in the family Phycodnaviridae. This study examines the genetic repertoire, phylogeny, and environmental distribution of phycodnaviruses infecting Micromonas pusilla, other prasinophytes and chlorophytes. Based on comparisons among the genomes of viruses infecting M. pusilla and other phycodnaviruses, as well as the genome from a host isolate of M. pusilla, viruses infecting M...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534738/optocontrol-of-glutamate-receptor-activity-by-single-side-chain-photoisomerization
#13
Viktoria Klippenstein, Christian Hoppmann, Shixin Ye, Lei Wang, Pierre Paoletti
Engineering light-sensitivity into proteins has wide ranging applications in molecular studies and neuroscience. Commonly used tethered photoswitchable ligands, however, require solvent-accessible protein labeling, face structural constrains, and are bulky. Here, we designed a set of optocontrollable NMDA receptors by directly incorporating single photoswitchable amino acids (PSAAs) providing genetic encodability, reversibility, and site tolerance. We identified several positions within the multi-domain receptor endowing robust photomodulation...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534613/flashbody-a-next-generation-fluobody-with-fluorescence-intensity-enhanced-by-antigen-binding
#14
Devina Wongso, Jinhua Dong, Hiroshi Ueda, Tetsuya Kitaguchi
Fluorescent probes are valuable tools for visualizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of molecules in living cells. Here we developed a genetically-encoded antibody probe with antigen-dependent fluorescence intensity called "Flashbody". We first created a fusion of EGFP to the single chain variable region fragment (scFv) of antibody against seven amino acids of the bone Gla protein C-terminus (BGPC7) called BGP Fluobody, which successfully showed the intracellular localization of BGPC7-tagged protein. To generate BGP Flashbody, circularly permuted GFP was inserted in between two variable region fragments, and the linkers were optimized, resulting in fluorescence intensity increase of 300% upon binding with BGPC7 in a dose-dependent manner...
May 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534491/structural-basis-for-perception-of-diverse-chemical-substances-by-t1r-taste-receptors
#15
Nipawan Nuemket, Norihisa Yasui, Yuko Kusakabe, Yukiyo Nomura, Nanako Atsumi, Shuji Akiyama, Eriko Nango, Yukinari Kato, Mika K Kaneko, Junichi Takagi, Maiko Hosotani, Atsuko Yamashita
The taste receptor type 1 (T1r) family perceives 'palatable' tastes. These receptors function as T1r2-T1r3 and T1r1-T1r3 heterodimers to recognize a wide array of sweet and umami (savory) tastes in sugars and amino acids. Nonetheless, it is unclear how diverse tastes are recognized by so few receptors. Here we present crystal structures of the extracellular ligand-binding domains (LBDs), the taste recognition regions of the fish T1r2-T1r3 heterodimer, bound to different amino acids. The ligand-binding pocket in T1r2LBD is rich in aromatic residues, spacious and accommodates hydrated percepts...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534466/validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-balenine-ophidine-in-whale
#16
Stig Valdersnes, Anita Birkenes, Livar Froyland
<p>The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the determination of balenine/ophidine (hereafter referred to as “balenine”) in whale extracts and muscle samples from Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Further, the goal was to evaluate the method's applicability for the determination of other histidine-containing dipeptides (HCDs): anserine and carnosine and their amino acids π-methylhistidine, τ-methylhistidine, histidine, and β-alanine. For balenine, the LOD and LOQ were found to be 0...
May 22, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534307/acanthus-ilicifolius-l-a-promising-candidate-for-phytostabilization-of-zinc
#17
A M Shackira, Jos T Puthur, E Nabeesa Salim
The potential of a halophyte species-Acanthus ilicifolius L.-to phytostabilize zinc (Zn) grown under hydroponics culture conditions was critically evaluated in this study. The propagules after treating with ZnSO4 (4 mM) were analysed for the bioaccumulation pattern, translocation rate of Zn to the shoot, effects of Zn accumulation on organic solutes and the antioxidant defence system. It was found that most of the Zn absorbed by the plant was retained in the root (47%) and only a small portion was transported to stem (12%) and leaves (11%)...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534196/in-silico-analysis-of-shiga-toxins-stxs-to-identify-new-potential-vaccine-targets-for-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#18
Maryam Golshani, Mana Oloomi, Saeid Bouzari
Shiga toxins belong to a family of structurally and functionally related toxins serving as the main virulence factors for pathogenicity of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associating with Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). At present, there is no effective treatment or prevention for HUS. The aim of the present study was to find conserved regions within the amino acid sequences of Stx1, Stx2 (Shiga toxin) and their variants. In this regard, In-silico identification of conformational continuous B cell and T-cell epitopes was performed in order to introduce new potential vaccine candidates...
December 2016: In Silico Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534180/the-c-terminal-kinesin-motor-kifc1-may-participate-in-nuclear-reshaping-and-flagellum-formation-during-spermiogenesis-of-larimichthys-crocea
#19
Dan-Dan Zhang, Xin-Ming Gao, Yong-Qiang Zhao, Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Spermatogenesis is a highly ordered process in the differentiation of male germ cells. Nuclear morphogenesis is one of the most fundamental cellular transformations to take place during spermatogenesis. These striking transformations from spermatogonia to spermatozoa are a result of phase-specific adaption of the cytoskeleton and its association with molecular motor proteins. KIFC1 is a C-terminal kinesin motor protein that plays an essential role in acrosome formation and nuclear reshaping during spermiogenesis in mammals...
May 23, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534113/cysteine-rich-low-molecular-weight-antimicrobial-peptides-from-brevibacillus-and-related-genera-for-biotechnological-applications
#20
REVIEW
Piyush Baindara, Anoop Kapoor, Suresh Korpole, Vishakha Grover
The production of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is an innate immunity trait of all life forms including eukaryotes and prokaryotes. While these AMPs are usually called as defensins in eukaryotes, they are known as bacteriocins in prokaryotes. Bacteriocins are more diverse AMPs considering their varied composition and posttranslational modifications. Accordingly, this review is focused on cysteine-rich AMPs resembling eukaryotic defensins such as laterosporulin from Brevibacillus spp. and associated peptides secreted by the members of related genera...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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