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Amino acid

Yilun Deng, Yuejuan Qin, Subramanya Srikantan, Anqi Luo, Zi-Ming Cheng, Shahida K Flores, Kris S Vogel, Exing Wang, Patricia L M Dahia
The TMEM127 tumor suppressor gene encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function mutated in pheochromocytomas and, rarely, in renal cancers. Tumors with inactivating TMEM127 mutations have increased mTORC1 signaling by undefined mechanisms. Here we report that TMEM127 interacts with the lysosome-anchored complex comprised of Rag GTPases, the LAMTOR pentamer (or 'ragulator') and vATPase, which controls amino acid-mediated mTORC1 activation. We found that in nutrient-rich conditions TMEM127 expression reduces mTORC1 recruitment to Rags...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Waleed K Mohammed, Natalio Krasnogor, Nicholas S Jakubovics
The ability of microorganisms to regulate gene expression is thought to be critical for survival and growth during the development of polymicrobial biofilms such as dental plaque. The commensal dental plaque colonizer, Streptococcus gordonii, responds to cell-cell contact (coaggregation) with Actinomyces oris by regulating > 20 genes, including those involved in arginine biosynthesis. We hypothesized that an S. gordonii extracellular protease is critical for sensing by providing amino acids that modulate gene expression...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yidi Sheng, Huiyuan Xiao, Chunli Guo, Hong Wu, Xiaojing Wang
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, often accumulates in plants exposed to certain environmental stimuli. Previous studies indicated that a closed relationship existed between endogenous GABA and seed germination. However, there are few studies on the effect of exogenous GABA on seed germination. The objective of this study was to explore whether exogenous GABA affected α-amylase activity which the activation is an important stage in seed germination. The level of endogenous GABA in barley seeds rose gradually during germination, suggesting that endogenous GABA was involved in germination...
March 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Martin Bachmann, Aniko Czetö, Kristin Romanowski, Andreas Vernunft, Monika Wensch-Dorendorf, Petra Wolf, Cornelia C Metges, Annette Zeyner
Postprandial alterations of plasma amino acid (PAA) levels partly reflect a temporal contribution of the feed. How cereal grains affect PAA levels is not known. We hypothesized that a meal of cereal grains causes a temporal increase of PAA, affected by grain species, grain genotype and meal size. Six mares were used in three consecutive trials, receiving four oats, barley and maize genotypes, respectively. Individual grain genotypes were provided as 3 meal sizes corresponding to 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 g starch/kg body weight...
March 13, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Mitchell R White, Ruth Kandel, I-Ni Hsieh, Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein (βA) can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses. We reported that the 42 amino acid βA protein inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and modulates activation of neutrophils and monocytes exposed IAV. We here show that fragments composed of the N and C terminal domain of βA42, including βA22-42 and the 8 amino acid βA35-42, retain viral neutralizing and viral aggregating activity, whereas fragments lacking the C-terminal amino acids 41 and 42 (e...
2018: PloS One
Zanxia Cao, Yunqiang Bian, Guodong Hu, Liling Zhao, Zhenzhen Kong, Yuedong Yang, Jihua Wang, Yaoqi Zhou
Thermodynamics of the permeation of amino acids from water to lipid bilayers is an important first step for understanding the mechanism of cell-permeating peptides and the thermodynamics of membrane protein structure and stability. In this work, we employed bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to simulate the membrane permeation of all 20 amino acids from water to the center of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane (consists of 256 lipids) by using both directional and torsion angles for conformational sampling...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kavita Nair, Ahmad Iskandarani, Roda Al-Thani, Ramzi Mohammad, Samir Jaoua
Cyt1A protein is a cytolytic protein encoded by the cyt gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) as part of the parasporal crystal proteins produced during the sporulation. Cyt1A protein is unique compared to the other endotoxins present in these parasporal crystals. Unlike δ-endotoxins, Cyt1A protein does not require receptors to bind to the target cell and activate the toxicity. It has the ability to affect a broad range of cell types and organisms, due to this characteristic. Cyt1A has been recognized to not only target the insect cells directly, but also recruit other endotoxins by acting as receptors...
March 16, 2018: Toxins
Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Barbara Bassi, Giacomo Dacarro, Pietro Galinetto, Enrico Giulotto, Nicoletta Marchesi, Piersandro Pallavicini, Alessia Pascale, Stefano Perversi, Angelo Taglietti
The last decade came across an increasing demand of theranostic biocompatible nanodevices, possessing the double ability of diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we report the design, synthesis and step-by-step characterization of rationally coated gold nanostars (GNS) for SERS imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of HeLa cancer cells. The nanodevice was realized synthesizing GNS with a seed-growth approach, coating them with a controlled mixture of thiols composed of a Raman reporter and a polyethylenglicol with a terminal amino group, and then reacting these amino groups with Folic Acid (FA), in order to impart selectivity towards cancer cells which overexpress folate receptors on their membranes...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Valerie Jeanneret, Juan P Ospina, Ariel Diaz, Luis G Manrique, Paola Merino, Laura Gutierrez, Enrique Torre, Fang Wu, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes
Cerebral ischemia causes the presynaptic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a postsynaptic structure that provides a matrix where signaling transduction of excitatory synapses takes place. The postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is the most abundant scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD), where it modulates the postsynaptic response to the presynaptic release of glutamate by regulating the anchoring of glutamate receptors to the PSD. We found that tPA induces the local translation of PSD-95 mRNA and the subsequent recruitment of PSD-95 protein to the PSD, via plasminogen-independent activation of TrkB receptors...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Santosh R Alluri, Patrick J Riss
A variety of substituted non-racemic aziridine-2-carboxylates equivalent to amino acids were prepared and subjected to ring opening reaction by [18F/19F]fluoride. The regio and stereospecific ring opening depends on the substituents on the nitrogen as well as both the carbons of aziridines. The applicability of the methods to afford access to 3-[18F/19F]fluoro amino acids are illustrated.
March 16, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Noorakmar Jusoh, Hasanuddin Zainal, Azzmer Azzar Abdul Hamid, Noraslinda M Bunnori, Khairul Bariyyah Abd Halim, Shafida Abd Hamid
Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop new anti-influenza drugs. Here, we report an in silico study of carvone derivatives to analyze their binding modes with neuraminidase (NA) active sites. Two proposed carvone analogues, CV(A) and CV(B), with 36 designed ligands were predicted to inhibit NA (PDB ID: 3TI6) using molecular docking. The design is based on structural resemblance with the commercial inhibitor, oseltamivir (OTV), ligand polarity, and amino acid residues in the NA active sites...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Lokesh K Narnoliya, Rajender S Sangwan, Sudhir P Singh
Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is widely known as aromatic and medicinal herb, accumulating specialized metabolites of high economic importance, such as essential oils, ascorbic acid, and tartaric acid. Ascorbic acid and tartaric acid are multifunctional metabolites of human value to be used as vital antioxidants and flavor enhancing agents in food products. No information is available related to the structural and functional properties of the enzymes involved in ascorbic acid and tartaric acid biosynthesis in rose-scented geranium...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
T S M Carvalho, L S Sousa, F A Nogueira, D P Vaz, M M Saldanha, M V Triginelli, M F V S Pinto, N C Baião, L J C Lara
This work aimed at evaluating the effects of 4 digestible Met+Cys levels on the diet of commercial layers and their influence on the productive performance, quality, and amino acid profile of eggs and economic viability of the activity. A total of 576 white Lohmann LSL-Lite layers was distributed into 6 replicates of 24 birds for each diet. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 treatments defined by levels evaluated in the feed (0.465, 0.540, 0.581, and 0.647%). The productive performance was measured for 30 weeks...
March 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Lianbin Xu, Xueyan Lin, Robin R White, Mark D Hanigan, Zhiyong Hu, Qiuling Hou, Yun Wang, Zhonghua Wang
Background: Circulating amino acid (AA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and hepatic gluconeogenesis are affected by previous protein intake. However, information about their relations and islet hormone responses is limited. Objective: This study investigated the associations between islet hormone concentrations with circulating AA and NO concentrations as well as with hepatic gluconeogenesis in lactating rats. Methods: At delivery, 18 Wistar rats aged 14 wk were assigned either to low-protein (LP; 9% protein), standard-protein (SP; 21% protein), or high-protein (HP; 35% protein) diets for 15 d in groups of 6 pups/dam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Cara J Westmark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Dorothy W Gietzen, Sarah H Lindström, James W Sharp, Pok Swee Teh, Michael J Donovan
Background: Low protein amounts are used in ketogenic diets (KDs), where an essential (indispensable) amino acid (IAA) can become limiting. Because the chemically sensitive, seizurogenic, anterior piriform cortex (APC) is excited by IAA limitation, an imbalanced KD could exacerbate seizure activity. Objective: We questioned whether dietary IAA depletion worsens seizure activity in rodents fed KDs. Methods: In a series of 6 trials, male rats or gerbils of both sexes (6-8/group) were given either control diets (CDs) appropriate for each trial, a KD, or a threonine-devoid (ThrDev) diet for ≥7 d, and tested for seizures using various stimuli...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
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