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Peripheral nerve injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820624/retinopathy-and-optic-atrophy-expanding-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-pathogenic-variants-in-the-aars2-gene
#1
Jason H Peragallo, Stephanie Keller, Marjo S van der Knaap, Bruno P Soares, Suma P Shankar
BACKGROUND: Optic atrophy may be the sequela of optic nerve injury due to any insult, including isolated and syndromic genetic diseases. Alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (AARS2) pathogenic variants have been reported to cause leukodystrophy with ovarian failure, and cardiomyopathy (#615889) as well as combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-8 (#614096). We report a young child who presented with decreased vision due to optic atrophy and was found to harbor missense variants in the AARS2 gene expanding the phenotypic expression of the AARS2 gene...
August 18, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814147/-express-threshold-effect-of-g9a-glp-on-peripheral-nerve-injury-induced-hypersensitivity
#2
Xian Wang, Xiaofeng Shen, Shaolei Ma, Yusheng Liu, Shiqin Xu, Shizheng Wu, Fuzhou Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812542/the-effect-of-molecular-weight-and-concentration-of-hyaluronan-on-the-recovery-of-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-sustaining-acute-traumatic-injury
#3
Sheng-Min Lan, Cheng-Chang Yang, Chia-Lung Lee, Jung-Shun Lee, I-Ming Jou
Acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a significant clinical issue affecting mostly young individuals and their productivity in spite of advances in current medicine. Hyaluronan has been explored in this scenario for its anti-adhesive and high biocompatibility properties for decades. The molecular weight and concentration of the locally applied hyaluronan has been overlooked and not optimized. We used different molecular weights and concentrations of hyaluronan in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model and found better overall outcomes with high molecular weight (3000 kDa) hyaluronan...
August 16, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807786/dexmedetomidine-prolongs-levobupivacaine-analgesia-via-inhibition-of-inflammation-and-p38-mapk-phosphorylation-in-rat-dorsal-root-ganglion
#4
Shunsuke Yamakita, Megumi Matsuda, Yosuke Yamaguchi, Teiji Sawa, Fumimasa Amaya
Following tissue injury, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the primary afferent neurons drives sensitization of peripheral nerve. Dexmedetomidine extends the duration of reginal analgesia by local anesthetics. The effect of regional analgesia on the peripheral nerve sensitization is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of regional analgesia by levobupivacaine with or without dexmedetomidine on the p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and inflammatory reaction in the peripheral tissue...
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806665/a-sequential-delivery-system-employing-the-synergism-of-epo-and-ngf-promotes-sciatic-nerve-repair
#5
Wei Zhang, Gongshe Zhou, Yuan Gao, Yan Zhou, Jianheng Liu, Licheng Zhang, Anhua Long, Lihai Zhang, Peifu Tang
The different mechanisms of nerve growth factor (NGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) in promoting repair of peripheral nerve injuries suggest a potential therapeutic application through the synergism of the two. Yet NGF has also been reported to induce early nerve apoptosis after injury. To utilize the potential synergism of NGF and EPO while minimize the possible defect, in this study, we first confirmed the time dependency of NGF caused nerve apoptosis, and then established a sequential and sustained delivery system for NGF and EPO with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which has been approved by the US FDA for human use because of its injectable, biocompatible, and biodegradable properties...
August 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806211/the-opiorphin-analog-str-324-decreases-sensory-hypersensitivity-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#6
Alain Van Elstraete, Philippe Sitbon, Leila Hamdi, Victor Juarez-Perez, Jean-Xavier Mazoit, Dan Benhamou, Catherine Rougeot
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain represents a therapeutic challenge, and treatments with increased efficacy and tolerability still need to be developed. Opiorphin protects endogenous enkephalins from degradation, potentiating enkephalin-dependent analgesia via the activation of opioid pathways. Enkephalins are natural ligands of opioid receptors, with strong affinity for δ-opioid receptors. Expression of functional δ-opioid receptors increases in sensory neurons after peripheral nerve injury in neuropathic pain models...
August 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796579/effects-of-localized-x-ray-irradiation-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-transected-sciatic-nerve-in-rats
#7
Bo Jiang, Yong Zhang, Jiaju Zhao, Chang She, Xiaozhong Zhou, Qirong Dong, Peiji Wang
Low-dose radiation has been used in clinical and experimental models for the prevention of scarring and for fracture healing. There is evidence that low-dose radiation improves the hormesis of various cell types but little is known about its effects on peripheral nerve tissue. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of low-dose radiation on the regeneration of transectional peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats received transection injury to the left sciatic nerves, and the nerves were subsequently sutured by epineurium end-to-end anastomosis to restore continuity...
August 10, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794655/p2y12-and-p2y13-receptors-involved-in-adp%C3%AE-s-induced-the-release-of-il-1%C3%AE-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-from-cultured-dorsal-horn-microglia
#8
Pei-Wen Liu, Ming-Xia Yue, Rui Zhou, Juan Niu, Du-Juan Huang, Tao Xu, Pei Luo, Xiao-Hong Liu, Jun-Wei Zeng
OBJECTIVE: P2 receptors have been implicated in the release of neurotransmitter and pro-inflammatory cytokines due to their response to neuroexcitatory substances in the microglia. Dorsal horn P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors are involved in the development of pain behavior induced by peripheral nerve injury. However, it is not known whether P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors activation is associated with the expression and the release of interleukin-1B (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cultured dorsal spinal cord microglia...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792061/role-of-nerve-muscle-interactions-and-ros-in-regulation-of-muscle-proteostasis-with-aging
#9
Aphrodite Vasilaki, Arlan Richardson, Holly Van Remmen, Susan V Brooks, Lisa Larkin, Anne McArdle, Malcolm J Jackson
Skeletal muscle aging is characterised by atrophy, a deficit in specific force generation, increased susceptibility to injury, and incomplete recovery after severe damage. The hypothesis that increased generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in vivo plays a key role in the aging process has been extensively studied, but remains controversial. Skeletal muscle generates ROS at rest and during exercise. ROS can cause oxidative damage particularly to proteins. Indeed, products of oxidative damage accumulate in skeletal muscle during aging and the ability of muscle cells to respond to increased ROS becomes defective...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790970/structural-and-functional-substitution-of-deleted-primary-sensory-neurons-by-new-growth-from-intrinsic-spinal-cord-nerve-cells-an-alternative-concept-in-reconstruction-of-spinal-cord-circuits
#10
Nicholas D James, Maria Angéria, Elizabeth J Bradbury, Peter Damberg, Stephen B McMahon, Mårten Risling, Thomas Carlstedt
In a recent clinical report, return of the tendon stretch reflex was demonstrated after spinal cord surgery in a case of total traumatic brachial plexus avulsion injury. Peripheral nerve grafts had been implanted into the spinal cord to reconnect to the peripheral nerves for motor and sensory function. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) containing the primary sensory nerve cells had been surgically removed in order for secondary or spinal cord sensory neurons to extend into the periphery and replace the deleted DRG neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782170/short-and-long-gap-peripheral-nerve-repair-with-magnesium-metal-filaments
#11
Tracy M Hopkins, Kevin J Little, John J Vennemeyer, Jefferson L Triozzi, Michael T Turgeon, Alexander M Heilman, D Minteer, K Marra, David B Hom, Sarah K Pixley
A current clinical challenge is to replace autografts for repair of injury gaps in peripheral nerves, which can occur due to trauma or surgical interruption. Biodegradable metallic magnesium filaments, placed inside hollow nerve conduits, could support nerve repair by providing contact guidance support for axonal regeneration. This was tested by repairing sciatic nerves of adult rats with single magnesium filaments placed inside poly(caprolactone) nerve conduits. Controls were empty conduits, conduits containing titanium filaments and/or isografts from donor rats...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781091/dental-pulp-stem-cells-their-potential-in-reinnervation-and-angiogenesis-by-using-scaffolds
#12
Ivo Lambrichts, Ronald B Driesen, Yörg Dillen, Pascal Gervois, Jessica Ratajczak, Tim Vangansewinkel, Esther Wolfs, Annelies Bronckaers, Petra Hilkens
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized and innervated tissue containing a heterogeneous stem cell population with multilineage differentiation potential. Current endodontic treatments focus on the preservation of the pulp tissue and the regeneration of dental pulp after pathological insults. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are currently investigated as stem cell-based therapy for pulp regeneration and for peripheral nerve injury in which neurons and Schwann cells display limited regenerative capacity. We have developed a neuronal differentiation protocol for hDPSCs that requires neurosphere formation before neuronal maturation...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780753/analysis-of-biological-functional-networks-during-sciatic-nerve-repair-and-regeneration
#13
Meiling Lu, Qiong Cheng, Zijian Fang, Sheng Yi
Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease with a low recovery rate. A better understanding of the molecular changes underlying peripheral nerve injury and regeneration may contribute to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. In the current study, we analyzed differentially expressed genes in rat sciatic nerve stumps at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days post nerve crush and built biological functional networks at each time point. Our outcomes suggested that "Neurological Disease" involved networks were significant at 1 day post nerve crush, "Cellular Assembly and Organization" involved networks were important at 4 and 7 days post nerve crush, while "Tissue Morphology" involved networks were important at 14 days post nerve crush...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780695/quantitative-multimodal-evaluation-of-passaging-human-neural-crest-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#14
Jian Du, Huanwen Chen, Kailiang Zhou, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve injury is a major burden to societies worldwide, however, current therapy options (e.g. autologous nerve grafts) are unable to produce satisfactory outcomes. Many studies have shown that stem cell transplantation holds great potential for peripheral nerve repair, and human neural crest stem cells (hNCSCs), which give rise to a variety of tissues in the peripheral nervous system, are particularly promising. NCSCs are one of the best candidates for clinical translation, however, to ensure the viability and quality of NCSCs for research and clinical use, the effect of in vitro cell passaging on therapeutic effects needs be evaluated given that passaging is required to expand NCSCs to meet the demands of transplantation in preclinical research and clinical trials...
August 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779869/functional-integration-of-complex-mirna-networks-in-central-and-peripheral-lesion-and-axonal-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
M Ghibaudi, M Boido, A Vercelli
New players are emerging in the game of peripheral and central nervous system injury since their physiopathological mechanisms remain partially elusive. These mechanisms are characterized by several molecules whose activation and/or modification following a trauma is often controlled at transcriptional level. In this scenario, microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) have been identified as main actors in coordinating important molecular pathways in nerve or spinal cord injury (SCI). miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs whose functionality at network level is now emerging as a new level of complexity...
August 2, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776762/vein-wrapping-facilitates-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-induced-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-following-chronic-nerve-constriction-injury
#16
Naoya Hirosawa, Kentaro Uchida, Kazuki Kuniyoshi, Kenichi Murakami, Gen Inoue, Masayuki Miyagi, Yusuke Matsuura, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuhide Inage, Takane Suzuki, Masashi Takaso, Seiji Ohtori
The clinical efficacy of autologous vein wrapping for recurrent compressive neuropathy has been demonstrated; however, the underlying mechanisms of this technique remain unclear. Rats were divided into chronic constriction injury (CCI) and CCI + vein wrapping (CCI + VW) groups. Mechanical allodynia was evaluated using von Frey filaments. To identify the neuroprotective factors released from veins, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA expression in veins was compared to that in the sciatic nerve...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774246/iatrogenic-injuries-of-the-palmar-branch-of-the-median-nerve-following-volar-plate-fixation-of-the-distal-radius
#17
Deepak Samson, Dominic M Power
BACKGROUND: Our aims were to identify iatrogenous injuries to the palmar branch of the median nerve sustained during volar plate fixation of the distal radius, make the clinician aware of this relatively uncommon complication of distal radius fixation, to emphasise common threads in symptomatology and to propose an algorithm for evaluation and management. METHODS: Retrospectively interrogating our database over a 5 year period, the case records, neurophysiology records, operative records, therapy records were reviewed...
September 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771790/motoneuron-activity-is-required-for-enhancements-in-functional-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-exercised-female-mice
#18
Poonam B Jaiswal, Jack K Tung, Robert E Gross, Arthur W English
Inhibitory luminopsins (iLMO2) integrate opto- and chemo-genetic approaches and allow for cell-type specific inhibition of neuronal activity. When exposed to a Renilla luciferase substrate, Coelenterazine (CTZ), iLMO2 generates bioluminescence-mediated activation of its amino-terminal halorhodopsin, resulting in neuronal inhibition. Moderate daily exercise in the form of interval treadmill-training (IT) applied following a peripheral nerve injury results in enhanced motor axon regeneration and muscle fiber reinnervation in female mice...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768837/vitamin-d-in-the-spectrum-of-prediabetes-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction
#19
REVIEW
Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova, Nevena Chakarova
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone with pleiotropic effects. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D coordinates the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, which regulate cardiovascular autonomic function and may explain its putative role in the development of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). CAN is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with diabetes and prediabetes and is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768198/enhanced-neuronal-regeneration-in-the-cast-ei-mouse-strain-is-linked-to-expression-of-differentiation-markers-after-injury
#20
Véronique Lisi, Bhagat Singh, Michel Giroux, Elmer Guzman, Michio W Painter, Yung-Chih Cheng, Eric Huebner, Giovanni Coppola, Michael Costigan, Clifford J Woolf, Kenneth S Kosik
Peripheral nerve regeneration after injury requires a broad program of transcriptional changes. We investigated the basis for the enhanced nerve regenerative capacity of the CAST/Ei mouse strain relative to C57BL/6 mice. RNA sequencing of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) showed a CAST/Ei-specific upregulation of Ascl1 after injury. Ascl1 overexpression in DRG neurons of C57BL/6 mice enhanced their neurite outgrowth. Ascl1 is regulated by miR-7048-3p, which is downregulated in CAST/Ei mice. Inhibition of miR-7048-3p enhances neurite outgrowth...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
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