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Peripheral nerve injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149212/mycolactone-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-the-nervous-system
#1
Caroline Isaac, Annie Mauborgne, Alfonso Grimaldi, Kemy Ade, Michel Pohl, Cristina Limatola, Yves Boucher, Caroline Demangel, Laure Guenin-Macé
BACKGROUND: Mycolactone is a macrolide produced by the skin pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, with cytotoxic, analgesic and immunomodulatory properties. The latter were recently shown to result from mycolactone blocking the Sec61-dependent production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Here we investigated whether mycolactone similarly affects the inflammatory responses of the nervous cell subsets involved in pain perception, transmission and maintenance. We also investigated the effects of mycolactone on the neuroinflammation that is associated with chronic pain in vivo...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146720/role-of-mr-neurography-for-the-diagnosis-of-peripheral-trigeminal-nerve-injuries-in-patients-with-prior-molar-tooth-extraction
#2
R Dessouky, Y Xi, J Zuniga, A Chhabra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical neurosensory testing is an imperfect reference standard to evaluate molar tooth extraction related peripheral trigeminal neuropathy. The purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR neurography in this domain and correlation with neurosensory testing and surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, nerve caliber, T2 signal intensity ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratios were recorded by 2 observers using MR neurography for bilateral branches of the peripheral trigeminal nerve, the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves...
November 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140923/il-4-mediates-the-analgesia-produced-by-low-intensity-exercise-in-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#3
Franciane Bobinski, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Kathleen Anne Sluka, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates the immune system resulting in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Exercise modulates the immune system promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages in uninjured muscle, and increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines can promote healing and analgesia. We proposed that PNI will decrease, and treadmill exercise will increase, release of anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140901/-state-of-the-art-techniques-in-treating-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
Carrie A Kubiak, Theodore A Kung, David L Brown, Paul S Cederna, Stephen W P Kemp
BACKGROUND -: Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biologic approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury. METHODS -: Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state of the art techniques to enhance functional recovery for patients with nerve injury...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137628/hypertonic-saline-for-prevention-of-delirium-in-geriatric-patients-who-underwent-hip-surgery
#5
Xi Xin, Fei Xin, Xuguang Chen, Qi Zhang, Yanan Li, Shuping Huo, Chongfu Chang, Qiujun Wang
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common disorder in the elderly patients, and neuroinflammation is the possible underlying mechanism. This study is designed to determine whether or not hypertonic saline (HS) pre-injection can alleviate POD in aged patients. METHODS: This prospective study recruited 120 geriatric patients who underwent hip surgery. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: control group (NS group) and HS group. Patients in the NS group were pre-injected with 4 mL/kg isotonic saline, and those in the HS group were pre-injected with 4 mL/kg 7...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134656/long-term-dynamic-synaptic-reorganization-after-gabaergic-precursor-cell-transplantation-into-adult-mouse-spinal-cord
#6
Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Allan I Basbaum, João M Bráz
Transplanting embryonic precursors of GABAergic neurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into adult mouse spinal cord ameliorates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in peripheral nerve injury models of neuropathic pain. Although Fos and transneuronal tracing studies strongly suggest that integration of MGE-derived neurons into host spinal cord circuits underlies recovery of function, the extent to which there is synaptic integration of the transplanted cells has not been established. Here, we used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to assess directly integration of GFP-expressing MGE-derived neuronal precursors into dorsal horn circuitry in intact, adult mice with short- (5-6 weeks) or long-term (4-6 months) transplants...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132141/shoulder-giant-schwannoma-a-diagnosis-to-be-considered-in-painless-shoulder-masses
#7
Romeu Pinho, Sara Santana, Filipa Farinha, Inês Cunha, Anabela Barcelos, José Brenha
Tumours formed from peripheral nerve sheaths are rare in the shoulder. We present the case of a 80-year-old female referred to an orthopaedic surgery clinic because of a large painless mass of the right shoulder, with one year of evolution. There was no history of trauma, involvement of any other joint or systemic complaints. Given the clinical and imagiological suspicion of a giant synovial cyst, the patient underwent complete surgical resection of the mass, which took place without any complications or functional impairment...
November 5, 2017: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125428/schwann-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-laminin-or-fibronectin-aligned-matrices-and-regeneration-across-a-critical-size-defect-of-15-mm-in-the-rat-sciatic-nerve
#8
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Joaquim Hernández, Claudia Heimann, James B Phillips, Esther Udina, Xavier Navarro
OBJECTIVE Artificial nerve guides are being developed to substitute for autograft repair after peripheral nerve injuries. However, the use of conduits is limited by the length of the gap that needs to be bridged, with the success of regeneration highly compromised in long gaps. Addition of aligned proregenerative cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components inside the conduit can be a good strategy to achieve artificial grafts that recreate the natural environment offered by a nerve graft. The purpose of this study was to functionalize chitosan devices with different cell types to support regeneration in limiting gaps in the rat peripheral nerve...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124342/connections-between-radial-and-ulnar-nerve-at-high-humeral-level-in-cadavers-incidence-topography-and-literature-review
#9
Konstantinos Natsis, A Giannakopoulou, M Piagkou, N Lazaridis, T Tegos, M R Colonna
PURPOSE: Although communications between branches and cords of the brachial plexus have been extensively published, there is a scarcity of reports concerning radial and ulnar nerve (RN-UN) communication in the arm. The current study aims to demonstrate the incidence, topography, and length of communicating branches between RN and UN. Any additional coexisted variations were also recorded. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-six upper limbs collected from one hundred and thirty-three (81 males and 52 females) Greek cadavers were dissected...
November 9, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123395/a-magnetically-responsive-nanocomposite-scaffold-combined-with-schwann-cells-promotes-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-upon-exposure-to-magnetic-field
#10
Zhongyang Liu, Shu Zhu, Liang Liu, Jun Ge, Liangliang Huang, Zhen Sun, Wen Zeng, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Peripheral nerve repair is still challenging for surgeons. Autologous nerve transplantation is the acknowledged therapy; however, its application is limited by the scarcity of available donor nerves, donor area morbidity, and neuroma formation. Biomaterials for engineering artificial nerves, particularly materials combined with supportive cells, display remarkable promising prospects. Schwann cells (SCs) are the absorbing seeding cells in peripheral nerve engineering repair; however, the attenuated biologic activity restricts their application...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120005/peripheral-neuropathy-due-to-recreational-use-of-nitrous-oxide-presenting-after-an-ankle-sprain-with-foot-drop
#11
Jackson A Middleton, John A Roffers
A 22-year-old man was referred for orthopedic follow-up after an ankle injury. Initial evaluation in urgent care included radiographs with negative findings. After a delayed presentation, a course of functional treatment was recommended. Subsequently, he developed a deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli. He was found to be factor V Leiden deficient and was fully anticoagulated on warfarin. Later reevaluation revealed a steppage gait and foot drop. Electrodiagnostic studies (ie, electromyography and nerve conduction studies) revealed a severe peripheral polyneuropathy...
November 8, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120004/nerve-traction-injury-after-subacute-revision-external-fixation-of-a-tibial-plateau-fracture
#12
Lauren E Wessel, Alexander B Christ, David Helfet, David S Wellman
Nerve traction injuries are common clinical entities that can be confused with nerve palsies secondary to alternate etiologies. Common mechanisms of nerve injury include direct laceration, crush injury, compression injury, elevated compartment pressures, or traction injury. Traction injuries commonly occur after trauma or aberrant patient positioning; however, traction injury following external fixation for lower extremity injury is rare. This case report describes a 42-year-old man who initially sustained a Schatzker VI tibial plateau fracture that required revision of external fixation for pin-site infection as soft tissues recovered from the initial trauma...
November 8, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117831/age-dependent-schwann-cell-phenotype-regulation-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#13
Wayne A Chen, T David Luo, Jonathan C Barnwell, Thomas L Smith, Zhongyu Li
BACKGROUND: Schwann cells are integral to the regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system, which declines after adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this decline are poorly understood. This study sought to compare the protein expression of Notch, c-Jun, and Krox-20 after nerve crush injury in adolescent and young adult rats. We hypothesized that these Schwann cell myelinating regulatory factors are down-regulated after nerve injury in an age-dependent fashion. METHODS: Adolescent (2 months old) and young adult (12 months old) rats (n = 48) underwent sciatic nerve crush injury...
December 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113945/changes-in-the-expression-and-localization-of-signaling-molecules-in-mouse-facial-motor-neurons-during-regeneration-of-facial-nerves
#14
Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe, Changjong Moon, Taekyun Shin, Chitoshi Takayama
After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and examined the changes in expression of five molecules, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), galanin, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), gephyrin, and potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the facial motor neurons after surgery until recovery...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113857/a-rare-neurological-complication-of-waldenstrom-s-macroglobulinemia
#15
Gabriel Torrealba-Acosta, Rajan Gadhia, Thabele Leslie-Mazwi
Bilateral and simultaneous facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare clinical condition occurring in 0.3-2.0% of facial palsy cases and is typically a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. We here describe a case of a 67-year-old Hispanic man with a known history of Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (WM) who presented to the clinic with a sub-acute onset of bilateral facial weakness. No alternate etiology for the facial weakness was identified after a thorough diagnostic approach. WM is a rare hematological condition due to low-grade B cell lymphoma, where lymphoplasmacytoid cells infiltrate different tissues and secrete monoclonal IgM...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113703/similar-2-point-discrimination-and-stereognosia-but-better-locognosia-at-long-term-with-an-independent-home-based-sensory-reeducation-program-vs-no-reeducation-after-low-median-nerve-transection-and-repair
#16
Dimitrios K Antonopoulos, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Evanthia Mitsiokapa, George Georgoudis, Christos Th Vottis, George K Antonopoulos, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos, Spyridon Pneumatikos, Sarantis G Spyridonos
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective controlled study. INTRODUCTION: Previous studies evaluated the effectiveness of sensory reeducation (SR) after peripheral nerve injury and repair. However, evidence for long-term clinical usefulness of SR is inconclusive. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study is to compare the sensory results of patients with low-median nerve complete transection and microsurgical repair, with and without SR at long term...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112586/the-role-of-immunoglobulin-in-the-treatment-of-immune-mediated-peripheral-neuropathies
#17
Alejandro Tobon
Immune-mediated neuropathies are a group of peripheral nerve disorders characterized by motor or sensory deficits caused by inflammation leading to demyelination or axonal injury. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been demonstrated to be an effective therapy for the 3 most common immune-mediated neuropathies: Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and multifocal motor neuropathy. This review summarizes current data on the rationale for the use of IVIg in immune-mediated neuropathies, addressing mechanism of action, clinical evidence, and practical considerations for its use...
November 2017: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109239/graded-elevation-of-c-jun-in-schwann-cells-in-vivo-gene-dosage-determines-effects-on-development-re-myelination-tumorigenesis-and-hypomyelination
#18
Shaline V Fazal, Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Laura J Wagstaff, Nicolo Musner, Georg Otto, Martin Janz, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
Schwann cell c-Jun is implicated in adaptive and maladaptive functions in peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, this transcription factor promotes the repair Schwann cell phenotype and regeneration, and it promotes Schwann cell mediated neurotrophic support in models of peripheral neuropathies. However, c-Jun is associated with tumour formation in some systems, it potentially supresses myelin genes, and has been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies. To clarify these issues, and determine how c-Jun levels determine its function, we have generated, c-Jun OE/+ and c-Jun OE/OE mice, with graded expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells, and examined these lines during development, in adulthood and after injury using RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative electron microscopic morphometry, Western blotting and functional tests...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107209/phkv-a-toxin-isolated-from-the-spider-venom-induces-antinociception-by-inhibition-of-cholinesterase-activating-cholinergic-system
#19
Flavia Karine Rigo, Mateus Fortes Rossato, Gabriela Trevisan, Samira Dal-Toé De Prá, Rafael Porto Ineu, Mariane Bernardo Duarte, Célio José de Castro Junior, Juliano Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Gomez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholinergic agents cause antinociception by mimicking the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from spinal cholinergic nerves. PhKv is a peptide isolated from the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer. It has an antiarrythmogenic activity that involves the enhanced release of acetylcholine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PhKv had an antinociceptive action in mice. METHODS: Male albino Swiss mice (25-35g) were used in this study...
October 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104252/pharmacological-regulation-of-neuropathic-pain-driven-by-inflammatory-macrophages
#20
REVIEW
Norikazu Kiguchi, Daichi Kobayashi, Fumihiro Saika, Shinsuke Matsuzaki, Shiroh Kishioka
Neuropathic pain can have a major effect on quality of life but current therapies are often inadequate. Growing evidence suggests that neuropathic pain induced by nerve damage is caused by chronic inflammation. Upon nerve injury, damaged cells secrete pro-inflammatory molecules that activate cells in the surrounding tissue and recruit circulating leukocytes to the site of injury. Among these, the most abundant cell type is macrophages, which produce several key molecules involved in pain enhancement, including cytokines and chemokines...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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