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Peripheral nerve injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228900/intraneural-hemorrhage-in-traumatic-oculomotor-nerve-palsy
#1
Thomas Sartoretti, Elisabeth Sartoretti, Christoph Binkert, David Czell, Sabine Sartoretti-Schefer
Isolated traumatic oculomotor nerve palsy without internal ophthalmoplegia is a rare condition after closed head trauma. The nerve strain leads to intraneural edema with nerve swelling on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and traumatic disruption of the blood peripheral nerve barrier with contrast enhancement on T1-weighted MR images. In this patient, susceptibility-weighted MR imaging allowed the direct visualization of the intraneural hemorrhage after suspected traumatic diffuse neuronal axonal injury...
March 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226803/closed-loop-afferent-electrical-stimulation-for-recovery-of-hand-function-in-individuals-with-motor-incomplete-spinal-injury-early-clinical-results
#2
Christopher J Schildt, Sarah H Thomas, Elizabeth S Powell, Lumy Sawaki, Sridhar Sunderam, Christopher J Schildt, Sarah H Thomas, Elizabeth S Powell, Lumy Sawaki, Sridhar Sunderam, Lumy Sawaki, Christopher J Schildt, Elizabeth S Powell, Sarah H Thomas, Sridhar Sunderam
Afferent electrical stimulation is known to augment the effect of rehabilitative therapy through use-dependent cortical plasticity. Experiments pairing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) have shown a timing-dependent effect on motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude suggesting that PNS applied in closed-loop (CL) mode could augment this effect through positive reinforcement. We present early results from a clinical trial in which an EEG brain-machine interface (BMI) was used to apply PNS to two subjects in response to motor intent detected from sensorimotor cortex in a cue-driven hand grip task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226503/serial-estimation-of-motor-unit-numbers-using-an-implantable-system-following-nerve-injury-and-repair-in-rats
#3
Michael P Willand, Joseph Catapano, Michael P Willand, Joseph Catapano, Michael P Willand, Joseph Catapano
Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is an established technique to assess recovery following peripheral nerve injury. In rats, where the vast majority of peripheral nerve research is conducted, assessing motor units at various time points requires a terminal procedure due to the invasive nature of current techniques. Here, we present an implanted system that was used to serially assess MUNE after peripheral nerve injury and repair in rats. This system significantly increases the efficiency of peripheral nerve research by negating the need for terminal procedures, allowing for serial MUNE assessment over time in the same rat...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225648/safety-of-autologous-human-schwann-cell-transplantation-in-subacute-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Kimberly D Anderson, James Guest, W Dalton Dietrich, Mary B Bunge, Rosie Curiel, Marine Dididze, Barth A Green, Aisha Khan, Damien D Pearse, Efrat Saraf-Lavi, Eva Widerstrom-Noga, Pat Wood, Allan D Levi
The rationale for implantation of autologous human Schwann cells (SCs) in people with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI) is based on evidence that transplanted SCs are neuroprotective, support local axonal plasticity, and are capable of myelinating axons. A Phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety of autologous human SC transplantation into the injury epicenter of six subjects with subacute SCI. The trial was an open-label, unblinded, non-randomized, non-placebo controlled study with a dose escalation design and standard medical rehabilitation...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223516/targeting-human-mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptor-x1-to-inhibit-persistent-pain
#5
Zhe Li, Pang-Yen Tseng, Vinod Tiwari, Qian Xu, Shao-Qiu He, Yan Wang, Qin Zheng, Liang Han, Zhiping Wu, Anna L Blobaum, Yiyuan Cui, Vineeta Tiwari, Shuohao Sun, Yingying Cheng, Julie H Y Huang-Lionnet, Yixun Geng, Bo Xiao, Junmin Peng, Corey Hopkins, Srinivasa N Raja, Yun Guan, Xinzhong Dong
Human Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X1 (MRGPRX1) is a promising target for pain inhibition, mainly because of its restricted expression in nociceptors within the peripheral nervous system. However, constrained by species differences across Mrgprs, drug candidates that activate MRGPRX1 do not activate rodent receptors, leaving no responsive animal model to test the effect on pain in vivo. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line in which we replaced mouse Mrgprs with human MrgprX1 This humanized mouse allowed us to characterize an agonist [bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22)] and a positive allosteric modulator (PAM), ML382, of MRGPRX1...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221164/positive-and-negative-cues-for-modulating-neurite-dynamics-and-receptor-expression
#6
Melissa Wrobel, Harini Gayathari Sundararaghavan
Many current peripheral nerve repair strategies focus on delivering positive, growth promoting cues (e.g. extracellular matrix, ECM) while eliminating negative, growth inhibiting cues (e.g. chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, CSPGs) at the injury site. We hypothesized that recapitulating the positive and negative cues of the peripheral nerve injury microenvironment would improve regeneration. First, we tested the effects of a characteristic CSPG, Chondroitin Sulfate A (CSA) on neurite dynamics of dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using time lapse video microscopy...
February 21, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219087/muscle-response-to-complete-peripheral-nerve-injury-changes-of-acetylcholine-receptor-and-creatine-kinase-activity-over-time
#7
Shimon Rochkind, Asher Shainberg
Background This study was designed to assess the changes of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, which are important biochemical markers for muscle viability in cases of long-term muscle denervation. Scientists and peripheral nerve surgeons may find these data important regarding maximal range of muscle viability applicable for timing of effective peripheral nerve reconstructive surgery. Methods The study was conducted on 48 rats (96 gastrocnemius muscles), whose right legs were denervated by removing a 10-mm segment of sciatic nerve, while their left legs remained intact...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218474/electrical-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-schwann-cell-like-phenotypes-using-inkjet-printed-graphene-circuits
#8
Suprem R Das, Metin Uz, Shaowei Ding, Matthew T Lentner, John A Hondred, Allison A Cargill, Donald S Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada, Jonathan C Claussen
Graphene-based materials (GBMs) have displayed tremendous promise for use as neurointerfacial substrates as they enable favorable adhesion, growth, proliferation, spreading, and migration of immobilized cells. This study reports the first case of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes through the application of electrical stimuli from a graphene-based electrode. Electrical differentiation of MSCs into SC-like phenotypes is carried out on a flexible, inkjet-printed graphene interdigitated electrode (IDE) circuit that is made highly conductive (sheet resistance < 1 kΩ/sq) via a postprint pulse-laser annealing process...
February 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217060/ultrasonography-guided-pulsed-radiofrequency-of-sciatic-nerve-for-the-treatment-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-ii
#9
Yi Hwa Choi, Dong Jin Chang, Woon Suk Hwang, Jin Hwan Chung
Although the major mechanism of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) involves dysfunctional central or sympathetic nervous system activation, the peripheral nervous system also contributes significantly to its clinical manifestations. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a recently developed treatment option for neuropathic pain syndromes. Here, we report a case of CRPS Type II after a femur fracture and sciatic nerve injury, in which the pain was treated successfully with ultrasonography-guided selective sciatic nerve PRF application...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216319/two-levels-of-waviness-are-necessary-to-package-the-highly-extensible-nerves-in-rorqual-whales
#10
Margo A Lillie, A Wayne Vogl, Kelsey N Gil, John M Gosline, Robert E Shadwick
Peripheral nerves are susceptible to stretch injury [1-4] and incorporate structural waviness at the level of the axons, fascicles, and nerve trunk to accommodate physiological increases in length [5, 6]. It is unknown whether there are limits to the amount of deformation that waviness can accommodate. In rorqual whales, a sub-group of baleen whales, nerves running through the ventral groove blubber (VGB) associated with the floor of the mouth routinely experience dramatically large deformations. In fact, some of these nerves more than double their length during lunge feeding and then recoil to a short, compressed state after each lunge [7-9]...
February 12, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215880/adenovirus-vector-mediated-ex-vivo-gene-transfer-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-tohuman-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ucb-mscs-promotescrush-injured-rat-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#11
Wei-Hong Hei, Akram A Almansoori, Mi-Ae Sung, Kyung-Won Ju, Nari Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Bong-Ju Kim, Soung-Min Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Hong He, Jong-Ho Lee
This study was designed toinvestigate the efficacy of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)ex vivo gene transfer to human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells(UCB-MSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. BDNF protein and mRNA expression after infection was checked through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6 weeks old) were distributed into threegroups (n=20 each): the control group, UCB-MSC group, and BDNF-adenovirus infected UCB-MSC (BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC) group...
February 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215879/incline-treadmill-exercise-suppresses-pain-hypersensitivity-associated-with-the-modulation-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-in-rats-with-peripheral-nerve-injury
#12
Kun-Ling Tsai, Po-Ching Huang, Li-Kai Wang, Ching-Hsia Hung, Yu-Wen Chen
We aimed to investigate the impact of 3 weeks of incline treadmill exercise (TE) on withdrawal responses elicited by thermal and mechanical stimuli, and on anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10, IL-10) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]) expression in the sciatic nerve of rats underwent chronic constriction injury (CCI). Group 1 received a sham-operation where the sciatic nerve was exposed but not ligated, while Group 2 underwent a sham-operation followed by exercising on an 8%-incline treadmill (TE8)...
February 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214463/bridging-the-gap-in-peripheral-nerve-repair
#13
Donato Perretta, Steven Green
Peripheral nerve injuries following trauma present an ongoing challenge to the hand surgeon. This review presents an overview of the topic with a historical perspective. Nerve anatomy and nerve injury classifications are discussed followed by a description of the biology of nerve regeneration. Methods used to bridge gaps in peripheral nerve repair are discussed in detail with a critical appraisal of the most recent literature. Recommendations for surgical treatment are formulated based on evidence-based medicine...
January 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212188/threading-the-needle-with-peripheral-nerve-blocks-achieving-analgesia-avoiding-neurological-injury-erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209424/changes-in-sympathetic-neurovascular-function-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Hussain Al Dera, James A Brock
The effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on sympathetic neurovascular transmission have generally been ignored. This review describes changes in sympathetic nerve-mediated activation of arterial vessels to which ongoing sympathetic activity has been reduced or silenced following spinal cord transection in rats. In all vessels studied in rats, SCI markedly enhanced their contractile responses to nerve activity. However, the mechanisms that augment neurovascular transmission differ between the rat tail artery and mesenteric artery...
February 11, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205463/peripheral-nerve-lymphomatosis
#16
Tun-Lin Foo, Ryan Yak, Mark E Puhaindran
Lymphoma involvement of peripheral nerves is rare and it may mimic benign neurogenic tumors or neuropraxic injury. This study presents three patterns of presentations in four patients with neurolymphomatous involvement of their peripheral nerves. We reviewed the clinical records of four patients who underwent exploratory brachial plexus surgery (n = 1), pronator tunnel decompression (n = 1) and peripheral nerve exploration (n = 2) and subsequently found to have neurolymphomatosis (NL). Histological diagnoses were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 3) and NK/T-cell lymphoma (n = 1)...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203609/zeb2-inhibiting-the-inhibitors-in-schwann-cells
#17
Bastian G Brinkmann, Susanne Quintes
Development of Schwann cells is tightly regulated by concerted action of activating and inhibiting factors. Most of the regulatory feedback loops identified to date are transcriptional activators promoting induction of genes coding for integral myelin proteins and lipids. The mechanisms by which inhibitory factors are silenced during Schwann cell maturation are less well understood. We could recently show a pivotal function for the transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) during Schwann cell development and myelination as a transcriptional repressor of maturation inhibitors...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203223/impaired-axonal-regeneration-in-diabetes-perspective-on-the-underlying-mechanism-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experimental-studies
#18
REVIEW
Kazunori Sango, Hiroki Mizukami, Hidenori Horie, Soroku Yagihashi
Axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury is impaired in diabetes, but its precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on altered axonal regeneration in animal models of diabetes and cultured nerve tissues exposed to hyperglycemia. Impaired nerve regeneration in animal diabetes can be attributed to dysfunction of neurons and Schwann cells, unfavorable stromal environment supportive of regenerating axons, and alterations of target tissues receptive to reinnervation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197545/active-nerve-regeneration-with-failed-target-reinnervation-drives-persistent-neuropathic-pain
#19
Wenrui Xie, Judith A Strong, Jun-Ming Zhang
Peripheral nerves can regenerate and, when injured, may cause neuropathic pain. We propose that the active regeneration process plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. In one commonly used rodent neuropathic pain model, pronounced pain behaviors follow ligation and cutting of the L5 spinal nerve. We found that the injured nerve regenerates into the sciatic nerve and functionally reinnervates target tissues: the regenerated nerve conducts electrical signals, mechanical responses, and tracers between the leg/hindpaw and axotomized sensory ganglion...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197342/the-function-of-fgfr1-signalling-in-the-spinal-cord-therapeutic-approaches-using-fgfr1-ligands-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
REVIEW
Barbara Haenzi, Lawrence D F Moon
Extensive research is ongoing that concentrates on finding therapies to enhance CNS regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to cure paralysis. This review sheds light on the role of the FGFR pathway in the injured spinal cord and discusses various therapies that use FGFR activating ligands to promote regeneration after SCI. We discuss studies that use peripheral nerve grafts or Schwann cell grafts in combination with FGF1 or FGF2 supplementation. Most of these studies show evidence that these therapies successfully enhance axon regeneration into the graft...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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