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Peripheral nerve injury

Tomohiro Yamashita, Shota Yamamoto, Jiaming Zhang, Miho Kometani, Daisuke Tomiyama, Keita Kohno, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Kazuhide Inoue, Makoto Tsuda
P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) are a family of ATP-gated non-selective cation channels. We previously demonstrated that activation of P2X4R in spinal microglia is crucial for neuropathic pain, a highly debilitating chronic pain condition, suggesting that P2X4R is a potential therapeutic target for treating neuropathic pain. Thus, the identification of a compound that has a potent inhibitory effect on P2X4R is an important clinical challenge. In the present study, we screened a chemical library of clinically approved drugs and show for the first time that duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has an inhibitory effect on rodent and human P2X4R...
2016: PloS One
Ravinder Bamba, Thanapong Waitayawinyu, Ratnam Nookala, David Colton Riley, Richard B Boyer, Kevin W Sexton, Chinnakart Boonyasirikool, Sunyarn Niempoog, Nathaniel D Kelm, Mark D Does, Richard D Dortch, Robert Bruce Shack, Wesley P Thayer
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating impact on our military and veteran population. Current strategies for peripheral nerve repair include techniques such as nerve tubes, nerve grafts, tissue matrices, and nerve growth guides to enhance the number of regenerating axons. Even with such advanced techniques, it takes months to regain function. In animal models, polyethylene glycol (PEG) therapy has shown to improve both physiologic and behavioral outcomes after nerve transection by fusion of a portion of the proximal axons to the distal axon stumps...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Fatma Şenses, Mustafa E Önder, Ismail D Koçyiğit, Oğuz Kul, Gülümser Aydin, Elem Inal, Fethi Atil, Umut Tekin
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on peripheral nerve regeneration on the sciatic nerve of rats by using functional, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 3 experimental groups. In group 1 (G1), which was the control group, the sciatic nerve was transected and sutured (n = 10). In group 2 (G2), the sciatic nerve was transected, sutured, and then covered with PRF as a membrane (n = 10)...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Seok-Youl Choi, Jong Woong Park, Dong Hwee Kim
Ultrasonographic study is useful for decision making of treatment for focal neuropathy with unusual electrodiagnostic findings. We present a patient with severe acute radial neuropathy with sensory sparing around the distal arm secondary to twisting of the radial nerve following blunt trauma. A 24-year-old man with a 2-week history of left wrist drop and severe pain around the left elbow presented after hitting the left distal arm on the doorknob. The left wrist and finger extensions were grade 0, but elbow extension could not be tested because of severe pain during this action...
November 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Mingyong Gao, Paul Lu, Dan Lynam, Bridget Bednark, W Marie Campana, Jeff Sakamoto, Mark Tuszynski
OBJECTIVE: We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. APPROACH: 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Zühtü Özbek, Hasan Emre Aydin, Atacan Emre Koçman, Emre Özkara, Erdem Söztutar, Ezgi Bektur, Murat Vural, Aydan Köse, Ali Arslantaş, Cengiz Bayçu
AIM: In this study, we investigated the effects of genistein in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury and complete sciatic nerve transection. The effects of genistein were compared with those of gabapentin, which is widely used in clinical practice for peripheral nerve injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8 for all groups): group 1 (sham); group 2, sciatic nerve crush injury (control); group 3, sciatic nerve crush injury + genistein 20 mg/kg; group 4, sciatic nerve crush injury + gabapentin 90 mg/kg; group 5, sciatic nerve transection + genistein 20 mg/kg; group 6, sciatic nerve transection + gabapentin 90 mg/kg...
September 21, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
So Young Joo, Yoon Soo Cho, Sung-Rae Cho, Dohern Kym, Cheong Hoon Seo
PURPOSE: Pain Scrambler therapy is a patient-specific electrocutaneous nerve stimulation device. Burn pruritus is a common form of chronic and disabling neuropathic pain that is often difficult to treat effectively. Pruritus is mediated by histamines, which are effector molecules stored in mast cells and released locally during injury or inflammation. Burn pruritus may be accompanied by peripheral neuropathic pain, which may result from injury to sensory nerves that hampers conductance of neuronal messages along the large A and small C afferent fibers to the spinal cord...
October 15, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Bruno Law-Ye, Chloé Hangard, Adrien Felter, Dominique Safa, Philippe Denormandie, François Genet, Robert-Yves Carlier
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic Myositis Ossificans (NMO) is a rare disabling pathology characterized by peri-articular heterotopic ossifications following severe peripheral or central nervous system injuries. It results in ankylosis and vessels or nerves compressions. Our study aimed to describe the pre-operative findings of patients with NMO of the hip using biphasic computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: Between 2006 and 2012, we retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive patients with hip NMO...
October 18, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Michael J Murray, Heidi DeBlock, Brian Erstad, Anthony Gray, Judi Jacobi, Che Jordan, William McGee, Claire McManus, Maureen Meade, Sean Nix, Andrew Patterson, M Karen Sands, Richard Pino, Ann Tescher, Richard Arbour, Bram Rochwerg, Catherine Friederich Murray, Sangeeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2002 version of "Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient." DESIGN: A Task Force comprising 17 members of the Society of Critical Medicine with particular expertise in the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents; a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation expert; and a medical writer met via teleconference and three face-to-face meetings and communicated via e-mail to examine the evidence and develop these practice guidelines...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Arnoley S Abcejo, Hans P Sviggum, Michelle L Mauermann, James R Hebl, Carlos B Mantilla, Andrew C Hanson, Yi Lin, Adam K Jacob
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are multiple risk factors for developing perioperative nerve injury (PNI). Perioperative nerve injury after peripheral nerve blockade (PNB) is rare. Exposure to systemic chemotherapy may cause peripheral neuropathy, but its role as a risk factor for PNI after PNB is unknown. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of PNI in patients undergoing PNB as part of extremity surgery after prior exposure to systemic chemotherapy...
October 6, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Y H Kou, B G Jiang
Peripheral nerve defects are still a major challenge in clinical practice, and the most commonly used method of treatment for peripheral nerve defects is nerve transplantation, which has certain limitations and shortcomings, so new repair methods and techniques are needed. The peripheral nerve is elongated in limb lengthening surgery without injury, from which we got inspirations and proposed a new method to repair peripheral nerve defects: peripheral nerve elongation. The peripheral nerve could beelongated by a certain percent, but the physiological change and the maximum elongation range were still unknown...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
André Luis Bombeiro, Rodolfo Thomé, Sérgio Luiz Oliveira Nunes, Bárbara Monteiro Moreira, Liana Verinaud, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161463.].
2016: PloS One
Ming-Fong Chang, Jung-Hsien Hsieh, Hao Chiang, Hung-Wei Kan, Cho-Min Huang, Luke Chellis, Bo-Shiou Lin, Shi-Chuen Miaw, Chun-Liang Pan, Chi-Chao Chao, Sung-Tsang Hsieh
Delivering gene constructs into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is a powerful but challenging therapeutic strategy for sensory disorders affecting the DRG and their peripheral processes. The current delivery methods of direct intra-DRG injection and intrathecal injection have several disadvantages, including potential injury to DRG neurons and low transfection efficiency, respectively. This study aimed to develop a spinal nerve injection strategy to deliver polyethylenimine mixed with plasmid (PEI/DNA polyplexes) containing green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Satoru Koyanagi, Naoki Kusunose, Marie Taniguchi, Takahiro Akamine, Yuki Kanado, Yui Ozono, Takahiro Masuda, Yuta Kohro, Naoya Matsunaga, Makoto Tsuda, Michael W Salter, Kazuhide Inoue, Shigehiro Ohdo
Diurnal variations in pain hypersensitivity are common in chronic pain disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are enigmatic. Here, we report that mechanical pain hypersensitivity in sciatic nerve-injured mice shows pronounced diurnal alterations, which critically depend on diurnal variations in glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. Diurnal enhancement of pain hypersensitivity is mediated by glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of the extracellular release of ATP in the spinal cord, which stimulates purinergic receptors on microglia in the dorsal horn...
October 14, 2016: Nature Communications
Jeongsoo Han, Myeounghoon Cha, Minjee Kwon, Seong-Karp Hong, Sun Joon Bai, Bae Hwan Lee
The insular cortex (IC) is a pain-related brain region that receives various types of sensory input and processes the emotional aspects of pain. The present study was conducted to investigate spatiotemporal patterns related to neuroplastic changes in the IC after nerve injury using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. The tibial and sural nerves of rats were injured under pentobarbital anesthesia. To observe optical signals in the IC, rats were re-anesthetized with urethane 7days after injury, and a craniectomy was performed to allow for optical imaging...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Che-Chia Hsu, Hui-Cheng Huang, Po-Ting Wu, Ta-Wei Tai, I-Ming Jou
Peripheral nervous injury (PNI) is a common form of trauma in modern society, especially in sport players. Despite the advance of therapy for PNI, the recovery of function can never reach the preinjury level after treatments. Recently, inhibiting neural oxidative stress shows a beneficial effect in improving functional recovery after PNI. In addition, sesame oil has been reported to possess the excellent antioxidative properties. However, whether sesame oil can improve the functional recovery after PNI by its antioxidative effect has never been investigated...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Timothy I Alves, Gandikota Girish, Monica Kalume Brigido, Jon A Jacobson
Pain and other disorders of the knee are a common presenting complaint in the ambulatory setting. Although the cornerstones of imaging evaluation of the knee are radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography (US) is less expensive than MR imaging, easily available, and of comparable accuracy in the evaluation of certain pathologic conditions of the knee. The benefits of US include portability, low cost, high spatial resolution, dynamic imaging, and ability to guide percutaneous interventions when indicated...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Jijun Xu, Yuying Tang, Mian Xie, Bihua Bie, Jiang Wu, Hui Yang, Joseph F Foss, Bin Yang, Richard W Rosenquist, Mohamed Naguib
Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I) remains one of the most clinically challenging neuropathic pain syndromes and its mechanism has not been fully characterized. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as a promising target for treating different neuropathic pain syndromes. In neuropathic pain models, activated microglia expressing CB2 receptors are seen in the spinal cord. Chemokine fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) plays a substantial role in microglial activation and neuroinflammation. We hypothesized that a CB2 agonist could modulate neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain in an ischemia model of CRPS by regulating CB2 and CX3CR1 signaling...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Chi Wang Ip, Ioannis U Isaias, Burak B Kusche-Tekin, Dennis Klein, Janos Groh, Aet O'Leary, Susanne Knorr, Takahiro Higuchi, James B Koprich, Jonathan M Brotchie, Klaus V Toyka, Andreas Reif, Jens Volkmann
Isolated generalized dystonia is a central motor network disorder characterized by twisted movements or postures. The most frequent genetic cause is a GAG deletion in the Tor1a (DYT1) gene encoding torsinA with a reduced penetrance of 30-40 % suggesting additional genetic or environmental modifiers. Development of dystonia-like movements after a standardized peripheral nerve crush lesion in wild type (wt) and Tor1a+/- mice, that express 50 % torsinA only, was assessed by scoring of hindlimb movements during tail suspension, by rotarod testing and by computer-assisted gait analysis...
October 3, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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