keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Orexin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221079/cue-induced-food-seeking-after-punishment-is-associated-with-increased-fos-expression-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-basolateral-and-medial-amygdala
#1
Erin J Campbell, David J Barker, Helen M Nasser, Konstantin Kaganovsky, Christopher V Dayas, Nathan J Marchant
In humans, relapse to unhealthy eating habits following dieting is a significant impediment to obesity treatment. Food-associated cues are one of the main triggers of relapse to unhealthy eating during self-imposed abstinence. Here we report a behavioral method examining cue-induced relapse to food seeking following punishment-induced suppression of food taking. We trained male rats to lever press for food pellets that were delivered after a 10-s conditional stimulus (CS) (appetitive). Following training, 25% of reinforced lever presses resulted in the presentation of a compound stimulus consisting of a novel CS (aversive) and the appetitive CS followed by a pellet and footshock...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219696/irisin-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus-effects-of-irisin-injections-on-feeding-behavior-and-expression-of-appetite-regulators-uncoupling-proteins-and-lipoprotein-lipase-and-fasting-induced-changes-in-fndc5-expression
#2
Zahndra Diann Butt, Jessica Dalton Hackett, Hélène Volkoff
Irisin is a peptide cleaved from the fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene that is secreted predominantly by muscle cells but also by other tissues including brain and intestine. In mammals, irisin has been shown to have thermogenic actions via the modulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and to affect feeding and energy homeostasis via actions in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle and gastrointestinal tract. To examine the role of irisin on feeding and metabolism in fish, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of irisin on feeding behavior, glucose levels and the mRNA expressions of appetite regulators (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, agouti related protein AgRP, orexin), UCPs and lipoprotein lipase LPL and brain factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor , BDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase TH) were assessed in brain, white muscle and intestine...
February 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216404/discovery-of-novel-substituted-octahydropyrrolo-3-4-c-pyrroles-as-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonists-for-insomnia-treatment
#3
Songliang Wu, Yu Sun, Yi Hu, Hongmei Zhang, Lijuan Hou, Xing Liu, Yufeng Li, Haiying He, Zhi Luo, Yuan Chen, Yuhe Wang, Weihua Shi, Liang Shen, Changqing Cao, Wei Liang, Qing Xu, Qiang Lv, Jiong Lan, Jian Li, Shuhui Chen
A series of octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrroles were synthesized and evaluated by orexin 1 and 2 receptor (OX1 & 2 R) antagonists assays. Compound 14l with potent OXR antagonist activity and suitable pharmacokinetic behavior was chosen to be investigated in an EEG study, which demonstrated effects of sleep promotion comparable to Suvorexant. Furthermore, the di-fluro substituted analogs exhibited reduced hERG inhibition while maintaining moderate potency.
January 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216403/investigation-of-orexin-2-selective-receptor-antagonists-structural-modifications-resulting-in-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonists
#4
Jason W Skudlarek, Christina N DiMarco, Kerim Babaoglu, Anthony J Roecker, Joseph G Bruno, Mark A Pausch, Julie A O'Brien, Tamara D Cabalu, Joanne Stevens, Joseph Brunner, Pamela L Tannenbaum, W Peter Wuelfing, Susan L Garson, Steven V Fox, Alan T Savitz, Charles M Harrell, Anthony L Gotter, Christopher J Winrow, John J Renger, Scott D Kuduk, Paul J Coleman
In an ongoing effort to explore the use of orexin receptor antagonists for the treatment of insomnia, dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) were structurally modified, resulting in compounds selective for the OX2R subtype and culminating in the discovery of 23, a highly potent, OX2R-selective molecule that exhibited a promising in vivo profile. Further structural modification led to an unexpected restoration of OX1R antagonism. Herein, these changes are discussed and a rationale for selectivity based on computational modeling is proposed...
February 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215031/orexin-a-missing-link-between-sleep-disorders-and-heart-failure
#5
REVIEW
Stephen Pan, Carolina S Cabral, Euan A Ashley, Marco V Perez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep disorders represent a significant comorbidity in the heart failure population, and there is mounting evidence that treatment of sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea can significantly improve cardiac function. However, the link between these two disorders is still not entirely clear. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, a novel neurohormonal pathway has been elucidated involving signaling molecules now collectively known as the orexins, which have been implicated in regulating autonomic function during sleep/wake cycles...
February 18, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213131/nerp-2-regulates-gastric-acid-secretion-and-gastric-emptying-via-the-orexin-pathway
#6
Cherl Namkoong, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Hideyuki Sakoda, Kazuki Sasaki, Yoichi Ueta, Min-Seon Kim, Naoto Minamino, Masamitsu Nakazato
Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212941/injections-of-the-of-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-antagonist-prazosin-into-the-median-raphe-nucleus-increase-food-intake-and-fos-expression-in-orexin-neurons-of-free-feeding-rats
#7
Eduardo Simão da Silva, Rafael Appel Flores, Anderson Savaris Ribas, Ana Paula Taschetto, Moacir Serralvo Faria, Leandro Bueno Lima, Martin Metzger, José Donato, Marta Aparecida Paschoalini
Previously, we showed that the blockade of α1-adrenoreceptors in the median raphe nucleus (MnR) increased food intake in free-feeding rats, indicating that adrenergic mechanisms in the MnR participate in the regulation of food intake. However, the impact of such a pharmacological manipulation on other neural circuits related to food intake remains unknown. In the current study, we sought to identify forebrain regions which are responsive to α1-adrenergic receptor blockade and presumably involved in the modulation of the feeding response...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209737/gaba-cells-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-promote-cataplexy
#8
Matthew B Snow, Jimmy J Fraigne, Gabrielle Thibault-Messier, Victoria L Chuen, Aren Thomasian, Richard L Horner, John Peever
Cataplexy is a hallmark of narcolepsy characterized by the sudden uncontrollable onset of muscle weakness or paralysis during wakefulness. It can occur spontaneously, but is typically triggered by positive emotions such as laughter. Although cataplexy was identified over 130 years ago, its neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that a newly identified GABA circuit within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) promotes cataplexy. We used behavioral, electrophysiological, immunohistochemical, and chemogenetic strategies to selectively target and manipulate CeA activity in narcoleptic (orexin(-/-) ) mice to determine its functional role in controlling cataplexy...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197081/basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system-and-orexin-neurons-effects-on-attention
#9
REVIEW
Ines Villano, Antonietta Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Maria Esposito, Francesco Precenzano, Marco Carotenuto, Andrea Viggiano, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina
The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191524/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Undurti N Das
Obesity and its consequent complications such as hypertension and metabolic syndrome are increasing in incidence in almost all countries. Insulin resistance is common in obesity. Renin- angiotensin system (RAS) is an important target in the treatment of hypertension and drugs that act on RAS improve insulin resistance and decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, explaining the close association between hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RAS influences food intake by modulating the hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y and orexins via AMPK dephosphorylation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188453/orexin-a-rescues-chronic-copper-dependent-behavioral-and-hsp90-transcriptional-alterations-in-the-ornate-wrasse-brain
#11
Merylin Zizza, Marcello Canonaco, Rosa Maria Facciolo
Recently, orexin (ORX)ergic system has gained great attention for its major neuroregulatory role on fish motor, circadian, feeding activities and above all during water toxic conditions. Fish are particularly sensitive to acute sublethal copper (Cu) concentrations while little is known about neurobehavioral data after chronic Cu exposure. For this work, the marine teleost ornate wrasse (Thalassoma pavo) was monitored for 21 days during exposure to a relatively low CuCl2 concentration (0.25 mg/l). In particular, at 1 day fish displayed moderate reductions (-32%) of feeding behaviors versus controls that decreased up to -94% at 21 days...
February 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181310/localization-of-orexin-b-and-receptor-2-for-orexins-in-testicular-cytotypes-of-the-camelid-alpaca-vicugna-pacos
#12
G Liguori, C Squillacioti, L Assisi, N Mirabella, E Langella, A Costagliola, A Vittoria
The orexins A (OxA) and B (OxB) are two hypothalamic peptides involved in many physiological functions of the mammalian body. They act through the binding of two G-coupled receptors named receptor 1 (OX1 ) and receptor 2 (OX2 ) for orexins. The first receptor is specific for OxA, while the second binds both the substances with equal affinity. The orexins and the relative receptors have been traced by means of different techniques also at the periphery of the body and particularly in the adrenals, and in gastrointestinal and genital organs...
February 8, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178514/projection-target-defined-effects-of-orexin-and-dynorphin-on-vta-dopamine-neurons
#13
Corey Baimel, Benjamin K Lau, Min Qiao, Stephanie L Borgland
Circuit-specific signaling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons drives different aspects of motivated behavior, but the neuromodulatory control of these circuits is unclear. We tested the actions of co-expressed lateral hypothalamic peptides, orexin A (oxA) and dynorphin (dyn), on projection-target-defined dopamine neurons in mice. We determined that VTA dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens lateral shell (lAcbSh), medial shell (mAcbSh), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are largely non-overlapping cell populations with different electrophysiological properties...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173961/a-screen-for-modulators-reveals-that-orexin-a-rapidly-stimulates-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-expression-and-release-in-hypothalamic-cell-culture
#14
Antonieta Cote-Vélez, Anabel Martínez Báez, Leticia Lezama, Rosa María Uribe, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Jean-Louis Charli
In the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus, hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons integrate metabolic information and control the activity of the thyroid axis. Additional populations of TRH neurons reside in various hypothalamic areas, with poorly defined connections and functions, albeit there is evidence that some may be related to energy balance. To establish extracellular modulators of TRH hypothalamic neurons activity, we performed a screen of neurotransmitters effects in hypothalamic cultures...
February 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166959/the-effect-of-orexin-a-on-cyp17a1-and-cyp19a3-expression-and-on-oestradiol-oestrone-and-testosterone-secretion-in-the-porcine-uterus-during-early-pregnancy-and-the-oestrous-cycle
#15
Marta Kiezun, Nina Smolinska, Kamil Dobrzyn, Karol Szeszko, Edyta Rytelewska, Tadeusz Kaminski
Orexin A (OXA) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide known for its role in the regulation of food intake and arousal. It is also considered as a link between energy homeostasis and reproduction. Nevertheless, very little is known on the role of this peptide in the uterus. The objective of this study was to investigate OXA effect on oestradiol (E2), oestrone (E1), and testosterone (T) secretion by porcine endometrial and myometrial explants and gene expression of key steroidogenic enzymes involved in steroid production, namely cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A3), on days 10-11, 12 to 13, 15 to 16 and 27 to 28 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the cycle...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159808/optogenetic-identification-of-hypothalamic-orexin-neuron-projections-to-paraventricular-spinally-projecting-neurons
#16
Olga Dergacheva, Akihiro Yamanaka, Alan R Schwartz, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, David Mendelowitz
Orexin neurons, and activation of orexin receptors, are generally thought to be sympathoexcitatory; however, the functional connectivity between orexin neurons and a likely sympathetic target, the hypothalamic spinally-projecting neurons (SPNs) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), has not been established. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons project directly to SPNs in the PVN, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was selectively expressed in orexin neurons to enable photoactivation of ChR2-expressing fibers while examining evoked postsynaptic currents in SPNs in rat hypothalamic slices...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154844/de-orphaning-the-marine-natural-product-%C3%A2-marinopyrrole-a-by-computational-target-prediction-and-biochemical-validation
#17
P Schneider, G Schneider
Exploring the full potential of bioactive natural products and phenotypic screening hits for drug discovery and design requires profound understanding of the macromolecular targets involved. We present a computational method for target prediction, and showcase its practical applicability, taking the marine anticancer compound (±)-marinopyrrole A as an example. With an overall accuracy of 67%, the ligand-based method employed identified the natural product as a potent glucocorticoid, cholecystokinin, and orexin receptor antagonist...
February 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145492/hypocretin-orexin-peptides-excite-rat-neuroendocrine-dopamine-neurons-through-orexin-2-receptor-mediated-activation-of-a-mixed-cation-current
#18
David J Lyons, Arash Hellysaz, Rachida Ammari, Christian Broberger
Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O) neurons of the lateral hypothalamus are compelling modulator candidates for the chronobiology of neuroendocrine output and, as a consequence, hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Here we investigate the effects of H/O peptides upon tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons - cells which control, via inhibition, the pituitary secretion of prolactin. In whole cell recordings performed in male rat hypothalamic slices, application of H/O-A, as well as H/O-B, excited oscillating TIDA neurons, inducing a reversible depolarising switch from phasic to tonic discharge...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139340/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-ghb-ghb-glucuronide-in-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-narcoleptic-patients-under-sodium-oxybate-treatment
#19
Roberta Tittarelli, Simona Pichini, Daniel S Pedersen, Roberta Pacifici, Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Giuseppe Plazzi
Sodium oxybate (Xyrem(®)), the sodium salt of γ- hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is a first-line treatment of the symptoms induced by type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) and it is highly effective in improving sleep architecture, decreasing excessive daytime sleepiness and the frequency of cataplexy attacks. Using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) validated method, GHB was determined together with its glucuronide (GHB-gluc), in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of NT1 patients under sodium oxybate treatment...
January 25, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108192/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-childhood-narcolepsy
#20
REVIEW
Thomas J Dye, Neepa Gurbani, Narong Simakajornboon
It is now recognized that there are two types of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy type I or Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by the loss of hypocretin or orexin neurons. Narcolepsy type II or narcolepsy without cataplexy has normal hypocretin and the etiology is unknown. Hypocretin is a neuropeptide produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Both genetic and environmental factors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. Most patients with narcolepsy type I and half of patients with narcolepsy type II carry HLA-DQB1*0602...
December 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
keyword
keyword
4153
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"