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Defensive medicine

Olapeju Bolarinwa, Jianfeng Cai
The development of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria resulting from prolonged treatment with conventional antibiotics has necessitated the need for continuous research for better antibiotic strategies. One of these alternatives is evolutionary antimicrobial peptides also known as host-defense peptides (HDPs). HDPs are an integral part of the innate defense system in multicellular eukaryotes. Although HDPs can largely circumvent the persistent problem of antibiotic resistance due to their bacteriolytic membrane mechanism, they have some drawbacks including a low activity profile and protease instability...
June 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
José Joaquín Mira, Irene Carrillo, Carmen Silvestre, Pastora Pérez-Pérez, Cristina Nebot, Guadalupe Olivera, Javier González de Dios, Jesús María Aranaz Andrés
OBJECTIVES: Identify the sources of overuse from the point of view of the Spanish primary care professionals, and analyse the frequency of overuse due to pressure from patients in addition to the responses when professionals face these demands. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary care in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: A non-randomised sample of 2201 providers (general practitioners, paediatricians and nurses) was recruited during the survey...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Andrew Loftus, Harvey Pynn, Paul Parker
Terrorist acts occur every day around the world. Healthcare professionals are often present as bystander survivors in these situations, with none of the equipment or infrastructure they rely on in their day-to-day practice. Within several countries there has been a move to disseminate the actions to take in the event of such attacks: in the UK, Run, Hide, Tell , and in the USA, Fight Back This paper outlines how a very basic medical knowledge combined with everyday high-street items can render highly effective first aid and save lives...
June 15, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Kelly M Glynn, Penny Anderson, David J Fast, James Koedam, John F Rebhun, Rodney A Velliquette
Glycation and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) damage skin which is compounded by AGE-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Lip and facial skin could be susceptible to glycation damage as they are chronically stressed. As Gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon) root (GR) has an extensive traditional medicine history that includes providing multiple skin benefits, our objective was to determine if GR extract and its base naphthoquinone, shikonin, might protect skin by inhibiting glycation, increasing oxidative defenses, suppressing inflammatory responses, and offering ultraviolet (UV) absorptive potential in lip and facial cosmetic matrices...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Ji Hye Hwang, Hyo Won Jung, Seok Yong Kang, An Na Kang, Jun Nan Ma, Xiang Long Meng, Min Sub Hwang, Yong-Ki Park
Acupuncture with MOK, a polyherbal medicine (MOK pharmacopuncture), has been used for the treatment of thyroid syndromes including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in traditional Korean medicine. The present study investigated the effect of MOK pharmacopuncture on hypothyroidism and the mechanism underlying its antioxidation and immune regulation effects. Hypothyroidism was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of Propylthiouracil (PTU; 10 mg/kg) once daily for 4 weeks. MOK was administered by acupuncture on the acupoints around the thyroid gland of PTU-induced hypothyroidism rats once daily for 2 weeks following hypothyroidism induction...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Fei Shu, Yan Shi
Crystalline/particulate substances trigger a plethora of signaling events in host cells. The most prominent consequence is the inflammatory reactions that underlie crystal arthropathies, such as gout and pseudogout. However, their impact on our health was underestimated. Recent work on the role of cholesterol crystal in the development of atherosclerosis and the harm of environmental particulates has set up new frontiers in our defense against their detrimental effects. On the other hand, in the last 100 years, crystalline/particulate substances have been used with increasing frequencies in our daily lives as a part of new industrial manufacturing and engineering...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Samar Mahmood, Muqadus Tabraze
The issue of overprescribing laboratory investigations is an old one in the world of medical practice and it has unfortunately seen a tremendous increase with the digitalisation of medicine, in more recent times. Phrased usually as 'defensive medicine,' this kind of overmedicalisation steers medical practice away from the ethical, skill-refining fronts on the part of doctors and imposes an unnecessary financial burden on the patients' pockets, adding to their suffering. Pakistan has not been able to save itself either, from the impropriety that roots out of what is now almost a norm in medical practice...
April 8, 2018: Curēus
Heqin Li, Caili Li, Yuxing Deng, Xuwen Jiang, Shanfa Lu
The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family is one of the largest gene families in plants and plays important roles in posttranscriptional regulation. In this study, we combined whole genome sequencing and transcriptomes to systematically investigate PPRs in Salvia miltiorrhiza , which is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine and an emerging model system for medicinal plant studies. Among 562 identified SmPPRs , 299 belong to the P subfamily while the others belong to the PLS subfamily. The majority of SmPPRs have only one exon and are localized in the mitochondrion or chloroplast...
June 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cheng Loong Ngan, Azren Aida Asmawi
Inhalation therapy of lipid-based carriers has great potential in direct target towards the root of respiratory diseases, which make them superior over other drug deliveries. With the successful entry of lipid carriers into the target cells, drugs can be absorbed in a sustained release manner and yield extended medicinal effects. Nevertheless, translation of inhalation therapy from laboratory to clinic especially in drug delivery remains a key challenge to the formulators. An ideal drug vehicle should safeguard the drugs from any premature elimination, facilitate cellular uptake, and promote maximum drug absorption with negligible toxicity...
June 7, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Cynthia A Connolly, Janet Golden
In April 1918, President Woodrow Wilson, alarmed at the high draftee rejection rate, proclaimed the second year of American engagement in World War I as "Children's Year." The motto of the nationwide program was to "Save 100,000 Babies." Children's Year represented a multipronged child welfare campaign aimed at gathering data on best practices regarding maternal and child health promotion, documenting the effects of poverty on ill health, reducing the school drop-out rate, ensuring safe play spaces for children, and addressing the unique needs of targeted populations such as orphans and delinquents...
July 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Steven A Farmer, Ali Moghtaderi, Samantha Schilsky, David Magid, William Sage, Nori Allen, Frederick A Masoudi, Avi Dor, Bernard Black
Importance: Physicians often report practicing defensive medicine to reduce malpractice risk, including performing expensive but marginally beneficial tests and procedures. Although there is little evidence that malpractice reform affects overall health care spending, it may influence physician behavior for specific conditions involving clinical uncertainty. Objective: To examine whether reducing malpractice risk is associated with clinical decisions involving coronary artery disease testing and treatment...
June 6, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Vera Meyer, Sascha Jung
The emergence and spread of pathogenic fungi resistant to currently used antifungal drugs represents a serious challenge for medicine and agriculture. The use of smart antimicrobials, so-called "dirty drugs" which affect multiple cellular targets, is one strategy to prevent resistance. Of special interest is the exploitation of the AFP family of antimicrobial peptides, which include its founding member AFP from Aspergillus giganteus . This latter is a highly potent inhibitor of chitin synthesis and affects plasma membrane integrity in many human and plant pathogenic fungi...
June 2, 2018: Microorganisms
Pragati Choudhri, Muniya Rani, Rajender S Sangwan, Ravinder Kumar, Anil Kumar, Vinod Chhokar
BACKGROUND: Aloe vera is a perennial, succulent, drought-resistant plant that exhibits many pharmacological characteristics such as wound healing ability against skin burns, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-asthmatic and much more. Despite great medicinal worth, little genomic information is available on Aloe vera. This study is an initiative to explore the full-scale functional genomics of Aloe vera by generating whole transcriptome sequence database, using Illumina HiSeq technology and its progressive annotation specifically with respect to the metabolic specificity of the plant...
June 1, 2018: BMC Genomics
Fabian Schweizer, Maite Colinas, Jacob Pollier, Alex Van Moerkercke, Robin Vanden Bossche, Rebecca de Clercq, Alain Goossens
To fend off microbial pathogens and herbivores, plants have evolved a wide range of defense strategies such as physical barriers, or the production of anti-digestive proteins or bioactive specialized metabolites. Accumulation of the latter compounds is often regulated by transcriptional activation of the biosynthesis pathway genes by the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine. Here, we used our recently developed flower petal transformation method in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus to shed light on the complex regulatory mechanisms steering the jasmonate-modulated biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), to which the anti-cancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine belong...
May 28, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Leemon B McHenry
OBJECTIVE: Examination of de-classified Monsanto documents from litigation in order to expose the impact of the company's efforts to influence the reporting of scientific studies related to the safety of the herbicide, glyphosate. METHODS: A set of 141 recently de-classified documents, made public during the course of pending toxic tort litigation, In Re Roundup Products Liability Litigation were examined. RESULTS: The documents reveal Monsanto-sponsored ghostwriting of articles published in toxicology journals and the lay media, interference in the peer review process, behind-the-scenes influence on retraction and the creation of a so-called academic website as a front for the defense of Monsanto products...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
Jennifer French, J Luis Lujan, Dawn Bardot, Emily Lauren Graczyk, Allison Hess-Dunning, Ronald J Triolo, Megan Moynahan, Winny Tan, Adeline Zbrzeski
Neural Engineering is a discipline at the intersection of neuroscience, engineering, and clinical care. Recent major efforts by government and industry aimed at bringing forth personalized therapies, increasing the potential of the neural engineering industry for future growth, eg. the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative and Stimulating Peripheral Activity to Relieve Conditions (SPARC) Common Fund Program, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) and Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS) Programs, and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectric Medicines Initiative...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jorge Pérez-Ávila, Maria G Guzmán-Tirado, Jorge Fraga-Nodarse, Gray Handley, James Meegan, Jose L Pelegrino-Martínez de la Cotera, Anthony S Fauci
After December 17, 2014, when the US and Cuban governments announced their intent to restore relations, the two countries participated in various exchange activities in an effort to encourage cooperation in public health, health research and biomedical sciences. The conference entitled Exploring Opportunities for Arbovirus Research Collaboration, hosted at Havana's Hotel Nacional, was part of these efforts and was the first major US-Cuban scientific conference in over 50 years. Its purpose was to share information about current arbovirus research and recent findings, and to explore opportunities for future joint research...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
Aline Cristine da Silva de Souza, Geferson de Almeida Gonсalves, Andréia Assunсão Soares, Anacharis B de Sá-Nakanishi, Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo, Maria Raquel Marсal Natali, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of the administration of an aqueous Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the oxidative state of the liver, brain, and plasma in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, a model for human rheumatoid arthritis. Daily doses of 400 mg · kg-1 were administered by gavage for 23 days. This treatment produced significant diminutions in protein carbonylation and lipid damage in the liver, brain, and plasma. It also diminished the tissue reactive oxygen species and increased the antioxidant capacity of the plasma...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Anhuan Shi, Jianming Xiang, Fangyan He, Yanping Zhu, Gongbei Zhu, Yuhan Lin, Ningna Zhou
Pharmacological or spontaneous thrombolysis in ischemic stroke triggers an outbreak of reactive oxygen species and results in neuron death. Nrf2-mediated antioxidation in cells has been proved as a pivotal target for neuroprotection. This research reports that phenolic components of Gastrodia elata Blume (PCGE), a traditional Chinese medicine, can alleviate the pathological lesions in the penumbra and hippocampus by increasing the survival of neurons and astrocytes and improve neurofunction and cognition after reperfusion in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Tsuyoshi Fujita, Tetsuya Yoshimoto, Mikihito Kajiya, Kazuhisa Ouhara, Shinji Matsuda, Tasuku Takemura, Keiichi Akutagawa, Katsuhiro Takeda, Noriyoshi Mizuno, Hidemi Kurihara
Periodontal disease is a bacterial biofilm-associated inflammatory disease that has been implicated in many systemic diseases. A new preventive method for periodontal disease needs to be developed in order to promote the health of the elderly in a super-aged society. The gingival epithelium plays an important role as a mechanical barrier against bacterial invasion and a part of the innate immune response to infectious inflammation in periodontal tissue. The disorganization of cell-cell interactions and subsequent inflammation contribute to the initiation of periodontal disease...
May 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
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