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Defensive medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198622/a-cell-penetrant-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-mnsod-mimic-is-able-to-complement-mnsod-and-exerts-an-antiinflammatory-effect-on-cellular-and-animal-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#1
Emilie Mathieu, Anne-Sophie Bernard, Nicolas Delsuc, Elodie Quévrain, Géraldine Gazzah, Barry Lai, Florian Chain, Philippe Langella, Maria Bachelet, Joelle Masliah, Philippe Seksik, Clotilde Policar
Inorganic complexes are increasingly used for biological and medicinal applications, and the question of the cell penetration and distribution of metallodrugs is key to understanding their biological activity. Oxidative stress is known to be involved in inflammation and in inflammatory bowel diseases for which antioxidative defenses are weakened. We report here the study of the manganese complex Mn1 mimicking superoxide dismutase (SOD), a protein involved in cell protection against oxidative stress, using an approach in inorganic cellular chemistry combining the investigation of Mn1 intracellular speciation using mass spectrometry and of its quantification and distribution using electron paramagnetic resonance and spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence with evaluation of its biological activity...
February 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176198/constituents-of-leaves-from-bauhinia-curvula-benth-exert-gastroprotective-activity-in-rodents-role-of-quercitrin-and-kaempferol
#2
Ana Paula Beber, Priscila de Souza, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Luísa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Benhur Judah Cury, Ligia Moura Burci, Cristiane Bezerra da Silva, Euclésio Simionatto, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Luísa Mota da Silva
The Bauhinia genus is known as "Pata-de-Vaca" and a wide variety of these species are used in Brazilian folk medicine due to their gastroprotective properties. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract from B. curvula (HEBC) leaves, as well as its semi-purified fraction (SPFr) and the contribution of their phytochemicals constituents for this effect. For that, ethanol 60%/HCl 0.3 M- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer were performed in rodents. Gastric ulcerated tissues were processed for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis...
February 7, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164123/novel-approach-to-classify-plants-based-on-metabolite-content-similarity
#3
Kang Liu, Azian Azamimi Abdullah, Ming Huang, Takaaki Nishioka, Md Altaf-Ul-Amin, Shigehiko Kanaya
Secondary metabolites are bioactive substances with diverse chemical structures. Depending on the ecological environment within which they are living, higher plants use different combinations of secondary metabolites for adaptation (e.g., defense against attacks by herbivores or pathogenic microbes). This suggests that the similarity in metabolite content is applicable to assess phylogenic similarity of higher plants. However, such a chemical taxonomic approach has limitations of incomplete metabolomics data...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162767/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-australian-arid-land-plant-eremophila-serrulata-a-dc-druce-scrophulariaceae-for-the-identification-of-monoterpene-synthases
#4
Octavia Natascha Kracht, Ann-Christin Ammann, Julia Stockmann, Daniel Wibberg, Jörn Kalinowski, Markus Piotrowski, Russell Kerr, Thomas Brück, Robert Kourist
Plant terpenoids are a large and highly diverse class of metabolites with an important role in the immune defense. They find wide industrial application as active pharmaceutical ingredients, aroma and fragrance compounds. Several Eremophila sp. derived terpenoids have been documented. To elucidate the terpenoid metabolism, the transcriptome of juvenile and mature Eremophila serrulata (A.DC.) Druce (Scrophulariaceae) leaves was sequenced and a transcript library was generated. We report on the first transcriptomic dataset of an Eremophila plant...
February 2, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148262/demographic-factors-associated-with-dietary-supplement-prescriptions-filled-by-united-states-military-service-members-2005-2013
#5
Joseph J Knapik, Rosenie T Jean, Krista G Austin, Ryan A Steelman, Emily K Farina, Harris R Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements (DSs) can be purchased over-the-counter but may also be prescribed by medical personnel for specific therapeutic reasons. Few studies have examined this latter source of DSs despite the fact that 79% of physicians and 82% of nurses have recommended DSs to their patients. This investigation examined demographic factors associated with temporal trends in oral DS prescriptions filled by all United States (US) service members (SMs) from 2005 to 2013 (n = 1,427,080 ± 22,139, mean ± standard deviation per year)...
January 31, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145944/transforming-medical-assessment-integrating-uncertainty-into-the-evaluation-of-clinical-reasoning-in-medical-education
#6
Suzette Cooke, Jean-Francois Lemay
In an age where practicing physicians have access to an overwhelming volume of clinical information and are faced with increasingly complex medical decisions, the ability to execute sound clinical reasoning is essential to optimal patient care. The authors propose two concepts that are philosophically paramount to the future assessment of clinical reasoning in medicine: assessment in the context of "uncertainty" (when, despite all of the information that is available, there is still significant doubt as to the best diagnosis, investigation, or treatment), and acknowledging that it is entirely possible (and reasonable) to have more than "one correct answer...
January 31, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131060/proteomic-comparison-of-chelidonium-majus-l-latex-in-different-phases-of-plant-development
#7
Robert Nawrot, Rico Lippmann, Andrea Matros, Oskar Musidlak, Grzegorz Nowicki, Hans-Peter Mock
Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) latex is used in traditinonal folk medicine to treat papillae, warts, condylomas, which are visible effects of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. The aim of this work was to provide new insights into the biology and medicinal use of C. majus milky sap in the flowering and fruit ripening period of the plant by comparing the protein content between samples collected on respective developmental stages using LC-MS-based label-free proteome approach. For quantification, the multiplexed LC-MS data were processed using comparative chemometric approach...
January 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129637/damage-caps-and-defensive-medicine-revisited
#8
Myungho Paik, Bernard Black, David A Hyman
Does tort reform reduce defensive medicine and thus healthcare spending? Several (though not all) prior studies, using a difference-in-differences (DiD) approach, find lower Medicare spending for hospital care after states adopt caps on non-economic or total damages ("damage caps"), during the "second" reform wave of the mid-1980s. We re-examine this issue in several ways. We study the nine states that adopted caps during the "third reform wave," from 2002 to 2005. We find that damage caps have no significant impact on Medicare Part A spending, but predict roughly 4% higher Medicare Part B spending...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127752/malpractice-claim-fears-and-the-costs-of-treating-medicare-patients-a-new-approach-to-estimating-the-costs-of-defensive-medicine
#9
James D Reschovsky, Cynthia B Saiontz-Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of defensive medicine among elderly Medicare patients. DATA SOURCES: We use a 2008 national physician survey linked to respondents' elderly Medicare patients' claims data. STUDY DESIGN: Using a sample of survey respondent/beneficiary dyads stratified by physician specialty, we estimated cross-sectional regressions of annual costs on patient covariates and a medical malpractice fear index formed from five validated physician survey questions...
January 26, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123275/role-of-forensic-odontology-in-the-indian-armed-forces-an-unexplored-arena
#10
REVIEW
Karandeep Singh Arora, Prabhpreet Kaur
Forensic odontology (FO) is a branch of forensic medicine that in the interest of justice deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence. Teeth can survive in most conditions encountered at death and during decomposition, even when the body is exposed to extreme forces and/or temperatures. FO is being practiced worldwide since 1775, after which it has not only become an integral part of the judicial system of the developed countries but also been adopted by the armed forces and investigative agencies of these countries...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103985/-ding-ganren-and-the-shanghai-professional-college-of-chinese-medicine
#11
Y E Ding
Ding Ganren (1866-1926), a distinguished representative of the Menghe Medical School, created a new school of unifying the Cold pathogenic disease with Warm febrile disease by adopting a new therapeutic method of integrating the Six-channel and Defense-qi-nutrient-blood syndrome differentiation, and simultaneously applying the classical formula with seasonal formula for treating against the exogenous febrile disease, which was quite an innovative approach. Ding Ganren paid high attention to the advancement of the education of Chinese medicine and founded the first official medical school in 1916 called the "Shanghai Professional College of Chinese Medicine" ...
November 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092845/cinnamaldehyde-potentially-attenuates-gestational-hyperglycemia-in-rats-through-modulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress
#12
Ahmed A Hosni, A Adel Abdel-Moneim, Eman S Abdel-Reheim, Samah M Mohamed, Hamdi Helmy
Cinnamon has a history of use for medicinal purposes and its major benefits have been linked to cinnamaldehyde. The present study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic action of cinnamaldehyde against fatty-sucrosed diet/streptozotocin (FSD/STZ)-rat model of gestational diabetes. Female albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I fed with normal diet (ND) while group II and III were fed with FSD for eight weeks (five weeks pre-gestational and three weeks gestational). Rats of group III were administered with a daily oral dose of 20mg/kg cinnamaldehyde one week before mating onward...
January 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079933/co-expression-of-peppermint-geranyl-diphosphate-synthase-small-subunit-enhances-monoterpene-production-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#13
Jun-Lin Yin, Woon-Seng Wong, In-Cheol Jang, Nam-Hai Chua
Monoterpenes are important for plant survival and useful to humans. In addition to their function in plant defense, monoterpenes are also used as flavors, fragrances and medicines. Several metabolic engineering strategies have been explored to produce monoterpene in tobacco but only trace amounts of monoterpenes have been detected. We investigated the effects of Solanum lycopersicum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (SlDXS), Arabidopsis thaliana geranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (AtGPS) and Mentha × piperita geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit (MpGPS...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078741/effect-of-an-art-brut-therapy-program-called-go-beyond-the-schizophrenia-gbts-on-prison-inmates-with-schizophrenia-in-mainland-china-a-randomized-longitudinal-and-controlled-trial
#14
Hong-Zhong Qiu, Zeng-Jie Ye, Mu-Zi Liang, Yue-Qun Huang, Wei Liu, Zhi-Dong Lu
: Creative arts therapies are proven to promote an interconnection between body and mind, but there are major obstacles for providing therapeutic services in prisons due to inmates' inherent mistrust for verbal disclosure and rigid self-defenses, especially among inmates with schizophrenia. Thus, we developed a structured and quantitative art brut therapy program called go beyond the schizophrenia to actually measure the benefits of art therapy on prison inmates in mainland China. Upon completion of the program, the intervention group reported a decrease in anxiety, depression, anger, and negative psychiatric symptoms and showed better compliance with rules, socialization with peers, compliance with medications, and regular sleeping patterns after 16 weekly sessions of go beyond the schizophrenia...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066109/cerebroprotective-activity-of-pentapetes-phoenicea-on-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#15
Koneru Naga Sravanthi, Nadendla Rama Rao
OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to evaluate the cerebroprotective activity of methanolic extract (ME) of Pentapetes phoenicea - a folk medicine used as anti-inflammatory and in central nervous system ailments. It has high phenolic and flavonoid contents including rutin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Global cerebral ischemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by temporary bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min, followed by 4 h reperfusion. Groups of rats were pretreated for 10 days with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of ME of P...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060984/-saints-in-medicine-during-the-great-wars-of-the-twentieth-century
#16
María Agustina Martini, Bárbara C Finn, Julio E Bruetman, Pablo Young
In the political and social context of World War periods and unstoppable technological advances, health professionals in the early twentieth century tried to orientate the practice of medicine towards a modern anthropological concept close to the biomedical perspective, which defends the dignity of a person. Threatened by the risks represented by collectivism and the meanness of the prevailing repressive governments, a personal struggle for the defense of life aroused, which was socially expressed by the advent of bioethics, psychoanalytic theories and the concept that environment has an important role in people’s health and welfare...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051966/operational-perspective-of-lessons-learned-from-the-ebola-crisis
#17
Zygmunt F Dembek, Jerry L Mothershead, Tesema Chekol, David B Myers, Ronald G Meris, Dana Meranus, Aiguo Wu
Given its potential to quickly spread internationally and initially uncontrollable nature, the 2014 to 2015 Ebola outbreak has implications for global biosecurity. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Technical Reachback provided near real-time analysis and recommendations as outbreak-relevant events unfolded. Our review of often-conflicting or incomplete information was required to answer policy decision makers about the expanding Ebola epidemic, and enable the formulation of best-possible U.S. Department of Defense and Government response...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050797/debates-about-conflict-of-interest-in-medicine-deconstructing-a-divided-discourse
#18
Serena Purdy, Miles Little, Christopher Mayes, Wendy Lipworth
The pharmaceutical industry plays an increasingly dominant role in healthcare, raising concerns about "conflicts of interest" (COI) on the part of the medical professionals who interact with the industry. However, there is considerable disagreement over the extent to which COI is a problem and how it should be managed. Participants in debates about COI have become entrenched in their views, which is both unproductive and deeply confusing for the majority of medical professionals trying to work in an increasingly commercialized environment...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049396/oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-potential-of-one-hundred-medicinal-plants
#19
Waseem Hassan, Hamsa Noreen, Shakila Rehman, Shehnaz Gul, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Jean Paul Kamdem, Bakht Zaman, Joao B T da Rocha
Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc...
January 2, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043593/new-approaches-in-drug-treatment-for-tuberculosis-inhalation-using-liposomes-only-a-future-vision-or-soon-in-clinical-practice
#20
Lars-Olof Larsson
A major change of therapy in respiratory medicine has been the transition from oral or parenteral to inhalation therapy, for example, in asthma. Inhalation of anti-infectious drugs has however not a key-role in the treatment of pulmonary infections such as tuberculosis (TB). The inhalation therapy provides several benefits; the target is reached directly with evasion of first-pass metabolism, thereby resulting in reduced systemic side effects. Furthermore, the drug is delivered to an extensive surface area that is rich in lymphoid tissue...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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