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Defensive medicine

Sisheng Qi, Bin Zhang, Chengcheng Zhai, Yaocheng Li, Anping Yang, Yi Yu, Dingyuan Tang, Zhiyong Yang, Barry Luther-Davies
A flexible chalcogenide fiber bundle (FB) with a resolution as high as ~31 lp/mm has been fabricated for delivering thermal images of objects at room temperature. The FB is composed of ~200,000 single fibers with a Ge-As-Te-Se glass core 15 μm in diameter and a polyetherimide (PEI) cladding 16.8 μm in diameter. These Ge-As-Te-Se/PEI fibers show good transparency in the 3-12 μm spectral region. The fabricated FB presents a filling factor of ~72% and a crosstalk of ~1%. High-quality thermal images of a human hand were obtained through the FB, demonstrating good potential of the FB for longwave infrared imaging in the areas such as medicine, industry and defense...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Rita Morigi, Beatrice Vitali, Cecilia Prata, Rogers A A Palomino, Alessandra Graziadio, Alessandra Locatelli, Mirella Rambaldi, Alberto Leoni
BACKGROUND: Fused five-membered heterocyclic rings containing bridgehead nitrogen atom are particularly versatile in the field of medicinal chemistry because of their different biological activities. Among them, the imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole is an attractive fused heterocyclic core that has been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to study the therapeutic applications of imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives as antimicrobial agents for the treatment of genitourinary infections...
October 10, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
William V Padula, Robert Brett McQueen, Peter J Pronovost
The Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine convened on December 7, 2016 at the National Academy of Medicine to disseminate their recommendations for conduct, methodological practices, and reporting of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). Following its summary, panel proceedings included lengthy discussions including the field's struggle to disseminate findings efficiently through peer-reviewed literature to target audiences. With editors of several medical and outcomes research journals in attendance, there was consensus that findings of cost-effectiveness analyses do not effectively reach other researchers or health care providers...
November 2017: Medical Care
Yan-Hong Xu, Yong-Cui Liao, Fei-Fei Lv, Zheng Zhang, Pei-Wen Sun, Zhi-Hui Gao, Ke-Ping Hu, Chun Sui, Yue Jin, Jian-He Wei
Sesquiterpenes are one of the most important defensive secondary metabolite components of agarwood. Agarwood, which is a product of the Aquilaria sinensis response to external damage, is a fragrant and resinous wood that is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. We previously reported that jasmonate acid (JA) plays an important role in promoting agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis and induces expression of the sesquiterpene synthase ASS1, which is a key enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of agarwood sesquiterpenes in A...
September 7, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xiaogang Du, Fangliang Lian, Yunkun Li, Dong Li, Dayong Wu, Qunli Feng, Zhijiang Feng, Yun Li, Guixian Bu, Fengyan Meng, Xiaohan Cao, Zhiyu Chen, Xianyin Zeng
Colochirus robustus, a species of sea cucumber, has long been used in East and Southeast Asia as nutritious food as well as for certain medicinal purpose. Studies have shown a number of biological functions associated with consumption of sea cucumber, many of which are attributed to its major component, sea cucumber peptides (SCP). However, how SCP impacts immune system, which is critical for host defense, has not been defined. To address this issue, in the present study, we conducted comprehensive analysis of immune function after oral administration of SCP (0, 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg body weigh) for eight weeks in C57BL/6 mice...
October 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ayhan Olcay, Sadık Volkan Emren, Gamze Babür Güler, Ekrem Güler, Vedat Ertunç, Rida Berilgen, Abdullah Aslan, Ersin Çağrı Şimşek, Şükriye Ebru Gölcük, Kıvanç Yalın
OBJECTIVE: Cardiologists participate in the diagnosis and interventional treatment of numerous high-risk patients. The goal of this study was to investigate how the current malpractice system in Turkey influences cardiologists' diagnostic and interventional behavior and to obtain their opinions about an alternative patient compensation system. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study assessed the practice of defensive medicine among cardiologists who are actively working in various types of workplace within the Turkish healthcare system...
October 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Mohammad Y Ansari, Nazir M Khan, Tariq M Haqqi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of joint dysfunction, disability and poor quality of life in the affected population. The underlying mechanism of joint dysfunction involves increased oxidative stress, inflammation, high levels of cartilage extracellular matrix degrading proteases and decline in autophagy-a mechanism of cellular defense. There is no disease modifying therapies currently available for OA. Different parts of the Butea monosperma (Lam.) plant have widely been used in the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine system for the treatment of various human diseases including inflammatory conditions...
October 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nana Akino, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Hiromi Terao, Harunori Honjoh, Wataru Isono, Houju Fu, Mana Hirano, Yuichiro Miyamoto, Michihiro Tanikawa, Miyuki Harada, Tetsuya Hirata, Yasushi Hirota, Kaori Koga, Katsutoshi Oda, Kei Kawana, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway is one of the most important defense mechanisms against oxidative stress (OS). It is well documented that equilibration status of OS plays fundamental roles in human reproductive medicine, and the physiological role of Nrf2 in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) has not been determined yet. Herein we aimed to study the function of Nrf2 in GCs. Human ovarian tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry to localize Nrf2 and Keap1 and we detected the expression of Nrf2 and Keap1 in the human GCs...
October 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Céline M Desmet, Gaëlle Vandermeulen, Caroline Bouzin, Martin C Lam, Véronique Préat, Philippe Levêque, Bernard Gallez
PURPOSE: To investigate the value of electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry to follow oxygenation in wounds treated by a plasmid-encoding host defense peptide hCAP-18/LL37. METHODS: Flaps were created on diabetic mice (7- or 12-week-old db/db mice) presenting different levels of microangiopathy. The hCAP-18/LL37-encoding plasmids were administered in wounds by electroporation. Low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using lithium phthalocyanine as the oxygen sensor was used to monitor wound oxygenation in flaps during the healing process...
October 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
A L Souza, J L Lopez-Losano, P C S Angelo, J N Souza-Neto, I B Cordeiro, S Astolfi-Filho, E V Andrade
Paullinia cupana Kunth var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke, the cultivated guarana plant, is native to the Amazon and has been valued for its medicinal, stimulant and energetic properties for centuries. The seeds are the main commercial product of the plant and the source of high amounts of purine alkaloids (caffeine and theobromine) and polyphenols (flavonoids, catechins, and tannins). Proteins involved in the development and maturation of guarana fruits in its native habitat are interesting issues for proteomics...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Natalie Wiedemar, Fabrice E Graf, Michaela Zwyer, Emiliana Ndomba, Christina Kunz Renggli, Monica Cal, Remo S Schmidt, Tanja Wenzler, Pascal Mäser
Suramin is one of the first drugs developed in a medicinal chemistry program (Bayer, 1916), and it is still the treatment of choice for the hemolymphatic stage of African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Cellular uptake of suramin occurs by endocytosis, and reverse genetic studies with T. b. brucei have linked downregulation of the endocytic pathway to suramin resistance. Here we show that forward selection for suramin resistance in T. brucei spp. cultures is fast, highly reproducible, and linked to antigenic variation...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Hasina Perveen, Moumita Dash, Shamima Khatun, Moulima Maity, Syed Sirajul Islam, Sandip Chattopadhyay
Momordica charantia (MC) fruit known as bitter gourd, is of potential nutritional and medicinal value. The objectives of the present in vitro study were to evaluate the efficacy of bioactive pectic polysaccharides (CCPS) of MC along with another well-known bioactive compound curcumin in the abrogation of hepatocellular oxidative stress persuaded by sodium arsenite. Electrozymographic method was developed for the assessment of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities of liver tissues maintained under an in vitro system...
September 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
H Kocic, I Arsic, M Stankovic, D Tiodorovic, V Ciric, G Kocic
Semi-essential amino acid L-arginine may be of fundamental importance in various intracellular and intercellular pathways related to skin repair and wound healing. Our current study was aimed to explore the effect of L-arginine on skin fibroblast (L929) signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation (Akt-pAkt kinase, Erk/pErk1/2 kinase, JNK/pJNK kinase and pStat-1), apoptosis (Bcl2 and Bax) and immune defense (NF-κB and CD26). Significant upregulation of Erk (p<0.011), pErk (p<0.017) and JNK (p<0...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
L Li, J H Lang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Jamila Bettaib, Hélène Talarmin, Feten Zar Kalai, Marie-Agnès Giroux-Metges, Riadh Ksouri
Limoniastrum guyonianum is used in several regions of North Africa as a folk medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activities of L. guyonianum roots and their cytoprotective action on H2O2-challenged rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6 cells). To assess the cytoprotective effect of L. guyonianum extract (LGE), IEC-6 cells were pre-incubated with different LGE concentrations. Then, IEC-6 cultures were exposed to 40μM H2O2 during 4h. Modulation of endogenous antioxidant system including SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH and the expression of possibly involved MAPKs was evaluated...
September 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jing Cai, Yun Ma, Jian-Wei Chen, Xiang Li, Ping Zhou
Changium smyrnioides is an endangered and endemic medicinal herb in China which contains rich furanocoumarins. Bergaptol, bergapten and xanthotoxin are natural furanocoumarins in Ch. smyrnioides, among which bergaptol is mainly contained in in vitro cultures while the latter ones distribute in all organs and cultures of the plant. In this study, methyl jasmonate was used to elicit furanocoumarins in both cultivated plant and suspension cells. The accumulations of biomass and 3 furanocoumarins as well as the activity of cell, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and antioxidase were detected...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sangeeta S Chavan, Pingchuan Ma, Isaac M Chiu
Sensory and autonomic neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) play a critical role in regulating the immune system during tissue inflammation and host defense. Recent studies have identified the molecular mechanisms underlying the bidirectional communication between the nervous system and the immune system. Here, we highlight the studies that demonstrate the importance of the neuro-immune interactions in health and disease. Nociceptor sensory neurons detect immune mediators to produce pain, and release neuropeptides that act on the immune system to regulate inflammation...
September 23, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Sandra C Yan, Alexander F C Hulsbergen, Ivo S Muskens, Marjel van Dam, William B Gormley, Marike L D Broekman, Timothy R Smith
OBJECTIVE: In defensive medicine, practice is motivated by legal rather than medical reasons. Previous studies have analyzed the correlation between perceived medico-legal risk and defensive behavior among neurosurgeons in the United States, Canada, and South Africa, but not yet in Europe. The aim of this study is to explore perceived liability burdens and self-reported defensive behaviors among neurosurgeons in the Netherlands and compare their practices with their non-European counterparts...
September 20, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
Verena Spiegler, Andreas Hensel, Jochen Seggewiß, Milena Lubisch, Eva Liebau
Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are affected by infestations with soil-transmitted helminths and also in veterinary medicine helminthiases are a severe threat to livestock due to emerging resistances against the common anthelmintics. Proanthocyanidins have been increasingly investigated for their anthelmintic properties, however, except for an interaction with certain proteins of the nematodes, not much is known about their mode of action. To investigate the anthelmintic activity on a molecular level, a transcriptome analysis was performed in Caenorhabditis elegans after treatment with purified and fully characterized oligomeric procyanidins (OPC)...
2017: PloS One
Odette Wegwarth, Gerd Gigerenzer
An efficient health care requires both informed doctors and patients. Our current healthcare system falls short on both counts. Most doctors and patients do not understand the available medical evidence. To illustrate the extent of the problem in the setting of cancer screening: In a representative sample of some 5000 women in nine European countries, 92% overestimated the reduction of breast cancer mortality by mammography by a factor of 10-200, or did not know. For a similar sample of about 5000 men with respect to PSA screening, this number was 89%...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
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