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Defensive medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546409/bad-medicine-defensiveness
#1
Des Spence
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534429/prevalence-and-costs-of-defensive-medicine-a-national-survey-of-italian-physicians
#2
Massimiliano Panella, Carmela Rinaldi, Fabrizio Leigheb, Sanita Knesse, Chiara Donnarumma, Seval Kul, Kris Vanhaecht, Francesco Di Stanislao
Objective To identify the prevalence of the practice of defensive medicine among Italian hospital physicians, its costs and the reasons for practising defensive medicine and possible solutions to reduce the practice of defensive medicine. Methods Cross-sectional web survey. Main outcome measures Number of physicians reporting having engaged in any defensive medicine behaviour in the previous year. Results A total of 1313 physicians completed the survey. Ninety-five per cent believed that defensive medicine would increase in the near future...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507539/new-insight-into-inter-kingdom-communication-horizontal-transfer-of-mobile-small-rnas
#3
REVIEW
Geyu Zhou, Yu Zhou, Xi Chen
Small RNAs (sRNAs), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), are conventionally regarded as critical molecular regulators of various intracellular processes. However, recent accumulating evidence indicates that sRNAs can be transferred within cells and tissues and even across species. In plants, nematodes and microbes, these mobile sRNAs can mediate inter-kingdom communication, environmental sensing, gene expression regulation, host-parasite defense and many other biological functions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506414/unintentional-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-injuries-following-thyroidectomy-is-it-the-surgeon-who-pays-the-bill
#4
REVIEW
C Gambardella, A Polistena, A Sanguinetti, R Patrone, S Napolitano, D Esposito, D Testa, V Marotta, A Faggiano, P G Calò, N Avenia, G Conzo
BACKGROUND: Thyroidectomy is one of the most common intervention in general surgery and, after the turn of the century, its rate has sharply increased, along with a worldwide increased incidence of differentiated thyroid cancers. Therefore, injuries of the recurrent laryngeal nerve have become one of the most frequent cause of surgical malpractice claims, mostly following surgery for benign pathology. MAIN BODY: Even if the incidence of definitive paralysis is generally lower than 3%, during the last 20 years in Italy, the number of claims for damages has sharply raised...
May 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494707/histologic-and-ultrastructural-findings-in-dogs-with-chronic-respiratory-disease-suspected-of-ciliary-dyskinesia
#5
Ileana C Miranda, Jennifer L Granick, Anibal G Armién
Mucociliary clearance is a main defense mechanism of the respiratory tract, which can be inherently impaired in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) or reversibly altered in secondary ciliary dyskinesia (SCD). Limited diagnostic test availability likely leads to misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of PCD in animals. This study evaluated the light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) changes in the respiratory mucosa of 15 dogs with chronic respiratory disease suspected of PCD. Necropsy was performed in 1 case and 2 dogs were used as negative controls...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477295/do-tort-reforms-impact-the-incidence-of-birth-by-cesarean-section-a-reassessment
#6
Javier Cano-Urbina, Daniel Montanera
Investigations into the existence and impact of defensive medicine in obstetrics have produced mixed and often conflicting implications. The most widely-cited and accepted results in this literature find that less severe malpractice environments cause an increase in the use of cesarean section. This has been interpreted as "offensive medicine"; taking advantage of lenient malpractice environments by providing unnecessary services in order to raise revenue. In this article we show that an assumption concerning births with an unknown method of delivery, which is not explicitly stated in the literature, is pivotal in obtaining these results...
March 2017: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476982/effects-of-bimetallic-nanoparticles-on-seed-germination-frequency-and-biochemical-characterisation-of-eruca-sativa
#7
Mehreen Zaka, Bilal Haider Abbasi
In the modern era of science and technology, nanotechnology is becoming popular science field because materials at nanoscale contain improved physical, chemical and biological properties. This study aimed to explore the capacity of bimetallic nanoparticle alloys of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), gold (Au) in different ratios to evaluate the effects on medicinally important plant Eruca sativa. Biochemical parameters of Eruca sativa were studied by applying bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Seeds of Eruca sativa were germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium with various combinations of nanoparticles suspension employed in concentration of (30 µg/ml)...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467491/the-gene-expression-profile-of-a-drug-metabolism-system-and-signal-transduction-pathways-in-the-liver-of-mice-treated-with-tert-butylhydroquinone-or-3-3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-propylthiosulfonate-of-sodium
#8
Alexandra B Shintyapina, Valentin A Vavilin, Olga G Safronova, Vyacheslav V Lyakhovich
Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a highly effective phenolic antioxidant used in edible oils and fats in foods as well as in medicines and cosmetics. TBHQ has been shown to have both chemoprotective and carcinogenic effects. Furthermore, it has potential anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, and neuroprotective activities. TBHQ induces phase II detoxification enzymes via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE mechanism, which contributes to its chemopreventive functions. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that biological effects of tBHQ may be mediated by Nrf2-independent mechanisms related to various signaling cascades...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442477/nobel-laureate-a-v-hill-and-the-refugee-scholars-1933-1945
#9
Jack A Rall
A. V. Hill shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his investigation of the energetics of muscular contraction. His scientific work has been well chronicled over many years (Rall JA. Mechanism of Muscular Contraction, 2014). There is the natural tendency to focus solely on an investigator's scientific achievements. But in the case of Hill, it has been said (Katz B. Biogr Mem Fellows R Soc 24: 71-149, 1978) that "it was his devotion to such wider issues, outside the boundaries of his own research, through which he exerted his most important influence on other people's lives and on the course of events...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434458/relationship-between-state-malpractice-environment-and-quality-of-health-care-in-the-united-states
#10
Karl Y Bilimoria, Jeanette W Chung, Christina A Minami, Min-Woong Sohn, Emily S Pavey, Jane L Holl, Michelle M Mello
BACKGROUND: One major intent of the medical malpractice system in the United States is to deter negligent care and to create incentives for delivering high-quality health care. A study was conducted to assess whether state-level measures of malpractice risk were associated with hospital quality and patient safety. METHODS: In an observational study of short-term, acute-care general hospitals in the United States that publicly reported in the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services Hospital Compare in 2011, hierarchical regression models were used to estimate associations between state-specific malpractice environment measures (rates of paid claims, average Medicare Malpractice Geographic Practice Cost Index [MGPCI], absence of tort reform laws, and a composite measure) and measures of hospital quality (processes of care, imaging utilization, 30-day mortality and readmission, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators, and patient experience from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [HCAHPS])...
May 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424705/contemporary-understanding-of-mirna-based-regulation-of-secondary-metabolites-biosynthesis-in-plants
#11
REVIEW
Om P Gupta, Suhas G Karkute, Sagar Banerjee, Nand L Meena, Anil Dahuja
Plant's secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids etc. are known for their role in the defense against various insects-pests of plants and for medicinal benefits in human. Due to the immense biological importance of these phytochemicals, understanding the regulation of their biosynthetic pathway is crucial. In the recent past, advancement in the molecular technologies has enabled us to better understand the proteins, enzymes, genes, etc. involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the secondary metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408902/the-naturally-occurring-host-defense-peptide-ll-37-and-its-truncated-mimetics-ke-18-and-kr-12-have-selected-biocidal-and-antibiofilm-activities-against-candida-albicans-staphylococcus-aureus-and-escherichia-coli-in-vitro
#12
Yu Luo, Denise T F McLean, Gerard J Linden, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Fionnuala T Lundy
Amongst the recognized classes of naturally occurring antimicrobials, human host defense peptides are an important group with an advantage (given their source) that they should be readily translatable to medicinal products. It is also plausible that truncated versions will display some of the biological activities of the parent peptide, with the benefit that they are less costly to synthesize using solid-phase chemistry. The host defense peptide, LL-37, and two truncated mimetics, KE-18 and KR-12, were tested for their inhibitory effects and antibiofilm properties against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, microorganisms commonly implicated in biofilm-related infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405288/wood-ants-produce-a-potent-antimicrobial-agent-by-applying-formic-acid-on-tree-collected-resin
#13
Timothée Brütsch, Geoffrey Jaffuel, Armelle Vallat, Ted C J Turlings, Michel Chapuisat
Wood ants fight pathogens by incorporating tree resin with antimicrobial properties into their nests. They also produce large quantities of formic acid in their venom gland, which they readily spray to defend or disinfect their nest. Mixing chemicals to produce powerful antibiotics is common practice in human medicine, yet evidence for the use of such "defensive cocktails" by animals remains scant. Here, we test the hypothesis that wood ants enhance the antifungal activity of tree resin by treating it with formic acid...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403029/secular-trends-in-the-physical-fitness-of-united-states-army-recruits-on-entry-to-service-1975-2013
#14
Joseph Knapik, Marilyn Sharp, Ryan A Steelman
A systematic literature search was conducted to identify and analyze articles that reported on physical fitness of new United States (US) Army recruits. The National Library of Medicine's PubMed and the Defense Technical Information Center, were searched using the keywords {military personnel OR trainee OR recruit OR soldier} AND {physical fitness OR strength OR endurance OR flexibility OR balance OR coordination OR muscle contraction OR running OR exercise OR physical conditioning}. Reference lists of obtained articles and contact with authors enhanced the search...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401016/data-mining-and-medical-world-breast-cancers-diagnosis-treatment-prognosis-and-challenges
#15
Rozita Jamili Oskouei, Nasroallah Moradi Kor, Saeid Abbasi Maleki
The amount of data in electronic and real world is constantly on the rise. Therefore, extracting useful knowledge from the total available data is very important and time consuming task. Data mining has various techniques for extracting valuable information or knowledge from data. These techniques are applicable for all data that are collected inall fields of science. Several research investigations are published about applications of data mining in various fields of sciences such as defense, banking, insurances, education, telecommunications, medicine and etc...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398103/endophytic-fungi-associated-with-monarda-citriodora-an-aromatic-and-medicinal-plant-and-their-biocontrol-potential
#16
Meenu Katoch, Shipra Pull
CONTEXT: The Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that every year considerable losses of the food crops occur due to plant diseases. Although fungicides are extensively used for management of plant diseases, they are expensive and hazardous to the environment and human health. Alternatively, biological control is the safe way to overcome the effects of plant diseases and to sustain agriculture. Since Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae) is known for its antifungal properties, it was chosen for the study...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393701/defense-related-proteins-from-chelidonium-majus-l-as-important-components-of-its-latex
#17
Robert Nawrot
The aim of this review is to cover most recent research on plant pathogenesis- and defense-related proteins from latex-bearing medicinal plant Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae) in the context of its importance for latex activity, function, pharmacological activities, and antiviral medicinal use. These results are compared with other latex-bearing plant species and recent research on proteins and chemical compounds contained in their latex. This is the first review, which clearly summarizes pathogenesis-related (PR) protein families in latex-bearing plants pointing into their possible functions...
April 6, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392268/antibacterial-secondary-metabolites-from-an-endophytic-fungus-fusarium-solani-jk10
#18
James Oppong Kyekyeku, Souvik Kusari, Reimmel Kwame Adosraku, Anke Bullach, Christopher Golz, Carsten Strohmann, Michael Spiteller
Extensive chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani JK10, harbored in the root of the Ghanaian medicinal plant Chlorophora regia, using the OSMAC (One Strain Many Compounds) approach resulted in the isolation of seven new 7-desmethyl fusarin C derivatives (1-7), together with five known compounds (8-12). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D NMR, HRESI-MS(n) and IR data. The relative configuration of compounds 1/2 was deduced by comparison of their experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and optical rotation data with those reported in literature...
April 6, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377280/is-there-a-future-for-andrographolide-to-be-an-anti-inflammatory-drug-deciphering-its-major-mechanisms-of-action
#19
REVIEW
W S Daniel Tan, Wupeng Liao, Shuo Zhou, W S Fred Wong
Andrographis paniculata has long been part of the traditional herbal medicine system in Asia and in Scandinavia. Andrographolide was isolated as a major bioactive constituent of A. paniculata in 1951, and since 1984, andrographolide and its analogs have been scrutinized with modern drug discovery approach for anti-inflammatory properties. With this accumulated wealth of pre-clinical data, it is imperative to review and consolidate different sources of information, to decipher the major anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action in inflammatory diseases, and to provide direction for future studies...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346544/epigenetic-silencing-of-v-d-j-recombination-is-a-major-determinant-for-selective-differentiation-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Yutaka Saito, Chie Sugimoto, Toutai Mituyama, Hiroshi Wakao
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs) are innate-like T cells that play a pivotal role in the host defense against infectious diseases, and are also implicated in autoimmune diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Recent studies have shown that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from MAITs selectively redifferentiate into MAITs without altering their antigen specificity. Such a selective differentiation is a prerequisite for the use of MAITs in cell therapy and/or regenerative medicine...
2017: PloS One
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