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Defensive medicine

Ji-Hua Yu, Yang-Yang Li, Mian Xiang, Jian-Quan Zhu, Xin-He Huang, Wan-Jun Wang, Rui Tan, Jia-Yu Zhou, Hai Liao
OBJECTIVES: To clone and characterize a novel bi-functional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (LASI) from the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong, a traditional Chinese medicine. RESULTS: The LASI showed strong homology with members of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor family. Its putative amino acid sequence has a 40 % identity with that of the α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from rice. LASI gene without signal peptide was expressed in E. coli Rosetta. After purification, the recombinant LASI protein was inhibitory against not only α-amylase from porcine pancreas, Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella, but also subtilisin A, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Peichao Chen, Dan He, Ya Zhang, Shanshan Yang, Liujun Chen, Shengqin Wang, Huixi Zou, Zhiyong Liao, Xu Zhang, Mingjiang Wu
Aging is a complex issue, which results in a progressive decline process in cellular protection and physiological functions. Illustrating the causes of aging and pharmaceutical interference with the aging process has been a pivotal issue for thousands of years. Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme), a kind of brown alga, is also named the "longevity vegetable" as it is not only a kind of food, but also used as an herb in traditional Chinese Medicine for maintaining health and treatment of thyroid disease, cardiovascular disease and so on...
October 10, 2016: Food & Function
Navid Ghaffarzadegan, Alireza Ebrahimvandi, Mohammad S Jalali
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD...
2016: PloS One
Michael R Gillings
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) has significantly influenced bacterial evolution since the origins of life. It helped bacteria generate flexible, mosaic genomes and enables individual cells to rapidly acquire adaptive phenotypes. In turn, this allowed bacteria to mount strong defenses against human attempts to control their growth. The widespread dissemination of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents has precipitated a crisis for modern medicine. Our actions can promote increased rates of LGT and also provide selective forces to fix such events in bacterial populations...
October 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Fei Chen, Cheng-Gang Ren, Tong Zhou, Yu-Jia Wei, Chuan-Chao Dai
Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26-42. Differential membrane proteomics of A...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Periyannan Velu, Annamalai Vijayalakshmi, Perumal Iyappan, Dhananjayan Indumathi
Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl, is a traditional edible leaves as a form of decoction, extracts used as a herbal medicine, and consumed for health promoting profiles. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level of anticancer activity of Solanum xanthocarpum (SXC) on Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepato carcinogenesis in male Wistar albino rats. Hepatic cancer was developed on the liver of Wistar rats treated by DEN or vehicle three times a week for 16 weeks...
September 25, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shivaprasad H Venkatesha, Kamal D Moudgil
Celastrol, a triterpenoid derived from traditional Chinese medicinal plants, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Celastrol has shown preventive/therapeutic effects in experimental models of several chronic diseases. These include, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis), neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), atherosclerosis, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and cancer...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Franz Kainberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
S Aleksanin
This article presents an overview of the capabilities for clinical management of radiation injuries available at the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (NRCERM) of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM). NRCERM is a federal state budgetary institution and the Russian Federation's head organization for providing medical assistance for persons overexposed to ionizing radiation, responders to radiation emergencies and people evacuated from radiation contaminated areas...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Glendon Diehl, Nicole Bradstreet, Felicia Monahan
Tasked with analyzing the effectiveness of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) global health engagements, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) used the Measures Of Effectiveness in Defense Engagement and Learning (MODEL) study to conduct a qualitative analysis of the DoD's response efforts to the Ebola pandemic in West Africa. The research aims to summarize the findings of studies that monitor and evaluate the DoD's response to the Ebola pandemic or compare the effectiveness of different DoD response activities; it further aims to identify common themes around positive and negative lessons learned and recommendations that can be applied to future DoD humanitarian assistance and disaster response efforts...
September 2016: Health Security
Praveen Awasthi, Vidushi Mahajan, Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, Nitika Kapoor, Shafaq Rasool, Yashbir S Bedi, Sumit G Gandhi
Flavonoids are an important class of secondary metabolites that play various roles in plants such as mediating defense, floral pigmentation and plant-microbe interaction. Flavonoids are also known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) is an important medicinal herb with a diverse metabolic profile, including production of a flavonoid, genkwanin. However, components of the flavonoid pathway have not yet been studied in this plant. Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyses the first committed step of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Arezoo Saberi, Elham Abbasloo, Gholamreza Sepehri, Mahnaz Yazdanpanah, Ehsan Mirkamandari, Vahid Sheibani, Zohreh Safi
BACKGROUND: Melissa officinalis (MO) has potent antioxidant activity. Recent research has demonstrated the anti-ulcer properties of some medicinal plants through their antioxidant properties. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of MO on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) were starved for 24 hours prior to the induction of gastric ulceration by either indomethacin (48 mg/kg/oral) or water immersion restraint (WIR) stress...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
D P Brown, D T Rogers, S K Gunjan, G A Gerhardt, J M Littleton
Plants are a source of complex bioactive compounds, with value as pharmaceuticals, or leads for synthetic modification. Many of these secondary metabolites have evolved as defenses against competing organisms and their pharmaceutical value is "accidental", resulting from homology between target proteins in these competitors, and human molecular therapeutic targets. Here we show that it is possible to use mutation and selection of plant cells to re-direct their "evolution" toward metabolites that interact with the therapeutic target proteins themselves...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Ewelina Pachura, Paulina Pachura
Medical science seems to be on the threshold of a revolution: It seems possible that in twenty years, doctors will be able to replace organs in the human body like parts in a car. This is thanks to the recent achievement of a team from the Medical Research Council Center for Regenerative Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland - the group of researchers tried to regenerate the thymus gland in mice. The thymus gland is an essential organ for the development of the immune system, but very few people have any idea that it exists...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Ben Antebi, Avi Benov, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas, Tuan D Le, Leopoldo C Cancio, Joseph C Wenke, Haim Paran, Avraham Yitzhak, Bader Tarif, Kirby R Gross, David Dagan, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: As new conflicts emerge and enemies evolve, military medical organizations worldwide must adopt the "lessons learned." In this study, we describe roles of care (ROCs) deployed and injuries sustained by both US and Israeli militaries during recent conflicts. The purpose of this collaborative work is facilitate exchange of medical data among allied forces in order to advance military medicine and facilitate strategic readiness for future military engagements that may involve less predictable situations of evacuation and care, such as prolonged field care...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Patricia Hinton Walker, Arnyce Pock, Catherine G Ling, Kyung Nancy Kwon, Megan Vaughan
Battlefield acupuncture is a unique auricular acupuncture procedure which is being used in a number of military medical facilities throughout the Department of Defense (DoD). It has been used with anecdotal published positive impact with warriors experiencing polytrauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury. It has also been effectively used to treat warriors with muscle and back pain from carrying heavy combat equipment in austere environments. This article highlights the history within the DoD related to the need for nonpharmacologic/opioid pain management across the continuum of care from combat situations, during evacuation, and throughout recovery and rehabilitation...
September 2016: Nursing Outlook
Houmehr Hojjat, Peter F Svider, Adam J Folbe, Syed N Raza, Michael A Carron, Mahdi A Shkoukani, Albert L Merati, Ross M Mayerhoff
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of routine computed tomography (CT) in individuals with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) STUDY DESIGN: Health Economics Decision Tree Analysis METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CT imaging in UVFP patients. Univariate sensitivity analysis was utilized to calculate what the probability of having an etiology of the paralysis discovered would have to be to make CT with contrast more cost-effective than no imaging...
September 7, 2016: Laryngoscope
Vikram C Prabhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Susumu Kitanaka
Macrophages play major roles in inflammation, immunity and host defense mechanisms. Once activated they produce and release cytokines, oxygen and nitrogen species, and eicosanoids. The best characterized stimuli to induce the transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory proteins in macrophages in vitro is bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS could be used alone or in combination with recombinant mouse interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Such stimulation results in cytokine release and the synthesis of enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
(no author information available yet)
This final rule modifies the TRICARE regulation to reduce administrative barriers to access to mental health benefit coverage and to improve access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment for TRICARE beneficiaries, consistent with earlier Department of Defense and Institute of Medicine recommendations, current standards of practice in mental health and addiction medicine, and governing laws. This rule seeks to eliminate unnecessary quantitative and non-quantitative treatment limitations on SUD and mental health benefit coverage and align beneficiary cost-sharing for mental health and SUD benefits with those applicable to medical/surgical benefits, expand covered mental health and SUD treatment under TRICARE to include coverage of intensive outpatient programs and treatment of opioid use disorder and to streamline the requirements for mental health and SUD institutional providers to become TRICARE authorized providers, and to develop TRICARE reimbursement methodologies for newly recognized mental health and SUD intensive outpatient programs and opioid treatment programs...
September 2, 2016: Federal Register
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