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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204247/oxidative-stress-modulation-and-ros-mediated-toxicity-in-cancer-a-review-on-in-vitro-models-for-plant-derived-compounds
#1
REVIEW
María José Vallejo, Lizeth Salazar, Marcelo Grijalva
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are known and have been long in use for a variety of health and cosmetics applications. Potential pharmacological usages that take advantage of bioactive plant-derived compounds' antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties are being developed and many new ones explored. Some phytochemicals could trigger ROS-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis in cancer cells. A lot of effort has been put into investigating novel active constituents for cancer therapeutics...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199926/-from-defensive-paranoia-to%C3%A2-%C3%A2-openness-to-outside-scrutiny-prison-medical-officers-in-england-and-wales-1979-86
#2
Nicholas Duvall
This article examines how a branch of medicine based within the criminal justice system responded to a society which by the 1970s and 1980s was increasingly critical of the prison system and medical authority. The Prison Medical Service, responsible for the health care of prisoners in England and Wales, was criticised by prison campaigners and doctors alike for being unethical, isolated, secretive, and beholden to the interests of the Home Office rather than those of their patients. While prison doctors responded defensively to criticisms in the 1970s and 1980s, comparing their own standards of practice favourably with those found in the NHS, and arguing that doctors from outside would struggle to cope in the prison environment, by 1985 their attitudes had changed...
January 2018: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199552/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antitumoral-activity-of-exobiopolymers-from-the-royal-sun-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-agaricus-brasiliensis-agaricomycetes
#3
Vanessa Sovrani, Juliana da Rosa, Mariana de Paula Drewinski, Franciely Grose Colodi, Tânia Toyomi Tominaga, Herta Stutz Dalla Santa, Rosilene Rebeca
We studied antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo and partial chemical characterization of exobiopolymers (EBPs) of Agaricus brasiliensis produced by submerged cultivation. The EBPs comprised 61.2% total sugar and 22.3% total protein, and the chromatographic profile mainly identified mannose (65.5%), galactose (17.5%), and glucose (13.1%). In vitro analysis revealed a dose with antitumor effectiveness, time-dependent treatment, and 46% inhibition of solid Walker 256 tumors in rats. Metabolic changes were significant in the spleens of the animals; this is possibly related to higher immune activity triggered by the presence of EBPs in the treated group...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173945/synthesis-and-in-vitro-evaluations-of-6-hetero-aryl-imidazo-1-2-b-pyridazine-3-sulfonamide-s-as-an-inhibitor-of-tnf-%C3%AE-production
#4
Shivaji S Pandit, Mahesh R Kulkarni, Yashwant B Pandit, Nitin P Lad, Vijay M Khedkar
Tumor necrosis factor-α is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine having a key role in hosts defensive process of immune systems and its over expression led to a diverse range of inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Cronh's disease, psoriasis, etc. This paper describes our medicinal chemistry efforts on imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine scaffold: design, synthesis and biological evaluation. By the introducing sulfonamide functionality at 3 positions and substituting 6 positions with (hetero)-aryl groups', a small library of compounds was prepared...
November 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171054/the-sticky-standard-of-care
#5
Michelle Oberman
The problem at the heart of "Stemming the Standard-of-Care Sprawl: Clinician Self-Interest and the Case of Electronic Fetal Monitoring," an article by Kayte Spector-Bagdady and colleagues in the November-December 2017 issue of the Hastings Center Report, is the persistence of a suboptimal standard of care long after evidence-driven approaches would dictate a change. That problem is not simply defensive medicine, or what the authors call "standard-of-care sprawl." Instead, it is that, in some cases, the standard of care lags behind best practices...
November 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163427/antimycobacterial-and-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms-of-baicalin-via-induced-autophagy-in-macrophages-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Qingwen Zhang, Jinxia Sun, Yuli Wang, Weigang He, Lixin Wang, Yuejuan Zheng, Jing Wu, Ying Zhang, Xin Jiang
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading killer worldwide among infectious diseases and the effective control of TB is still challenging. Autophagy is an intracellular self-digestion process which has been increasingly recognized as a major host immune defense mechanism against intracellular microorganisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and serves as a key negative regulator of inflammation. Clinically, chronic inflammation surrounding Mtb can persist for decades leading to lung injury that can remain even after successful treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152727/human-papillomavirus-associated-cutaneous-disease-burden-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-positive-patients-the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Lindsay C Bacik, Catherine Chung
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is related to the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, oropharyngeal carcinoma, and anogenital malignancies. Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have impaired cell-mediated immunity, placing them at risk for more prolonged infection with a greater likelihood of disease expression. This presents important implications for screening and treatment of HPV in the HIV patient population. The use of prophylactic vaccines directed against HPV has been a promising clinical development, though the immunogenicity of these vaccines in the immunocompromised host and in patients with previously established HPV infections has not been well established...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127504/glycocalyx-in-atherosclerosis-relevant-endothelium-function-and-as-a-therapeutic-target
#8
REVIEW
Ronodeep Mitra, Gerard Leland O'Neil, Ian Chandler Harding, Ming Jie Cheng, Solomon Arko Mensah, Eno Essien Ebong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cell surface-attached extracellular glycocalyx (GCX) layer is a major contributor to endothelial cell (EC) function and EC-dependent vascular health and is a first line of defense against vascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Here, we highlight our findings regarding three GCX-dependent EC functions, which are altered when GCX is shed and in atherosclerosis. We discuss why the GCX is a viable option for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: GCX regulated EC activities such as barrier and filtration function, active cell-to-cell communication, and vascular tone mediation contribute to function of the entire vascular wall...
November 10, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126934/neuropsychological-functioning-in-military-pesticide-applicators-from-the-gulf-war-effects-on-information-processing-speed-attention-and-visual-memory
#9
Kimberly Sullivan, Maxine Krengel, William Bradford, Callie Stone, Terri Ann Thompson, Timothy Heeren, Roberta F White
1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124042/e-fischeriana-root-compound-dpo-activates-antiviral-innate-immunity
#10
Jingxuan Chen, Hongqiang Du, Shuang Cui, Tong Liu, Guang Yang, Huaping Sun, Weiwei Tao, Baoping Jiang, Li Yu, Fuping You
E. fischeriana has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Recent studies reported that some compounds of E. fischeriana exhibited antimicrobial and immune enhance activity. Innate immune system is essential for the immune surveillance of inner and outer threats, initial host defense responses and immune modulation. The role of natural drug compounds, including E. fischeriana, in innate immune regulation is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that E. fischeriana compound Dpo is involved in antiviral signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118192/endocannabinoid-mediated-potentiation-of-non-nociceptive-synapses-contributes-to-behavioral-sensitization
#11
Yanqing Wang, Brian D Burrell
Endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, can elicit long-term depression of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. This latter effect will result in disinhibition and would therefore be expected to produce an increase in neural circuit output. However, there have been no examples directly linking endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition to a change in a functional neurobehavioral circuit. The present study uses the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, to examine the functional/behavioral relevance of endocannabinoid modulation of an identified afferent synapse...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106805/innate-immunity-and-neurodegeneration
#12
Larisa I Labzin, Michael T Heneka, Eicke Latz
The innate immune system plays diverse roles in health and disease. It represents the first line of defense against infection and is involved in tissue repair, wound healing, and clearance of apoptotic cells and cellular debris. Excessive or nonresolving innate immune activation can lead to systemic or local inflammatory complications and cause or contribute to the development of inflammatory diseases. In the brain, microglia represent the key innate immune cells, which are involved in brain development, brain maturation, and homeostasis...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104238/which-plant-proteins-are-involved-in-antiviral-defense-review-on-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-activities-of-selected-plant-proteins-against-viruses
#13
REVIEW
Oskar Musidlak, Robert Nawrot, Anna Goździcka-Józefiak
Plants have evolved a variety of defense mechanisms to tackle virus attack. Endogenous plant proteins can function as virus suppressors. Different types of proteins mediate defense responses against plant viruses. Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are activated upon pathogen infections or in different stress situations and their production is one of many components in plant defense. Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) suppress translation by enzymatically damaging ribosomes and they have been found to have antiviral activity...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102683/meeting-summary-2nd-aegean-conference-on-cytokine-signaling-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Subburaj Ilangumaran, Bryan R G Williams, Dhan V Kalvakolanu
Cytokines and chemokines are intricately connected to cancer initiation, progression and metastasis as well as to innate and adaptive host defense mechanisms against transformed cells. The Aegean Conference on Cytokine Signaling in Cancer (ACCSC) aims to bring together researchers in this highly targeted area of cancer research in a lovely and relaxing Greek-Mediterranean backdrop to discuss latest developments. Being small in size with about one hundred participants, this conference fosters scientific and social interactions among established and emerging scientists in clinical and basic research in diverse fields of oncology, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics and immunology...
November 1, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100755/total-flavonoid-extract-from-dracoephalum-moldavica-l-attenuates-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-toxicity-through-anti-amyloidogenesic-and-neurotrophic-pathways
#15
Qing-Shan Liu, Hai-Lun Jiang, Yu Wang, Lin-Lin Wang, Jun-Xia Zhang, Cheng-Hui He, Shuai Shao, Tian-Tai Zhang, Jian-Guo Xing, Rui Liu
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global cognitive impairment that involves accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) in the brain. Herbal approaches can be used as alternative medicines to slow the progression of AD. This study aimed to determine the beneficial effects and potential underlying mechanisms of total flavonoid extract from Dracoephalum moldavica L. (TFDM) for attenuating Alzheimer-related deficits induced by Aβ...
October 31, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097176/how-shall-we-transfuse-hippolyta
#16
Brendan C Graham, Lindsey J Graham, Carl H Rose, Jeffrey L Winters
The US Department of Defense recently made the decision to open direct ground combat roles to women. Blood product transfusion is an essential component of the US Military guidelines for tactical combat casualty care and damage control resuscitation, but blood transfusion carries with it the specific side effect of alloimmunization-a uniquely significant side effect for young women who may desire subsequent pregnancies. Presently to be considered are the changes that may need to be made to blood transfusion in the setting of battlefield medicine to optimally care for combat-injured women, as a majority of the existing data regarding the risks of transfusion in the trauma setting involve predominantly men...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091860/eclalbasaponin-i-from-aralia-elata-miq-seem-reduces-oxidative-stress-induced-neural-cell-death-by-autophagy-activation
#17
Wei Wang, Guo-Dong Yao, Xin-Yue Shang, Ji-Chao Gao, Yan Zhang, Shao-Jiang Song
Oxidative stress has been proposed to contribute to DNA damage and is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. It has been reported that Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. (A. elata) exhibits an anti-oxidative effect but the mechanisms underlying this protective effect are still unclear. In this study, six known triterpene saponins were isolated from the buds of A. elata, a well-known medicinal and edible plant in Northeast China. Subsequently, the anti-oxidative effects of all six triterpene saponins were screened by H2O2-induced damage in human neuronblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091744/effects-of-spirulina-platensis-on-lipid-peroxidation-antioxidant-defenses-and-tissue-damages-in-kidney-of-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Manel Gargouri, Houda Hamed, Amel Akrouti, Xavier Dauvergne, Christian Magné, Abdelfattah El Feki
Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes causes free radicals overproduction, which contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. In modern medicine, no satisfactory therapy is available to cure diabetes mellitus. In that context, we investigated the potential therapeutic action of spirulina-enriched diet on renal impairment and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (120 mg kg-1) in rats. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0...
November 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083494/protective-role-of-flaxseed-oil-and-flaxseed-lignan-secoisolariciresinol-diglucoside-against-oxidative-stress-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Bruna Pilar, Angélica Güllich, Patrícia Oliveira, Deise Ströher, Jacqueline Piccoli, Vanusa Manfredini
This study evaluated the protective effect of flaxseed oil (FO) and flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) against oxidative stress in rats with metabolic syndrome (MS). 48 rats were allocated into the following 6 groups: Groups 1 (control), 5 (FO), and 6 (SDG) received water and were treated daily orally with saline, FO, and SDG, respectively. Groups 2 (MS), 3 (MS+FO), and 4 (MS+SDG) received 30% fructose in drinking water for MS induction and were treated daily orally with saline, FO, and SDG, respectively...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071844/-advantages-and-evidence-of-chinese-medicine-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-adult-acute-tonsillitis
#20
Chang-Zheng Fan, Qing Miao, Qiong Zhang, Mao-Rong Fan, Xing Liao, Jing Liu, Pei-Hong Li, Xiao-Dong Cong, Bing Wang
Though evaluation and analysis on the relevant literatures at home and abroad in recent years, the total number of retrieved literature was 2 664. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria,the literatures were screened out, and the results were as follows:374 literatures. To analyse the advantages and evidence of Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of adult acute tonsillitis. It is found to be effective, convenient and practical for the treatment of acute tonsillitis by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) like treatment according to syndrome differentiation, Chinese patent drug, self Chinese medicine prescription and external treatment...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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