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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943106/at2-receptor-agonist-compound-21-a-silver-lining-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#1
REVIEW
Anuradha Pandey, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
The currently available therapies for diabetic nephropathy, one of the leading causes of renal failure globally are based on inhibition of renin angiotensin system. However, recently, the focus has shifted towards activation of its protective arm rather than the inhibition of deteriorative axis, using specific agonists. Compound 21 (C21), a novel non-peptide Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) agonist, recently granted orphan drug status for the treatment of a rare disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has also shown a potent anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic potential in various diseases including heart failure, myocardial infarction, chronic inflammatory diseases, and neurological diseases such as ischemic stroke...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942764/ocular-manifestations-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
Matthew Santos, R Jeffrey Hofmann
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) incurs a host of systemic side effects. The eyes are particularly susceptible to both mechanical and vascular sequelae of the disease. This paper outlines the ocular manifestations of sleep apnea. The authors hope to increase awareness of the ocular complications of this common disorder and increase communication and co-management between eye-care providers and sleep specialists alike. METHODS: Data were collected from PubMed and the Brown University Library Collection...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942508/role-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-sleep-deprived-rats
#3
Sajad Jeddi, Asghar Ghasemi, Alireza Asgari, Amir Nezami-Asl
INTRODUCTION: REM sleep deprivation (SD) decreases tolerance of the rat heart to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury; the underlying mechanisms, however, are unknown. This study aimed at determining whether changes in iNOS, Bax, and Bcl-2 gene expression are involved in this detrimental effect. METHOD: SD was induced by flowerpot technique for a period of 4 days. This method is simple and able to induce sleep fragmentation which occurs as one of the sleep disorder symptoms in clinical conditions...
September 23, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942474/svct2-expression-and-function-in-reactive-astrocytes-is-a-common-event-in-different-brain-pathologies
#4
Katterine Salazar, Fernando Martínez, Margarita Pérez-Martín, Manuel Cifuentes, Laura Trigueros, Luciano Ferrada, Francisca Espinoza, Natalia Saldivia, Romina Bertinat, Katherine Forman, María José Oviedo, Antonio J López-Gambero, Christian Bonansco, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Francisco Nualart
Ascorbic acid (AA), the reduced form of vitamin C, acts as a neuroprotector by eliminating free radicals in the brain. Sodium/vitamin C co-transporter isoform 2 (SVCT2) mediates uptake of AA by neurons. It has been reported that SVCT2 mRNA is induced in astrocytes under ischemic damage, suggesting that its expression is enhanced in pathological conditions. However, it remains to be established if SVCT expression is altered in the presence of reactive astrogliosis generated by different brain pathologies. In the present work, we demonstrate that SVCT2 expression is increased in astrocytes present at sites of neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of a GFP-adenovirus or the microbial enzyme, neuraminidase...
September 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941738/spreading-depolarization-is-not-an-epiphenomenon-but-the-principal-mechanism-of-the-cytotoxic-edema-in-various-gray-matter-structures-of-the-brain-during-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Jens P Dreier, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Alon Friedman, Karl Schoknecht
Spreading depolarization (SD) is a phenomenon of various cerebral gray matter structures that only occurs under pathological conditions. In the present paper, we summarize the evidence from several decades of research that SD and cytotoxic edema in these structures are largely overlapping terms. SD/cytotoxic edema is a toxic state that - albeit initially reversible - leads eventually to cellular death when it is persistent. Both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke are among the most prominent causes of SD/cytotoxic edema...
September 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941572/effects-of-neural-stem-cell-media-on-hypoxic-injury-in-rat-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#6
Na Mi Lee, Soo Ahn Chae, Hong Jun Lee
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries cause serious neurological sequelae, yet there is currently no effective treatment for them. We hypothesized that neurotrophic factors released into the medium by stem cells could supply hypoxia-damaged organotypic hippocampal slice cultures with regenerative abilities. We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus of 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats based on the modified Stoppini method; slices were cultured for 14 days in vitro using either Gahwiler's medium (G-medium) or stem cell-conditioned medium (S-medium) as culture medium...
September 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939972/effects-of-benzothiazolamines-on-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#7
Alessandro Farinato, Concetta Altamura, Jean-François Desaphy
Benzothiazole is a versatile fused heterocycle that aroused much interest in drug discovery as anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer. Two benzothiazolamines, riluzole and lubeluzole, are known blockers of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels. Riluzole is clinically used as a neuroprotectant in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Inhibition of Nav channels by riluzole is voltage-dependent due to preferential binding to inactivated sodium channels. Yet the drug exerts little use-dependent block, probably because it lacks protonable amine...
September 23, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939890/an-open-label-one-arm-dose-escalation-study-to-evaluate-safety-and-tolerability-of-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-fields-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#8
Fioravante Capone, Micaela Liberti, Francesca Apollonio, Francesca Camera, Stefania Setti, Ruggero Cadossi, Carlo Cosimo Quattrocchi, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) could be an alternative neuroprotective approach for ischemic stroke because preclinical studies have demonstrated their effects on the mechanisms underlying ischemic damage. The purpose of this open-label, one arm, dose-escalation, exploratory study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of ELF-MF in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Within 48 hours from the stroke onset, patients started ELF-MF treatment, daily for 5 consecutive days. Clinical follow-up lasted 12 months...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939387/hypoxia-stimulates-proliferation-of-rat-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-by-regulating-mir-21-an-in-vitro-study
#9
Rui Chen, Yanmei Liu, Qian Su, Yang Yang, Li Wang, Shuyun Ma, Jiajia Yan, Fangfang Xue, Jianjun Wang
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) reside not only in the developing brain, but also in the adult brain within specialized microenvironments that regulate their function. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed strong regulatory links between hypoxic/ischemic insults and activation of NSCPs. However, the underlying mechanisms of this activation remain unclear. In this study, we found that cell proliferation is promoted by hypoxia, and accompanied by increasing expression of miR-21 in cultured rat NSPCs...
September 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937407/time-course-of-septic-shock-in-immunocompromised-and-nonimmunocompromised-patients
#10
Matthieu Jamme, Fabrice Daviaud, Julien Charpentier, Nathalie Marin, Michaël Thy, Yannick Hourmant, Jean-Paul Mira, Frédéric Pène
OBJECTIVES: To address the impact of underlying immune conditions on the course of septic shock with respect to both mortality and the development of acute infectious and noninfectious complications. DESIGN: An 8-year (2008-2015) monocenter retrospective study. SETTING: A medical ICU in a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Patients diagnosed for septic shock within the first 48 hours of ICU admission were included. Patients were classified in four subgroups with respect to their immune status: nonimmunocompromised and immunocompromised distributed into hematologic or solid malignancies and nonmalignant immunosuppression...
September 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936741/exosomes-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-as-potential-treatment-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#11
Yao-Hua Song, Lianbo Shao, Yu Zhang, Jin Zhou, Bin Liu, Xiangbin Pan, Yong-Jian Geng, Xi-Yong Yu, Yangxin Li
Cardiovascular diseases resulting from ischemic heart diseases remain to be the main causes of heart failure and death despite significant advances in medical treatment. The development of new therapies for heart failure is thus required to improve the outcome in these patients, and this has led to the development of cell-based therapies. Animal studies showed interesting results using various cell types. Some stem cell based therapies have been tested in clinical trials. Although the results were encouraging, challenges remain...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936174/the-effect-of-velvet-antler-proteins-on-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-challenged-with-ischemia-hypoxia
#12
Xiang Xiao, Shuqiang Xu, Lin Li, Min Mao, Jinping Wang, Yanjun Li, Ziwei Wang, Fei Ye, Li Huang
Velvet antler (VA) is a precious traditional Chinese medicine that is capable of repeated regeneration. Based on the Chinese medicine theory of coordination the heart and kidneys, VA has been employed to treat heart diseases, including ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmia. We examined the effects of VA proteins on primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) that were subjected to ischemia-hypoxia (IH) to investigate their effects on and mechanism of action in the treatment of ischemic heart disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935419/red-near-infrared-light-stimulates-release-of-an-endothelium-dependent-vasodilator-and-rescues-vascular-dysfunction-in-a-diabetes-model
#13
Agnes Keszler, Brian Lindemer, Dorothee Weihrauch, Deron Jones, Neil Hogg, Nicole L Lohr
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a morbid condition whereby ischemic peripheral muscle causes pain and tissue breakdown. Interestingly, PAD risk factors, e.g. diabetes mellitus, cause endothelial dysfunction secondary to decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels, which could explain treatment failures. Previously, we demonstrated 670nm light (R/NIR) increased NO from nitrosyl-heme stores, therefore we hypothesized R/NIR can stimulate vasodilation in healthy and diabetic blood vessels. Vasodilation was tested by ex vivo pressure myography in wild type C57Bl/6, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout, and db/db mice (10mW/cm(2) for 5min with 10min dark period)...
September 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933425/carnosine-suppresses-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-recovery-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-reactive-astrocytes-of-rats-in-vitro
#14
Li Ou-Yang, Yuan Liu, Bing-Yu Wang, Pei Cao, Jing-Jing Zhang, Yu-Yan Huang, Yao Shen, Jian-Xin Lyu
Glial scar formation resulted from excessive astrogliosis limits axonal regeneration and impairs recovery of function, thus an intervention to ameliorate excessive astrogliosis is crucial for the recovery of neurological function after cerebral ischemia. In this study we investigated the effects of carnosine, an endogenous water-soluble dipeptide (β-alanyl-L-histidine), on astrogliosis of cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R) in vitro. Primary cultured rat astrocytes exhibited a significant increase in proliferation at 24 h recovery after OGD for 2 h...
September 21, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932730/aorto-carotid-bypass-in-patients-with-takayasu-arteritis
#15
Hong Seok Han, Kyoung Won Yoon, Seon-Hee Heo, Yang Jin Park, Young-Wook Kim, Dong-Ik Kim
PURPOSE: Takayasu arteritis is an indication for bypass surgery when this condition results in severe cerebrovascular ischemia due to occlusion of the carotid arteries. We reviewed the patients with Takayasu arteritis who received aorto-carotid bypass due to cerebrovascular ischemia. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 19 patients with Takayasu arteritis who underwent aorto-carotid bypass from March 2002 to April 2015. RESULTS: All patients were female and the mean of their age was 40...
September 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932354/cardiovascular-involvement-in-celiac-disease
#16
REVIEW
Edward J Ciaccio, Suzanne K Lewis, Angelo B Biviano, Vivek Iyer, Hasan Garan, Peter H Green
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune response to ingestion of gluten protein, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley grains, and results in both small intestinal manifestations, including villous atrophy, as well as systemic manifestations. The main treatment for the disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which typically results in the restoration of the small intestinal villi, and restoration of other affected organ systems, to their normal functioning. In an increasing number of recently published studies, there has been great interest in the occurrence of alterations in the cardiovascular system in untreated CD...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932227/targeted-delivery-of-neutralizing-anti-c5-antibody-to-renal-endothelium-prevents-complement-dependent-tissue-damage
#17
Paolo Durigutto, Daniele Sblattero, Stefania Biffi, Luca De Maso, Chiara Garrovo, Gabriele Baj, Federico Colombo, Fabio Fischetti, Antonio F Di Naro, Francesco Tedesco, Paolo Macor
Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931297/-intracranial-pressure-evaluation-by-ophthalmologist
#18
J Čmelo, R Illéš, J Šteňo
The value of ICT is important in diagnosis of the diseases of the eye and orbit Methods for direct measurement of intracranial pressure (ICT) are exact, but they are invasive and there is some risk of infection and damage of the tissue. Currently there are 2 valid indirect methods of mesurement of IKT. Digital Ophthalmodynamometry (D-ODM) and Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TDU). D-ODM is a non-invasive method for measuring of the Pulsating Venous Pressure (VPT). We can measure VPT by the pulse phenomena...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930049/experience-with-the-syncardia-total-artificial-heart-in-a-canadian-centre
#19
Anthony Nguyen, Michel Pellerin, Louis P Perrault, Michel White, Anique Ducharme, Normand Racine, Michel Carrier
BACKGROUND: The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) provides complete circulatory support by replacing both native ventricles. Accepted indications include bridge to transplantation and destination therapy. We review our experience with TAH implantation during a period when axial flow pump became available. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the demographics, clinical characteristics and survival of all patients receiving the TAH. RESULTS: From September 2004 to November 2016, 13 patients (12 men, mean age 45 ± 13 yr) received the TAH for refractory cardiogenic shock secondary to idiopathic (56%) or ischemic (17%) cardiomyopathy and to other various causes (33%)...
October 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929686/-borneol-promotes-catalpol-and-puerarin-crossing-through-blood-brain-barrier-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#20
Jun-Jie Wu, Hong-Jin Wang, Shuai Yang, Yang Liu, Xiao-Yu Xu
Previous studies showed that borneol could promote some drugs crossing through the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) at certain conditions. However, the mechanism has not been clarified yet. This study aimed to investigate the effect of bornrol on promoting catalpol and puerarin through BBB and explore the relevant mechanism. The focal cerebral ischemic rats were divided into 7 groups randomly and then were administered corresponding drugs: model group (M, solvent), catalpol-puerarin group (ZG, catalpol 45 mg•kg⁻¹+puerarin 200 mg•kg⁻¹), catalpol-puerarin-bornrol group(ZGB, catalpol 45 mg•kg⁻¹+puerarin 200 mg•kg⁻¹ +bornrol 200 mg•kg⁻¹), catalpol-bornrol group(ZB, catalpol 45 mg•kg⁻¹ +bornrol 200 mg•kg⁻¹), puerarin-bornrol group(GB, puerarin 200 mg•kg⁻¹ +bornrol 200 mg•kg⁻¹), butoxamine-ZG group(BTX+ZG, butoxamine 1...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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