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ischemic conditioning

Yan Xu, Yawei Xing, Yanjie Xu, Chahua Huang, Huihui Bao, Kui Hong, Xiaoshu Cheng
We know that silencing Bim, a pro-apoptosis protein, significantly attenuates glucose and oxygen-deprived induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the Bim activation in the heart have remained unknown. Pim-2 is one of three Pim serine/threonine kinase family members thought to be involved in cell survival and proliferation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) condition in vitro, mimicking ischemic/reperfusion injury in vivo. H/R augmented the expression of Bim, Cyt C, and Pim-2 and induced H9c2 cell apoptosis...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
B Q Farah, R M Ritti-Dias, G G Cucato, P S Montgomery, A W Gardner
OBJECTIVES: Time spent in sedentary behavior has been associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in the general population and in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). Given the association of sedentary behavior and poor health outcomes, it is important to identify factors associated with sedentary behavior in these patients. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the sedentary time in patients with symptomatic PAD. METHODS: The sample included 297 patients with symptomatic PAD...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Gang Bao, Chuankun Li, Lei Qi, Ning Wang, Baixiang He
Tetrandrine (TET) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, which is isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of TET on oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/reoxygenation (OGSD/R)-induced injury in rat spinal cord astrocytes, which mimics hypoxic/ischemic conditions in vivo. MTT and LDH assays indicated that cell viability was distinctly reduced and LDH leakage was elevated after OGSD/R exposure, which were dose-dependently reversed by pretreatment with TET (0...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Andrea Gruneir, Lauren E Griffith, Kathryn Fisher, Dilzayn Panjwani, Sima Gandhi, Li Sheng, Chris Patterson, Amiram Gafni, Jenny Ploeg, Maureen Markle-Reid
OBJECTIVE: To characterize comorbid chronic conditions, describe health services use, and estimate health care costs among community-dwelling older adults with prior stroke. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using administrative data from Ontario, Canada. We identified all community-dwelling individuals aged 66 and over on April 1, 2008 (baseline), who had experienced a stroke at least 6 months prior. We estimated the prevalence of 14 comorbid conditions at baseline; we captured all physician visits, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, home care contacts, and associated costs over 5 years stratifying by number of comorbid conditions...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Pavel Šiarnik, Zuzana Čarnická, Zuzana Krivošíková, Katarína Klobučníková, Ingrid Žitňanová, Branislav Kollár, Marek Sýkora, Peter Turčáni
Hypercholesterolemia represents a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein research has recently been focused on the phenomenon of atherogenic and non-atherogenic lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to explore the association of lipoprotein subfractions with a measure for endothelial function (represented by reactive hyperemia index [RHI]) and arterial stiffness (represented by augmentation index [AI]) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We enrolled 51 patients with acute ischemic stroke...
October 19, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Cédric Seignez, Mia Phillipson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the mechanisms by which neutrophils contribute to angiogenesis in hypoxic tissues during different conditions and diseases (e.g., menstrual cycle, wound healing, ischemic diseases, cancers), with particular focus on the recently described proangiogenic neutrophil subpopulation. RECENT FINDINGS: The importance of neutrophils in initiation of angiogenesis has been described during the past decade, and is believed to occur through release of the well-known proangiogenic factors Bv8, vascular endothelial growth factor A, and matrix metalloproteinase 9...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
Donghoon Choi
: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is an increasingly recognized medical problem especially in elderly patients. It commonly occurs with systemic manifestations including hypertension (HTN), chronic kidney disease (CKD) or atherosclerotic diseases including coronary or peripheral artery disease. Significant renal artery stenosis may result in HTN, ischemic nephropathy, however it is still in debate about the benefit of revascularization. Although several randomized controlled trials including Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) study has failed to reveal a significant benefit of angioplasty, angioplasty with medical therapy is increasingly accepted in some patients with certain clinical conditions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Akinori Higaki, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Li-Juan Min, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Toshihiro Yamauchi, Takafumi Okura, Jitsuo Higaki, Masatsugu Horiuchi
OBJECTIVE: Classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is mainly known as angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor axis which induces various organ damages including cognitive decline. On the other hand, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has been known to exert antagonistic actions against the classical RAS axis in cardiovascular system. However, the roles of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in cognitive function remain to be elucidated. Here, we examined possible roles of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in cognitive function in vascular dementia model...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Madhumita Chatterjee, Meinrad Gawaz
Platelet membrane bedecked with a wide array of receptors offers a platform to regulate platelet responsiveness, thrombotic propensity, inflammatory disposition, and immune reactivity under diverse pathophysiological conditions. Ectopic proteolytic cleavage of such receptors irreversibly inactivates receptor-mediated intracellular signaling governing cellular functions, further releases soluble fragments into circulation which might modulate functions of target cells. Glycoprotein VI-(GPVI) is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in platelets and megakaryocytes...
October 18, 2016: Platelets
David Roshal
This case report describes a 41-year-old previously healthy male who presented with stuttering transient ischemic symptoms and radiographic evidence of a left common carotid artery thrombus as well as acute and subacute ischemic infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery territory. An exhaustive stroke work-up did not provide a plausible etiology for his symptoms. His complete blood count and iron studies, however, revealed evidence of severe iron-deficiency anemia without reactive thrombocytosis. His stool guaiac test was positive...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Fumihiro Sanada, Yoshiaki Taniyama, Jun Muratsu, Rei Otsu, Masaaki Iwabayashi, Miguel Carracedo, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita
Uncontrolled coagulation contributes to the pathophysiology of several chronic inflammatory diseases. In these conditions, senescent cells are often observed and is involved in the generation of inflammation. The coincidence of hyper-coagulation, cell senescence, and inflammation suggests the existence of a common underlying mechanism. Recent evidence indicates that activated coagulation factor X (FXa) plays a role in the processes beyond blood coagulation. This non-hematologic function entails the mediation of inflammation and tissue remodeling...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
David G Reuter, Yuk Law, Wayne C Levy, Stephen P Seslar, R Eugene Zierler, Mark Ferguson, James Chattra, Tim McQuinn, Lenna L Liu, Mark Terry, Patricia S Coffey, Jane A Dimer, Coral Hanevold, Joseph T Flynn, F Bruder Stapleton
The morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia is staggering. The physiology of the Page kidney, a condition in which increased intrarenal pressure causes hypertension, appears to provide a unifying framework to explain the complex pathophysiology. Page kidney hypertension is renin-mediated acutely and ischemia-mediated chronically. Renal venous outflow obstruction also causes a Page kidney phenomenon, providing a hypothesis for the increased vulnerability of a subset of women who have what we are hypothesizing is a "renal compartment syndrome" due to inadequate ipsilateral collateral renal venous circulation consistent with well-known variation in normal venous anatomy...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Roderick Wondergem, Martijn F Pisters, Eveline J Wouters, Nick Olthof, Rob A de Bie, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Cindy Veenhof
BACKGROUND: Stroke is not only an acute disease, but for the majority of patients, it also becomes a chronic condition. There is a major concern about the long-term follow-up with respect to activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke survivors. Some patients seem to be at risk for decline after a first-ever stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the course of ADL from 3 months after the first-ever stroke and onward and identify factors associated with decline in ADL. METHODS: A systematic literature search of 3 electronic databases through June 2015 was conducted...
October 18, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Shuitu Feng, Zhigao Zheng, Lihua Feng, Lihong Yang, Zuhong Chen, Yubiao Lin, Yingqin Gao, Yide Chen
The cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that a small subset of cancer cells possess stem cell properties and plays a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and resistance to anticancer therapy. Exploration of the specific therapies targeting at CSCs has been a crucial issue in antitumor research. Gastric cancer (GC) cells often exist in an ischemic microenvironment with acidic conditions in vivo, thus maintenance of cellular pH homeostasis is important for the survival and function of GC cells. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may prevent intracellular proton extrusions which consequently reduce cancer cell survival under acidic conditions...
October 7, 2016: Oncology Reports
Jonathan D Teo, Margaret J Morris, Nicole M Jones
OBJECTIVE: In humans, maternal obesity is associated with an increase in the incidence of birth related difficulties. However, the impact of maternal obesity on the severity of brain injury in offspring is not known. Recent studies have found evidence of increased glial response and inflammatory mediators in the brains as a result of obesity in humans and rodents. We hypothesised that hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury is greater in neonatal offspring from obese rat mothers compared to lean controls...
October 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hani Raoul Khouzam
Trazodone is an antidepressant that is FDA-approved for the treatment of depression. It has been used by mental health and primary care providers for the treatment of multiple psychiatric and medical conditions .This review describes trazodone mechanism of action, formulation, dosage and adverse effects and then summarizes the beneficial effects of trazodone in the treatment of various psychiatric and medical conditions such as major depression, as well non-approved FDA indications such as insomnia,anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, feeding and eating disorders, substance use disorders, behavioral disturbances associated with cognitive dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, certain pain conditions, and rehabilitation after acute ischemic stroke...
October 17, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Hilma Holm, Patrick Sulem, Gisli Masson, Asmundur Oddsson, Olafur Th Magnusson, Jona Saemundsdottir, Hafdis Th Helgadottir, Hannes Helgason, Hrefna Johannsdottir, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Sigurjon A Gudjonsson, Inger Njølstad, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Larry Baum, Ronald C W Ma, Gunnlaugur Sigfusson, Augustine Kong, Guðmundur Thorgeirsson, Jon Th Sverrisson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, David O Arnar
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in man, causing substantial morbidity and mortality with a major worldwide public health impact. It is increasingly recognized as a highly heritable condition. This study aimed to determine genetic risk factors for early-onset AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sequenced the whole genomes of 8453 Icelanders and imputed genotypes of the 25.5 million sequence variants we discovered into 1799 Icelanders with early-onset AF (diagnosed before 60 years of age) and 337 453 controls...
October 14, 2016: European Heart Journal
L Meng, N Matsuno, K Watanabe, M Furukori, H Obara, H Bochimoto, T Watanabe, H Fukukawa
BACKGROUND: The shortage of organ donors is a universal problem. Use of grafts from donors after cardiac death would greatly contribute to the expansion of the donor organ pool. The two major methods of preservation are cold storage and machine perfusion (MP) preservation, and each has its own advantages. Several studies have reported the relative merits of MP for the preservation for grafts from donors after cardiac death. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess the damage to the liver between hypothermic and rewarming preservation conditions...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Chiara Santulli, Claudia Brizi, Matteo Micucci, Ambra Del Genio, Assunta De Cristofaro, Federica Bracco, Giuseppina Lucia Pepe, Ilaria Di Perna, Roberta Budriesi, Alberto Chiarini, Maria Frosini
Ischemic brain injury is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The use of one-drug-multi-target agents based on natural compounds is a promising therapeutic option for cerebral ischemia due to their pleiotropic properties. This study assessed the neuroprotective properties of Castanea sativa Mill. bark extract (ENC) in human astrocytoma U-373 MG cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion and rat cortical slices subjected to ischemia-like conditions or treated with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Pavlos Tsantilas, Andreas Kuehnl, Thomas König, Thorben Breitkreuz, Michael Kallmayer, Christoph Knappich, Sofie Schmid, Martin Storck, Alexander Zimmermann, Hans-Henning Eckstein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Guidelines recommend that carotid endarterectomy should be performed within 2 weeks in patients with a symptomatic carotid stenosis. Because a Swedish register study indicated that patients treated within the first days after a stroke or transient ischemic attack might have an increased perioperative stroke and mortality risk, this study aimed to find out whether these findings are also true under everyday conditions in Germany. METHODS: Secondary data analysis including 56 336 elective carotid endarterectomy procedures performed for symptomatic carotid stenosis under everyday conditions between 2009 and 2014...
October 13, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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