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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812982/quantitative-criteria-to-benchmark-new-and-existing-bio-inks-for-cell-compatibility
#1
Karen Dubbin, Anthony Tabet, Sarah Heilshorn
Recent advancements in 3D bioprinting have led to the fabrication of more complex, more precise, and larger printed tissue constructs. As the field continues to advance, it is critical to develop quantitative benchmarks to compare different bio-inks for key cell-biomaterial interactions, including (1) cell sedimentation within the ink cartridge, (2) cell viability during extrusion, and (3) cell viability after ink curing. Here we develop three simple protocols for quantitative analysis of bio-ink performance...
August 16, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812967/tanshinone-induced-ers-suppresses-igfii-activation-to-alleviate-ang-ii-mediated-cardiac-hypertrophy
#2
Ya-Fang Chen, Nien-Hung Lee, Pei-Ying Pai, Li-Chin Chung, Chia-Yao Shen, Peramaiyan Rajendran, Yu-Feng Chen, Ray-Jade Chen, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Cardiomyopathy involves changes in myocardial ultrastructure and cardiac hypertrophy. Angiotensin II (AngII) has previously been shown to stimulate the expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and increase of blood pressure, and cardiac hypertrophy. Estrogen receptors (ERs) exert protective effects, such as anti-hypertrophy in cadiomyocytes. Tanshinone IIA (TSN), a main active ingredient from a Chinese medical herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), was shown to protect cardiomyocytes hypertrophy by different stress signals...
October 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812882/aberrantly-large-single-channel-conductance-of-polyhistidine-arm-containing-protein-nanopores
#3
Avinash Kumar Thakur, Motahareh Ghahari Larimi, Kristin Gooden, Liviu Movileanu
There have been only a few studies reporting on the impact of polyhistidine affinity tags on the structure, function, and dynamics of proteins. Because of their relatively short size, they are often assumed to have little or no effect on the conformation and activity of a protein. Here, using membrane protein design and single-molecule electrophysiology, we determined that the presence of a hexahistidine arm at the N-terminus of a truncated FhuA-based protein nanopore, leaving the C-terminus untagged, produces an unusual increase in the unitary conductance up to ~8 nS in 1 M KCl...
August 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812535/associating-mutations-causing-cystinuria-with-disease-severity-with-the-aim-of-providing-precision-medicine
#4
Henry J Martell, Kathie A Wong, Juan F Martin, Ziyan Kassam, Kay Thomas, Mark N Wass
BACKGROUND: Cystinuria is an inherited disease that results in the formation of cystine stones in the kidney, which can have serious health complications. Two genes (SLC7A9 and SLC3A1) that form an amino acid transporter are known to be responsible for the disease. Variants that cause the disease disrupt amino acid transport across the cell membrane, leading to the build-up of relatively insoluble cystine, resulting in formation of stones. Assessing the effects of each mutation is critical in order to provide tailored treatment options for patients...
August 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812431/oral-administration-of-curcumin-attenuates-visceral-hyperalgesia-through-inhibiting-phosphorylation-of-trpv1-in-rat-model-of-ulcerative-colitis
#5
Mei Yang, Juan Wang, Chunxue Yang, Hongxiu Han, Weifang Rong, Guohua Zhang
Background Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. The present study was designed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of curcumin on visceral hyperalgesia and inflammation in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. We observed the effects of orally administered curcumin on the disease activity index, histological change in colon, colorectal distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex, the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and phosphorylated TRPV1 in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis rats...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812264/oxytocin-and-steroid-actions
#6
Gustav F Jirikowski, Scott D Ochs, Jack D Caldwell
Biosynthesis and secretion of the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin largely depends on steroid hormones. Estradiol, corticosterone, and vitamin D seem to be the most prominent actors. Due to their lipophilic nature, systemic steroids are thought to be capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, thus mediating central functions including neuroendocrine and behavioral control. The actual mode of action of steroids in hypothalamic circuitry is still unknown: Most of the oxytocinergic perikarya lack nuclear steroid receptors but express proteins suspected to be membrane receptors for steroids...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812260/zinc-metabolism-and-metallothioneins
#7
REVIEW
Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci, Kemal Yuce, Rasim Mogulkoc
Among the trace elements, zinc is one of the most used elements in biological systems. Zinc is found in the structure of more than 2700 enzymes, including hydrolases, transferases, oxyreductases, ligases, isomerases, and lyases. Not surprisingly, it is present in almost all body cells. Preserving the stability and integrity of biological membranes and ion channels, zinc is also an intracellular regulator and provides structural support to proteins during molecular interactions. It acts as a structural element in nucleic acids or other gene-regulating proteins...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811933/nuclear-matrix-metalloproteinases-functions-resemble-the-evolution-from-the-intracellular-to-the-extracellular-compartment
#8
REVIEW
Yingqiu Xie, Aidana Mustafa, Adina Yerzhan, Dalmira Merzhakupova, Perizat Yerlan, Askarbek N Orakov, Xiao Wang, Yi Huang, Lixia Miao
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) is defined as an endopeptidase in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which plays essential roles in physiological processes such as organogenesis, wound healing, angiogenesis, apoptosis and motility. MMPs are produced and assembled in the cytoplasm as proenzymes with a cytoplasmic domain and require extracellular activation. MMPs can degrade receptors, extracellular matrix proteins, PARPs and release apoptotic substances. MMPs have been found in the cytosol, organelles and extracellular compartments and recently many types of MMPs have been found in the nucleus...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811607/localized-iron-accumulation-precedes-nucleation-and-growth-of-magnetite-crystals-in-magnetotactic-bacteria
#9
Jacques Werckmann, Jefferson Cypriano, Christopher T Lefèvre, Kassiogé Dembelé, Ovidiu Ersen, Dennis A Bazylinski, Ulysses Lins, Marcos Farina
Many magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize magnetite crystals that nucleate and grow inside intracellular membranous vesicles that originate from invaginations of the cytoplasmic membrane. The crystals together with their surrounding membranes are referred to magnetosomes. Magnetosome magnetite crystals nucleate and grow using iron transported inside the vesicle by specific proteins. Here we address the question: can iron transported inside MTB for the production of magnetite crystals be spatially mapped using electron microscopy? Cultured and uncultured MTB from brackish and freshwater lagoons were studied using analytical transmission electron microscopy in an attempt to answer this question...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811603/2-4-6-trinitrotoluene-induces-apoptosis-via-ros-regulated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-hepg2-and-hep3b-cells
#10
Hung-Yu Liao, Chih-Ming Kao, Chao-Ling Yao, Po-Wei Chiu, Chun-Chen Yao, Ssu-Ching Chen
2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been reported to cause numerous adverse effects. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying TNT-induced liver toxicity need to be elucidated. In this study, we used HepG2 (p53wt) and Hep3B (p53null) cell lines to investigate the cytotoxic effects of TNT. At first, we found that TNT significantly decreased cell viability and induced DNA damage. Thereafter, through transcriptomic analysis, we observed that the diverse biological functions affected included mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811582/a-new-class-of-hybrid-secretion-system-is-employed-in-pseudomonas-amyloid-biogenesis
#11
Sarah L Rouse, William J Hawthorne, Jamie-Lee Berry, Dror S Chorev, Sandra A Ionescu, Sebastian Lambert, Fisentzos Stylianou, Wiebke Ewert, Uma Mackie, R Marc L Morgan, Daniel Otzen, Florian-Alexander Herbst, Per H Nielsen, Morten Dueholm, Hagan Bayley, Carol V Robinson, Stephen Hare, Stephen Matthews
Gram-negative bacteria possess specialised biogenesis machineries that facilitate the export of amyloid subunits for construction of a biofilm matrix. The secretion of bacterial functional amyloid requires a bespoke outer-membrane protein channel through which unfolded amyloid substrates are translocated. Here, we combine X-ray crystallography, native mass spectrometry, single-channel electrical recording, molecular simulations and circular dichroism measurements to provide high-resolution structural insight into the functional amyloid transporter from Pseudomonas, FapF...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811499/the-role-of-dermcidin-isoform-2-in-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-diabetes
#12
Suman Bhattacharya, Md Mobidullah Khan, Chandradipa Ghosh, Sarbashri Bank, Smarajit Maiti
Diabetes is now epidemic worldwide. Several hundred-million peoples are presently suffering from this disease with other secondary-disorders. Stress, hypertension, sedentary life-style, carbohydrate/lipid metabolic-disorders due to genetic or environmental factors attributes to type-1 and/or type-2 diabetes. Present investigation demonstrates that stress-induced protein dermcidin isoform-2 (DCN-2) which appears in the serum of diabetic-patients play a key-role in this disease pathogenesis/severity. DCN-2 suppresses insulin production-release from liver/pancreas...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811463/a-light-regulated-host-guest-based-nanochannel-system-inspired-by-channelrhodopsins-protein
#13
Yue Sun, Junkai Ma, Fan Zhang, Fei Zhu, Yuxiao Mei, Lu Liu, Demei Tian, Haibing Li
The light-controlled gating of ion transport across membranes is central to nature (e.g., in protein channels). Herein, inspired by channelrhodopsins, we introduce a facile non-covalent approach towards light-responsive biomimetic channelrhodopsin nanochannels using host-guest interactions between a negative pillararene host and a positive azobenzene guest. By switching between threading and dethreading states with alternating visible and UV light irradiation, the functional channels can be flexible to regulate the inner surface charge of the channels, which in turn was exploited to achieve different forms of ion transport, for instance, cation-selective transport and anion-selective transport...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811368/fluctuation-spectra-and-force-generation-in-nonequilibrium-systems
#14
Alpha A Lee, Dominic Vella, John S Wettlaufer
Many biological systems are appropriately viewed as passive inclusions immersed in an active bath: from proteins on active membranes to microscopic swimmers confined by boundaries. The nonequilibrium forces exerted by the active bath on the inclusions or boundaries often regulate function, and such forces may also be exploited in artificial active materials. Nonetheless, the general phenomenology of these active forces remains elusive. We show that the fluctuation spectrum of the active medium, the partitioning of energy as a function of wavenumber, controls the phenomenology of force generation...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811333/arabidopsis-lorelei-a-maternally-expressed-imprinted-gene-promotes-early-seed-development
#15
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu
n flowering plants the female gametophyte controls pollen tube reception immediately before fertilization and regulates seed development immediately after fertilization, although controlling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that LORELEI (LRE), which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, is critical for pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte before fertilization and initiation of seed development after fertilization. Here, we show that LRE is expressed in the synergid, egg, and central cells of the female gametophyte and in the zygote and proliferating endosperm of the seed...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811318/the-%C3%AE-cell-assassin-iapp-cytotoxicity
#16
Daniel Raleigh, Xiaoxue Zhang, Benoit Hastoy, Anne Clark
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) forms cytotoxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils in islets in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The causal factors for amyloid formation are largely unknown. Mechanisms of molecular folding and assembly of human IAPP (hIAPP) into β-sheets, oligomers and fibrils have been assessed by detailed biophysical studies of hIAPP and non-fibrillogenic, rodent IAPP (rIAPP); cytotoxicity is associated with the early phases (oligomers/multimers) of fibrillogenesis. Interaction with synthetic membranes promotes β-sheet assembly possibly via a transient α-helical molecular conformation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811263/the-role-of-escrt-during-development-and-functioning-of-the-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Rémy Sadoul, Marine H Laporte, Romain Chassefeyre, Yves Goldberg, Christine Chatellard, Fiona J Hemming, Sandrine Fraboulet
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is made of subcomplexes (ESCRT I-III), crucial to membrane remodelling at endosomes, nuclear envelope and cell surface. ESCRT-III shapes membranes and in most cases cooperates with the ATPase VPS4 to mediate fission of membrane necks from the inside. The first ESCRT complexes mainly serve to catalyse the formation of ESCRT-III but can be bypassed by accessory proteins like the Alg-2 interacting protein-X (ALIX). In the nervous system, ALIX/ESCRT controls the survival of embryonic neural progenitors and later on the outgrowth and pruning of axons and dendrites, all necessary steps to establish a functional brain...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811250/deficiency-in-perilipin-5-reduces-mitochondrial-function-and-membrane-depolarization-in-mouse-hearts
#18
Linda Andersson, Christina Drevinge, Ismena Mardani, Knut T Dalen, Marcus Ståhlman, Martina Klevstig, Annika Lundqvist, Fred Haugen, Martin Adiels, Per Fogelstrand, Jorge Asin-Cayuela, Lillemor Mattsson Hultén, Max Levin, Ewa Ehrenborg, Yun K Lee, Alan R Kimmel, Jan Borén, Malin C Levin
Myocardial triglycerides stored in lipid droplets are important in regulating the intracellular delivery of fatty acids for energy generation in mitochondria, for membrane biosynthesis, and as agonists for intracellular signaling. Previously, we showed that deficiency in the lipid droplet protein perilipin 5 (Plin5) markedly reduces triglyceride storage in cardiomyocytes and increases the flux of fatty acids into phospholipids. Here, we investigated whether Plin5 deficiency in cardiomyocytes alters mitochondrial function...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811090/guanosine-exerts-antiplatelet-and-antithrombotic-properties-through-an-adenosine-related-camp-pka-signaling
#19
Francisco Fuentes, Marcelo Alarcón, Lina Badimon, Manuel Fuentes, Karl-Norbert Klotz, Gemma Vilahur, Sonja Kachler, Teresa Padró, Iván Palomo, Eduardo Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Guanosine is a natural product and an endogenous nucleoside that has shown to increase during myocardial ischemia. Platelets are critically involved in ischemic coronary events. It remains unknown, however, whether guanosine may affect platelet activation and function. We sought to investigate the potential antiplatelet and antithrombotic properties of guanosine and decipher the mechanisms behind. METHODS: We firstly assessed the effects of guanosine on platelet activation/aggregation upon stimulation with several platelet agonists including adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, arachidonic acid (AA), and TRAP-6...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810704/yeast-kch1-and-kch2-membrane-proteins-play-a-pleiotropic-role-in-membrane-potential-establishment-and-monovalent-cation-homeostasis-regulation
#20
Kristina Felcmanova, Petra Neveceralova, Hana Sychrova, Olga Zimmermannova
The Kch1 and Kch2 plasma-membrane proteins were identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as being essential for the activation of a high-affinity Ca2+ influx system. We searched for Kch proteins roles in the maintenance of cation homeostasis and tested the effect of kch1 and/or kch2 deletions on various physiological parameters. Compared to wild-type, kch1 kch2 mutant cells were smaller, relatively hyperpolarised, grew better under limited K+ conditions and exhibited altered growth in the presence of monovalent cations...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
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