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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214974/interaction-of-scots-pine-defensin-with-model-membrane-by-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics
#1
Elena Ermakova, Yuriy Zuev
Plant defensins are a part of the innate immune system of plants that acts against a broad range of pathogens. Many plant defensins, including pine defensins, show strong antifungal activity that is associated with their ability to penetrate into the fungal cell membrane. However, the exact molecular mechanism of their action remains poorly defined. To obtain insight into the mechanism of protein-membrane interaction, we applied a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation to study the interaction of pine defensin with two model membranes: the first consisted of zwitterion-neutral POPC molecules and the second was composed of combined anionic POPG and POPC...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214952/novel-potential-scaffold-for-periodontal-tissue-engineering
#2
Raquel Osorio, Camilo Andrés Alfonso-Rodríguez, Estrella Osorio, Antonio L Medina-Castillo, Miguel Alaminos, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Manuel Toledano
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is characterization of novel calcium and zinc-loaded electrospun matrices to be used for periodontal regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A polymethylmetacrylate-based membrane was calcium or zinc loaded. Matrices were characterized morphologically by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy and mechanically probed by a nanoindenter. Biomimetic calcium phosphate precipitation on polymeric tissues was assessed. Cell viability tests were performed using oral mucosa fibroblasts...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214917/mtss1-promotes-maturation-and-maintenance-of-cerebellar-neurons-via-splice-variant-specific-effects
#3
Thorsten Sistig, Fanziska Lang, Sebastian Wrobel, Stephan L Baader, Karl Schilling, Britta Eiberger
Efficient coupling of the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane is crucial for histogenesis and maintenance of the nervous system. At this critical interface, BAR (Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs) proteins regulate membrane bending, shown to be instrumental for mobility and morphogenesis of individual cells. Yet, the systemic significance of these proteins remains largely unexplored. Here, we probe the role of a prominent member of this protein family, the inverse-BAR protein Mtss1, for the development and function of a paradigmatic neuronal circuit, the cerebellar cortex...
February 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214890/a-new-perspective-for-osteosarcoma-therapy-proteasome-inhibition-by-mln9708-2238-successfully-induces-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-and-attenuates-the-invasion-ability-of-osteosarcoma-cells-in-vitro
#4
Renhao Liu, Chunjiang Fu, Jiabing Sun, Xvming Wang, Shuo Geng, Xiaoyu Wang, Jilong Zou, Zhenggang Bi, Chenglin Yang
BACKGROUND: The proteasome exists in all eukaryotic cells and provides the main route of intracellular proteins degradation involved in cell growth and apoptosis. Proteasome inhibition could block protein degradation pathways and disturb regulatory networks, possibly leading to profound effects on cell growth, particularly in cancer cells. A proteasome inhibitor with an appropriate toxicity index for malignant cells rather than normal cells would be an attractive anticancer therapy. METHODS: The human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines MG-63 and Saos-2 and normal osteoblast cells were used to study the antitumour activity of the proteasome inhibitor MLN9708/2238...
January 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214884/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-4-trpm4-contributes-to-high-salt-diet-mediated-early-stage-endothelial-injury
#5
Xiao-Qing Ding, Tao Ban, Zeng-Yan Liu, Jie Lou, Liang-Liang Tang, Jia-Xin Wang, Wen-Feng Chu, Dan Zhao, Bin-Lin Song, Zhi-Ren Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The present study investigated whether the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel plays a role in high salt diet (HSD)-induced endothelial injuries. METHODS: Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to examine TRPM4 expression in the mesenteric endothelium of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats fed a HSD. The MTT, TUNEL, and transwell assays were used to evaluate the cell viability, cell apoptosis, and cell migration, respectively, of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214863/stimulation-of-erythrocyte-cell-membrane-scrambling-by-c-reactive-protein
#6
Majed Abed, Christian Thiel, Syeda T Towhid, Kousi Alzoubi, Sabina Honisch, Florian Lang, Alfred Königsrainer
BACKGROUND: Eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine-translocation, is triggered by fever and inflammation. Signaling includes increased cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i), caspase activation, and ceramide. Inflammation is associated with increased plasma concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). The present study explored whether CRP triggers eryptosis. METHODS: Phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance and caspase-3-activity utilizing FITC-conjugated antibodies...
February 14, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214836/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-reduces-podocyte-adhesion-via-downregulation-of-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-1-integrin
#7
Ping He, Dajun Liu, Beiru Zhang, Guangyu Zhou, Xuesong Su, Yanqiu Wang, Detian Li, Xu Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN) is characterized by a reduced number of podocytes due to apoptosis and shedding from the basement membrane. However, the pathological mechanism of HBV-GN is unclear. We previously showed that hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) promotes apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells. In this study, we transfected podocytes with HBx and examined the effects on adhesion and apoptosis of these cells. METHODS: Podocytes were transfected with pc-DNA3...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214718/alkyl-substituent-effect-on-photosensitized-inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-by-pyridinium-bonded-p-porphyrins
#8
Jin Matsumoto, Yusaku Suemoto, Hiroki Kanemaru, Kyosuke Takemori, Masato Shigehara, Akari Miyamoto, Haruhiko Yokoi, Masahide Yasuda
Activity of singlet oxygen sensitizers for photoinactivation of bacteria and photodynamic therapy of tumor cells has been evaluated using nonpathogenic model cells, such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and HeLa cells. Among them, E. coli, gram-negative bacterium, has complex membrane structures in the cell wall, resulting in an impermeable barrier to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, few singlet oxygen sensitizers have photoinactivation activities toward E. coli at low concentrations. Recently polycationic porphyrins have received much attention as a new type of singlet oxygen sensitizers because they have strong binding affinities for DNA and proteins...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214564/downregulation-of-gna13-erk-network-in-prefrontal-cortex-of-schizophrenia-brain-identified-by-combined-focused-and-targeted-quantitative-proteomics
#9
Mio Hirayama-Kurogi, Yohei Takizawa, Yasuto Kunii, Junya Matsumoto, Akira Wada, Mizuki Hino, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Sakon Yamamoto, Takeshi Kondo, Shingo Ito, Masanori Tachikawa, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Hirooki Yabe, Tetsuya Terasaki, Mitsutoshi Setou, Sumio Ohtsuki
: Schizophrenia is a disabling mental illness associated with dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, which affects cognition and emotion. The purpose of the present study was to identify altered molecular networks in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients by comparing protein expression levels in autopsied brains of patients and controls, using a combination of targeted and focused quantitative proteomics. We selected 125 molecules possibly related to schizophrenia for quantification by knowledge-based targeted proteomics...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214549/atp-dependent-activity-and-mitochondrial-localization-of-drug-efflux-pumps-in-doxorubicin-resistant-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Julie Dartier, Elsa Lemaitre, Igor Chourpa, Caroline Goupille, Stéphane Servais, Stéphan Chevalier, Karine Mahéo, Jean-François Dumas
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that, among the mechanisms of drug-resistance acquired by doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant breast cancer cells to maintain cell survival, ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps could be expressed in their mitochondrial membranes and this might limit the accumulation of DOX in this subcellular compartment in relation to mitochondrial ATP production. Methods/results Mitochondrial DOX accumulation: the presence and the activity of mitochondrial efflux pumps and their relationship with mitochondrial ATP synthesis were analyzed in DOX-resistant (MCF-7dox(R)) and -sensitive (MCF-7(S)) breast cancer cells...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214356/comparative-analysis-of-the-transcriptional-responses-to-low-and-high-temperature-in-three-rice-planthopper-species
#11
Hai-Jian Huang, Jian Xue, Ji-Chong Zhuo, Ruo-Lin Cheng, Hai-Jun Xu, Chuan-Xi Zhang
The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, WBPH), and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) are important rice pests in Asia. These three species differ in thermal tolerance and exhibit quite different migration and overwintering strategies. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptome of the three species under different temperature treatments. We found that metabolism-, exoskeleton-, and chemosensory-related genes were modulated...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214344/neferine-potentiates-the-antitumor-effect-of-cisplatin-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-via-a-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-pathway
#12
Kalai Selvi Sivalingam, Poornima Paramasivan, Ching Feng Weng, Viswanadha Vijaya Padma
Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of many types of solid tumors but its efficacy is often limited by the development of resistance and dose limiting toxicity. Neferine is an alkaloid isolated from seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera, it has recently been shown to have anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines. The present investigation is designed to study the chemosensitizing ability of neferine with cisplatin in A549 cells. Neferine potentiates the cisplatin induced apoptosis through the exploration of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, induced sub-G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, ROS hypergeneration, significant loss of cellular antioxidant enzymes as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214294/ptk6-localized-at-the-plasma-membrane-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-migration-through-phosphorylation-of-eps8
#13
Won-Sik Shin, Hyun Jae Shim, Young Hun Lee, Minju Pyo, Jun Sang Park, So Yun Ahn, Seung-Taek Lee
Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6; also known as Brk) is closely related to the Src family kinases, but lacks a membrane-targeting myristoylation signal. Sublocalization of PTK6 at the plasma membrane enhances its oncogenic potential. To understand the mechanism(s) underlying the oncogenic property of plasma-membrane-associated PTK6, proteins phosphorylated by membrane-targeted myristoylated PTK6 (Myr-PTK6) were enriched and analyzed using a proteomics approach. Eps8 which was identified by this method is phosphorylated by Myr-PTK6 in HEK293 cells...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214269/immunohistochemistry-on-a-panel-of-emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy-samples-reveals-nuclear-envelope-proteins-as-inconsistent-markers-for-pathology
#14
Phu Le Thanh, Peter Meinke, Nadia Korfali, Vlastimil Srsen, Michael I Robson, Manfred Wehnert, Benedikt Schoser, Caroline A Sewry, Eric C Schirmer
Reports of aberrant distribution for some nuclear envelope proteins in cells expressing a few Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy mutations raised the possibility that such protein redistribution could underlie pathology and/or be diagnostic. However, this disorder is linked to 8 different genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins, raising the question of whether a particular protein is most relevant. Therefore, myoblast/fibroblast cultures from biopsy and tissue sections from a panel of nine Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy patients (4 male, 5 female) including those carrying emerin and FHL1 (X-linked) and several lamin A (autosomal dominant) mutations were stained for the proteins linked to the disorder...
December 21, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213978/estrogens-and-androgens-inhibit-association-of-rankl-with-the-pre-osteoblast-membrane-through-post-translational-mechanisms
#15
Anthony Martin, Jiali Yu, Jian Xiong, Aysha B Khalid, Benita Katzenellenbogen, Sung Hoon Kim, John A Katzenellenbogen, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Yankel Gabet, Susan A Krum, Baruch Frenkel
We have recently demonstrated that RUNX2 promoted, and 17-β-Estradiol (E2) diminished, association of RANKL with the cell membrane in pre-osteoblast cultures. Here we show that, similar to E2, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) diminishes association of RANKL and transiently transfected GFP-RANKL with the pre-osteoblast membrane without decreasing total RANKL mRNA or protein levels. Diminution of membrane-associated RANKL was accompanied with marked suppression of osteoclast differentiation from co-cultured pre-osteoclasts, even though DHT increased, not decreased, RANKL concentrations in pre-osteoblast conditioned media...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213961/chrysin-induces-death-of-prostate-cancer-cells-by-inducing-ros-and-er-stress
#16
Soomin Ryu, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Chrysin is a natural flavone found in numerous plant extracts, honey and propolis that has multiple biological activities including anti-cancer effects. Understanding of biological mechanisms mediated in response to chrysin in cancerous cells may provide novel insight into chemotherapeutic approaches with reduced side effects in cancers. In the present study, we investigated functional roles of chrysin in progression of prostate cancer cells using DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The results showed that chrysin induced apoptosis of cells evidenced by DNA fragmentation and increasing the population of both DU145 and PC-3 cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213849/widespread-expression-of-a-membrane-tethered-version-of-the-soluble-lysosomal-enzyme-palmitoyl-protein-thioesterase-1
#17
Charles Shyng, Shannon L Macauley, Joshua T Dearborn, Mark S Sands
"Cross-correction," the transfer of soluble lysosomal enzymes between neighboring cells, forms the foundation for therapeutics of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). However, "cross-correction" poses a significant barrier to studying the role of specific cell types in LSD pathogenesis. By expressing the native enzyme in only one cell type, neighboring cell types are invariably corrected. In this study, we present a strategy to limit "cross-correction" of palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1(PPT1), a lysosomal hydrolase deficient in Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (INCL, Infantile Batten disease) to the lysosomal membrane via the C-terminus of lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1)...
February 18, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213729/alpha-tocopherol-transfer-protein-%C3%AE-ttp-is-expressed-in-endometrial-carcinoma-and-is-correlated-with-figo-stage-and-5-year-survival
#18
Sabine Heublein, Thomas Vrekoussis, Ronny Etzl, Daisy Rotzoll, Christina Kuhn, Gesine Faigle, Iordanis Navrozoglou, Theodore Stefos, Antonis Makrigiannakis, Udo Jeschke
BACKGROUND: Increased oxidative stress plays an important role in cancer development. Vitamin E is considered a potent anti-oxidant and its transfer protein αTTP facilitates its cellular delivery. We hypothesize that αTTP could be present in and have an impact on endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells were treated with BSO and AAPH to mimick oxidative stress conditions. αTTP was detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213560/identification-of-putative-substrates-of-sec2-a-chloroplast-inner-envelope-translocase
#19
Yubing Li, Jonathan R Martin, Giovanni A Aldama, Donna E Fernandez, Kenneth Cline
Most chloroplast proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into chloroplasts. Many imported proteins are further targeted to the thylakoid membrane and lumen by the SEC1, TAT or SRP/ALB3 translocases. Others are targeted to the inner chloroplast envelope membrane by un-described translocase(s). Recently, a second SEC system (SEC2) consisting of SCY2, SECE2, and SECA2 was found in the chloroplast envelope. Null mutants of SCY2 in Arabidopsis exhibit a severe embryo lethal phenotype. To investigate the function of SEC2 system in plants, we used inducible RNAi to knockdown SCY2 in Arabidopsis...
February 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213555/tubby-proteins-prove-their-adaptability
#20
Ben Short
Study reveals that Tubby family proteins help deliver GPCRs and other integral membrane proteins into cilia.
February 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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