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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934548/controlling-styrene-maleic-acid-lipid-particles-through-raft
#1
Anton A A Smith, Henriette Elisabeth Autzen, Tomas Laursen, Vincent Wu, Max Yen, Aaron Hall, Scott D Hansen, Yifan Cheng, Ting Xu
The ability of styrene maleic acid copolymers to dissolve lipid membranes into nanosized lipid particles is a facile method of obtaining membrane proteins in solubilized lipid discs while conserving part of its native lipid environment. While the currently used copolymers can readily extract membrane proteins in native nanodiscs, their highly disperse composition is likely to influence the dispersity of the discs as well as the extraction efficiency. In this study, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer was used to control the polymer architecture and dispersity of molecular weights with a high-precision...
September 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934329/biochemical-and-biomechanical-properties-of-the-pacemaking-sinoatrial-node-extracellular-matrix-are-distinct-from-contractile-left-ventricular-matrix
#2
Jessica M Gluck, Anthony W Herren, Sergey Yechikov, Hillary K J Kao, Ambereen Khan, Brett S Phinney, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, James W Chan, Deborah K Lieu
Extracellular matrix plays a role in differentiation and phenotype development of its resident cells. Although cardiac extracellular matrix from the contractile tissues has been studied and utilized in tissue engineering, extracellular matrix properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node are largely unknown. In this study, the biomechanical properties and biochemical composition and distribution of extracellular matrix in the sinoatrial node were investigated relative to the left ventricle. Extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node was found to be overall stiffer than that of the left ventricle and highly heterogeneous with interstitial regions composed of predominantly fibrillar collagens and rich in elastin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934328/the-human-vgf-derived-bioactive-peptide-tlqp-21-binds-heat-shock-71-kda-protein-8-hspa8-on-the-surface-of-sh-sy5y-cells
#3
Shamim Akhter, Sandipan Chakraborty, Daniela Moutinho, Elia Álvarez-Coiradas, Isaac Rosa, Juan Viñuela, Eduardo Domínguez, Angel García, Jesús R Requena
VGF (non-acronymic)is a secreted chromogranin/secretogranin that gives rise to a number of bioactive peptides by a complex proteolysis mechanism. VGF-derived peptides exert an extensive array of biological effects in energy metabolism, mood regulation, pain, gastric secretion function, reproduction and, perhaps, cancer. It is therefore surprising that very little is known about receptors and binding partners of VGF-derived peptides and their downstream molecular mechanisms of action. Here, using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry-based protein identification, we have identified the heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein A8 (HSPA8)as a binding partner of human TLQP-21 on the surface of human neuroblastomaSH-SY5Y cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934264/profiling-molecular-factors-associated-with-pyknosis-and-developmental-arrest-induced-by-an-opioid-receptor-antagonist-and-dihydroartemisinin-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#4
Hiroko Asahi, Shin-Ichi Inoue, Mamoru Niikura, Keisuke Kunigo, Yutaka Suzuki, Fumie Kobayashi, Fujiro Sendo
Malaria continues to be a devastating disease, largely caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection. We investigated the effects of opioid and cannabinoid receptor antagonists on the growth of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum. The delta opioid receptor antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone (BNTX) and the cannabinoid receptor antagonists rimonaband and SR144528 caused growth arrest of the parasite. Notably BNTX and the established antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin induced prominent pyknosis in parasite cells after a short period of incubation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934248/vps35-deficiency-impairs-slc4a11-trafficking-and-promotes-corneal-dystrophy
#5
Wei Liu, Fu-Lei Tang, Sen Lin, Kai Zhao, Lin Mei, Jian Ye, Wen-Cheng Xiong
Vps35 (vacuolar protein sorting 35) is a major component of retromer that selectively promotes endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of transmembrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, Vps35/retromer's function in the eye or the contribution of Vps35-deficiency to eye degenerative disorders remains to be explored. Here we provide evidence for a critical role of Vps35 in mouse corneal dystrophy. Vps35 is expressed in mouse and human cornea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934222/endogenous-rgs14-is-a-cytoplasmic-nuclear-shuttling-protein-that-localizes-to-juxtanuclear-membranes-and-chromatin-rich-regions-of-the-nucleus
#6
Mary Rose Branch, John R Hepler
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and H-Ras/MAPkinase signaling pathways to regulate synaptic plasticity important for hippocampal learning and memory. However, to date, little is known about the subcellular distribution and roles of endogenous RGS14 in a neuronal cell line. Most of what is known about RGS14 cellular behavior is based on studies of tagged, recombinant RGS14 ectopically overexpressed in unnatural host cells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive assessment of the subcellular distribution and dynamic localization of endogenous RGS14 in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934205/a-rab5-gtpase-module-is-important-for-autophagosome
#7
Fan Zhou, Shenshen Zou, Yong Chen, Zhanna Lipatova, Dan Sun, Xiaolong Zhu, Rui Li, Zulin Wu, Weiming You, Xiaoxia Cong, Yiting Zhou, Zhiping Xie, Valeriya Gyurkovska, Yutao Liu, Qunli Li, Wenjing Li, Jie Cheng, Yongheng Liang, Nava Segev
In the conserved autophagy pathway, the double-membrane autophagosome (AP) engulfs cellular components to be delivered for degradation in the lysosome. While only sealed AP can productively fuse with the lysosome, the molecular mechanism of AP closure is currently unknown. Rab GTPases, which regulate all intracellular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes, also regulate autophagy. Rabs function in GTPase modules together with their activators and downstream effectors. In yeast, an autophagy-specific Ypt1 GTPase module, together with a set of autophagy-related proteins (Atgs) and a phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) kinase, regulates AP formation...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934165/salmonella-o48-serum-resistance-is-connected-with-the-elongation-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-containing-sialic-acid
#8
Aleksandra Pawlak, Jacek Rybka, Bartłomiej Dudek, Eva Krzyżewska, Wojciech Rybka, Anna Kędziora, Elżbieta Klausa, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska
Complement is one of the most important parts of the innate immune system. Some bacteria can gain resistance against the bactericidal action of complement by decorating their outer cell surface with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) containing a very long O-antigen or with specific outer membrane proteins. Additionally, the presence of sialic acid in the LPS molecules can provide a level of protection for bacteria, likening them to human cells, a phenomenon known as molecular mimicry. Salmonella O48, which contains sialic acid in the O-antigen, is the major cause of reptile-associated salmonellosis, a worldwide public health problem...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934071/prevalence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-rodents-and-mites-from-central-india
#9
Ruchi Bhate, Nilesh Pansare, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Vijay K Choudhary, Nitin V Kurkure, Sunil W Kolte
Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, is an obligate intracytosolic bacterium transmitted among animals and to humans by some species of larval trombiculid mites (chiggers) and is hosted mainly by rodents. In this study, we attempted detection of O. tsutsugamushi from blood and tissue samples of rodents trapped from different locations in Central India using PCR targeting the 56 kDa outer membrane protein gene and the 47 kDa high temperature transmembrane protein gene. A total of 59 rodent samples comprising 38 of blood collected from domestic and public surroundings and 21 of tissue from agricultural farm were included in this study...
September 21, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933989/role-of-pex5-ubiquitination-in-maintaining-peroxisome-dynamics-and-homeostasis
#10
Wei Wang, Suresh Subramani
Peroxisomes are essential and dynamic organelles that allow cells to rapidly adapt and cope with changing environments and/or physiological conditions by modulation of both peroxisome biogenesis and turnover. Peroxisome biogenesis involves the assembly of peroxisome membranes and the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins. The latter depends on the receptor, PEX5, which recognizes peroxisomal matrix proteins in the cytosol directly or indirectly, and transports them to the peroxisomal lumen. In this review, we discuss the role of PEX5 ubiquitination in both peroxisome biogenesis and turnover, specifically in PEX5 receptor recycling, stability and abundance, as well as its role in pexophagy (autophagic degradation of peroxisomes)...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933821/compartmentalized-assembly-of-motor-protein-reconstituted-on-protocell-membrane-toward-highly-efficient-photophosphorylation
#11
Youqian Xu, Jinbo Fei, Guangle Li, Tingting Yuan, Junbai Li
Molecule assembly and functionalization of protocells have achieved a great success. However, the yield efficiency of photophosphorylation in the present cell-like systems is limited. Herein, inspired by natural photobacteria, we construct a protocell membrane reconstituting motor protein for highly-efficient light-mediated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis through layer-by-layer technique. The assembled membrane, compartmentally integrating photoacid generator, proton conductor and ATP synthase, possesses excellent transparence, fast proton production and quick proton transportation...
September 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933779/genetically-encoded-releasable-photo-cross-linking-strategies-for-studying-protein-protein-interactions-in-living-cells
#12
Yi Yang, Haiping Song, Dan He, Shuai Zhang, Shizhong Dai, Xiao Xie, Shixian Lin, Ziyang Hao, Huangtao Zheng, Peng R Chen
Although protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have crucial roles in virtually all cellular processes, the identification of more transient interactions in their biological context remains challenging. Conventional photo-cross-linking strategies can be used to identify transient interactions, but these approaches often suffer from high background due to the cross-linked bait proteins. To solve the problem, we have developed membrane-permeable releasable photo-cross-linkers that allow for prey-bait separation after protein complex isolation and can be installed in proteins of interest (POIs) as unnatural amino acids...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933693/structural-inhibition-of-dynamin-mediated-membrane-fission-by-endophilin
#13
Annika Hohendahl, Nathaniel Talledge, Valentina Galli, Peter S Shen, Frédéric Humbert, Pietro De Camilli, Adam Frost, Aurélien Roux
Dynamin, which mediates membrane fission during endocytosis, binds endophilin and other members of the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) protein family. How endophilin influences endocytic membrane fission is still unclear. Here we show that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is potently inhibited in vitro when an excess of endophilin co-assembles with dynamin around membrane tubules. We further show by electron microscopy that endophilin intercalates between turns of the dynamin helix and impairs fission by preventing trans interactions between dynamin rungs that are thought to play critical roles in membrane constriction...
September 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933687/tagging-of-the-vaccinia-virus-protein-f13-with-mcherry-causes-aberrant-virion-morphogenesis
#14
David C J Carpentier, Michael S Hollinshead, Helen A Ewles, Stacey-Ann Lee, Geoffrey L Smith
Vaccinia virus produces two distinct infectious virions; the single-enveloped intracellular mature virus (IMV), which remains in the cell until cell lysis, and the double-enveloped extracellular enveloped virus (EEV), which mediates virus spread. The latter is derived from a triple-enveloped intracellular enveloped virus (IEV) precursor, which is transported to the cell periphery by the kinesin-1 motor complex. This transport involves the viral protein A36 as well as F12 and E2. A36 is an integral membrane protein associated with the outer virus envelope and is the only known direct link between virion and kinesin-1 complex...
September 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933649/legionella-blocks-autophagy-by-cleaving-stx17-syntaxin-17
#15
Kohei Arasaki, Mitsuo Tagaya
Pathogens subvert host defense systems including autophagy and apoptosis for their survival and proliferation. Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that grows in alveolar macrophages and causes severe pneumonia. Early during infection Legionella secretes effector proteins that convert the plasma membrane-derived vacuole containing Legionella into an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like replicative vacuole. These vacuoles ultimately fuse with the ER, where the pathogen replicates. Recently, we showed that one of the effectors, Lpg1137, is a serine protease that targets the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) and degrades STX17 (syntaxin 17), a SNARE implicated in macroautophagy/autophagy as well as mitochondria dynamics and membrane trafficking in fed cells...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933638/autophagy-pathway-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#16
Li Yu, Yang Chen, Sharon A Tooze
Macroautophagy/autophagy is an essential, conserved self-eating process that cells perform to allow degradation of intracellular components, including soluble proteins, aggregated proteins, organelles, macromolecular complexes, and foreign bodies. The process requires formation of a double-membrane structure containing the sequestered cytoplasmic material, the autophagosome, that ultimately fuses with the lysosome. This review will define this process and the cellular pathways required, from the formation of the double membrane to the fusion with lysosomes in molecular terms, and in particular highlight the recent progress in our understanding of this complex process...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933630/going-native-direct-high-throughput-screening-of-secreted-full-length-igg-antibodies-against-cell-membrane-proteins
#17
Yongliang Fang, Thach H Chu, Margaret E Ackerman, Karl E Griswold
Gel microdroplet - fluorescence activated cell sorting (GMD-FACS) is an innovative high throughput screening platform for recombinant protein libraries, and we show here that GMD-FACS can overcome many of the limitations associated with conventional screening methods for antibody libraries. For example, phage and cell surface display benefit from exceptionally high throughput, but generally require high quality, soluble antigen target and necessitate the use of anchored antibody fragments. In contrast, the GMD-FACS assay can screen for soluble, secreted, full-length IgGs at rates of several thousand clones per second, and the technique enables direct screening against membrane protein targets in their native cellular context...
September 21, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933603/autophagy-enables-retromer-dependent-plasma-membrane-translocation-of-slc2a1-glut-to-enhance-glucose-uptake
#18
Srirupa Roy, Jayanta Debnath
Macroautophagy/autophagy is traditionally viewed as an intracellular catabolic pathway that recycles core metabolites during starvation or stress. Recently, we found that autophagy also functions in the control of glucose uptake from the extracellular environment by facilitating cell surface expression of the glucose transporter SLC2A1/GLUT1. In response to increased glycolytic demand or acute glucose starvation, autophagosome induction titrates the RabGAP protein TBC1D5 away from its inhibitory interaction with the retromer complex and into MAP1LC3(+) compartments...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933599/skap2-regulates-arp2-3-complex-for-actin-mediated-asymmetric-cytokinesis-by-interacting-with-wave2-in-mouse-oocytes
#19
Shu-Wen He, Bai-Hui Xu, Yu Liu, Ya-Long Wang, Ming-Huang Chen, Lin Xu, Bao-Qiong Liao, Rui Lui, Fei-Ping Li, Yan-Hong Lin, Xian-Pei Fu, Bin-Bin Fu, Zi-Wei Hong, Yu-Xin Liu, Zhong-Quan Qi, Hai-Long Wang
SKAP2 (Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 2), a substrate of Src family kinases, has been suggested to be involved in actin-mediated cellular processes. However, little is known about its role in mouse oocyte maturation. In this study, we thus investigated the expression, localization, and functions of SKAP2 during mouse oocyte asymmetric division. SKAP2 protein expression was detected at all developmental stages in mouse oocytes. Immunofluorescent staining showed that SKAP2 was mainly distributed at the cortex of the oocytes during maturation...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933593/dynein-promotes-porcine-oocyte-meiotic-progression-by-maintaining-cytoskeletal-structures-and-cortical-granule-arrangement
#20
Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Liansheng Tang, Xiayan ShiYang, Yajuan Lu, Mianqun Zhang, Xiaoxin Dai, Bo Xiong
Cytoplasmic dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move towards the minus-end of the microtubules to perform functions in a variety of mitotic processes such as cargo transport, organelle positioning, chromosome movement and centrosome assembly. However, its specific roles during mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the critical events during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation after inhibition of dynein by Ciliobrevin D treatment. We found that oocyte meiotic progression was arrested when inhibited of dynein by showing the poor expansion of cumulus cells and decreased rate of polar body extrusion...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
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