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Shrimp immune system

Pakkakul Sangsuriya, Walaiporn Charoensapsri, Jantiwan Sutthangkul, Saengchan Senapin, Ikuo Hirono, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Piti Amparyup
Melanization, mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system, is an important innate immune response in invertebrates. The implication of the proPO system in antiviral response and the suppression of host proPO activation by the viral protein have previously been demonstrated in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanism of viral-host interactions in the proPO cascade remains largely unexplored. Here, we characterized the viral protein, namely, WSSV164, which was initially identified from the forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that was challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)...
May 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Suwattana Visetnan, Suchao Donpudsa, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit
In shrimp, the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are involved in host innate immune defense system against pathogenic microorganisms. A five-Kazal-domain SPIPm2 is the most abundant KPIs in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and up-regulated in response to yellow head virus (YHV) infection. In this study, the role of SPIPm2 in YHV infection was investigated. The expression of SPIPm2 in hemocytes, gill and heart from 48-h YHV-infected shrimp was increased. The expression of SPIPm2 in hemocytes was significantly increased after 12 h of infection and gradually increased higher afterwards...
May 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Vidhyapriya Murugan, Krishnan Sankaran
In ELISA, a popular analytical diagnostic tool, the stable non-covalent immobilization (coating) of hydrophilic proteins/peptides on to hydrophobic polystyrene surface has remained a major common challenge. Recombinant bacterial lipid modification of proteins in Escherichia coli system has been shown in this study to solve this problem owing to the hydrophobic anchorage provided by three fatty acyl groups in N-acyl-S-diacylglyceryl Cys at the N-terminus. Exploiting this first post-translational protein engineering, the most abundantly expressed white spot syndrome viral protein ICP11 was lipid-modified and tested as a new target in a new ELISA method useful to shrimp farming...
April 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Zhi Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and exhibits potential antibacterial and anticancer activities. In this study, EGCG was used in pathogen-challenge experiments in shrimp to discover its effect on the innate immune system of an invertebrate. Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus was used as an experimental model and challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Pathogen-challenge experiments showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly delayed and reduced mortality upon WSSV and V...
April 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tze Hann Ng, Chia-Wei Lu, Shih-Shun Lin, Che-Chih Chang, Loc H Tran, Wen-Chi Chang, Chu-Fang Lo, Han-Ching Wang
An emerging bacterial disease, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), is caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with an additional AHPND-associated plasmid pVA1 encoding a virulent toxin (Pirvp ) that damages the shrimp's hepatopancreas. Like other species of Vibrio, these virulent strains initially colonize the shrimp's stomach, but it is not yet understood how the bacteria or toxins are subsequently able to cross the epithelial barrier and reach the hepatopancreas. Here, by using transcriptomics and system biology methods, we investigate AHPND-induced changes in the stomach of AHPND-causing V...
April 6, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Zhendong Qin, V Sarath Babu, Quanyuan Wan, Meng Zhou, Risheng Liang, Asim Muhammad, Lijuan Zhao, Jun Li, Jiangfeng Lan, Li Lin
Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important cultural species worldwide. However, Vibrio spp. infections have caused a great economic loss in Pacific white shrimp culture industry. The immune responses of Pacific white shrimp to the Vibrio spp. is not fully characterized. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of L. vannamei hemocytes were explored by injecting with or without Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Totally, 42,632 high-quality unigenes were obtained from RNAseq data. Comparative genome analysis showed 2258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following the Vibrio challenge, including 1017 up-regulated and 1241 down-regulated genes...
March 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yongjie Liu, Fujun Hou, Zhaoying Qian, Xiaolin Liu
The clade B serpins contain predominantly intracellular proteins and were reported to be involved in multiple biological functions, especially in inflammation and immune system function. However, studies about the role of the invertebrate intracellular serpins in immune responses were still deficient. Therefore, this paper focused on the functional characterization of LvserpinB3 in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The pAc5.1-LvserpinB3-EGFP vector was transfected into Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells to analyze the subcellular localization of LvserpinB3, and fluorescent imaging showed that LvserpinB3 were mainly localized to the mitochondria...
March 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Pandi Palanikumar, Dani Joel Daffni Benitta, Chinnadurai Lelin, Eswaramoorthy Thirumalaikumar, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Thavasimuthu Citarasu
Argemone mexicana called as Mexican prickly poppy is a species of poppy found in Mexico and now widely naturalized in many parts of the world with broad range of bioactivities including anthelmintic, cures lepsory, skin-diseases, inflammations and bilious fevers. Plant parts of A. mexicana were serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and performed antiviral and immunostimulant screening against WSSV and Vibrio harveyi respectively. The control groups succumbed to death 100% within three days, whereas the mortality was significantly (P < 0...
April 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
David Angelo V Guanzon, Mary Beth B Maningas
There is a continuing debate on whether an antiviral immunity similar to vertebrate interferon response exists in invertebrates. Recent advances in penaeid immunology identified several new members of the Toll receptor family and one of these is LvToll3 (Litopenaeus vannamei Toll3). It is hypothesized in this study that LvToll3 responds to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as dsRNA, which then activates certain antiviral pathways in penaeids. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to determine differences in the expression levels of specific genes putatively involved in the antiviral response through qPCR...
July 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Divya T Babu, K Archana, Bhavya Kachiprath, Solly Solomon, G Jayanath, I S Bright Singh, Rosamma Philip
Actinomycetes (277 Nos) isolated from marine environment and shrimp culture pond sediments were tested for hydrolytic enzyme production and biogranulation property. Potential isolates were screened for their efficacy in bioremediation of shrimp culture system. Based on the BOD reduction efficiency and water quality parameters, five actinomycete isolates viz., Streptomyces coelicoflavus (A6), Streptomyces diastaticus (A44), Nocardiopsis alba (A55), Streptomyces parvus (A56) and Streptomyces champavatii (R32) were subjected for tertiary screening in Penaeus monodon larval rearing system and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)...
April 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jing-Rong Kong, Xue-Li Qiao, Ping Yang, Ting Peng, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang
As a crucial molecular switch, Cdc42 is a signal regulation hub which is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cytokinesis, gene expression, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. It has been reported that this GTPase promotes host defense against fatal infection and plays a vital role in the innate immunity system of mammals. But whether and how Cdc42 participates in innate immunity in invertebrates, such as the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, is still unknown. In this study, confocal microscopy analysis showed that LvCdc42 located in both cytoplasm and nucleus of S2 cells depended on its structure...
May 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jian-An Xian, Xiu-Xia Zhang, Jing-Feng Sun, Lei Wang, Dong-Mei Wang, Jun-Tao Li, Rui-Jun Duan, Yao-Peng Lu, Pei-Hua Zheng
This study was aimed at investigating the cellular responses of Penaeus monodon haemocytes to poly I:C stimulation using flow cytometric assay. Total haemocyte count (THC), percentages of different haemocyte subpopulations [hyaline cells (HC), semigranular cells (SGC) and granular cells (GC)], non-specific esterase activity (EA), total reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production, nitric oxide (NO) production, apoptotic haemocyte ratio and plasmic phenoloxidase (PO) activity were determined in poly I:C-injected shrimp...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yan Gao, Shu-Cheng Zheng, Chao-Qun Zheng, Yue-Chen Shi, Xiao-Lu Xie, Ke-Jian Wang, Hai-Peng Liu
The gradual increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, absorbed by the ocean surface water through air to sea equilibration termed ocean acidification (OA), leads to the decline of pH in seawater. It is not clear so far how the composition of fatty acids, particular the immune-related, in marine crustacean and the subsequent energy supply in marine ecosystem are affected by OA. The brine shrimp Artemia sinica is an open and common feed that provide essential fatty acids for mariculture. In this study, the fatty acids profiles of brine shrimp cultured under different lower pH levels of CO2 driven seawater were investigated...
April 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xia Lu, Sheng Luan, Ping Dai, Xianhong Meng, Baoxiang Cao, Kun Luo, Jie Kong
In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens and even causing high mortality. We have revealed that the survival time under acute ammonia stress varied substantially among different families and obtained ammonia-tolerant (LV_T) and ammonia-sensitive (LV_S) families. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of defense against ammonia toxicity in shrimp, we performed iTRAQ LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis between LV_T and LV_S groups of L...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhihong Zheng, Fan Wang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Ruiwei Li, Defu Yao, Mingqi Zhong, Shengkang Li, Yueling Zhang
The recent emergence of acute hepatopancreas necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimps has posed a major challenge in the shrimp aquaculture industry. The Pir toxin proteins carried by some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are believed to play essential roles in the pathogenesis of AHPND. However, few studies have so far explored how the host immune system responds to these bacteria. In this study, AHPND V. parahaemolyticus (with Pir) and non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus (without Pir) were injected into two groups of shrimps, and the hemocytes collected for comparative transcriptomic analyses...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Wei Liu, Chao Zhao, Pengfei Wang, Shu Wang, Heizhao Lin, Lihua Qiu
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is part of the enzymatic antioxidant system that can eliminate the peroxides produced as effect of reactions of molecules with reactive oxygen species (ROS). We cloned two different GPx genes from Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). Bioinformatics sequence analysis showed that PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 encoded polypeptides of 207 and 208 amino acids, respectively. PmGPx1 has a selenocysteine residue that is encoded by an opal codon 187TGA189. The PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 expression profiles were detected in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimps under osmotic stress, heavy metal exposure and bacterial infection, and the results suggested that PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 are involved in the responses to these stimuli...
March 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Xia Lu, Jie Kong, Xianhong Meng, Baoxiang Cao, Kun Luo, Ping Dai, Sheng Luan
The high concentration of ammonia from deteriorated aquaculture environments and the intensive culture system could increase the susceptibility to pathogens and even cause high mortality in Litopenaeus vannamei. In addition, we have revealed that the ammonia-tolerant shrimp also have high disease resistance in L. vannamei. In the present study, in order to identify SNP markers associated with tolerance to ammonia toxicity, we developed and characterized SNPs from our previous transcriptome sequencing data of ammonia-stressed and control groups, and a marker-trait association analysis was performed for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to increase production in L...
February 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ming Li, Chunxia Ma, Haoyang Li, Jinxia Peng, Digang Zeng, Xiaohan Chen, Chaozheng Li
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the most important players in the innate immune system, providing a principal first-line of defense against the invading pathogens. Crustin, a type of whey acidic protein (WAP) domain-containing and cationic cysteine-rich AMP, can function in a protease inhibition or an effector molecule manner. In the present study, a new Crustin was cloned and identified from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and designated as LvCrustinA. The full-length cDNA of LvCrustinA was 687 bp, with a 519 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a peptide of 172 amino acids...
February 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Cicy Irna, Irwandi Jaswir, Rashidi Othman, Dzun Noraini Jimat
Astaxanthin is one of the main carotenoid pigments. It has beneficial effects on the immune system of the human body due to its powerful antioxidant properties. The application of this bioactive compound can be found to be significant in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. The aim of this research was to investigate astaxanthin yield from six species of Malaysian shrimp carapace. Six types of shrimp species-Parapenaeopsis sculptili, Metapenaeus lysianassa, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Metapenaeopsis hardwickii, Penaeus merguiensis, and Penaeus monodon-were used to investigate total carotenoid content and astaxanthin yield...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Pei Ning, Zhihong Zheng, Jude Juventus Aweya, Defu Yao, Shengkang Li, Hongyu Ma, Fan Wang, Yueling Zhang
Notch signaling pathway was originally discovered in the development stage of drosophila but has recently been found to play essential roles in innate immunity. Most previous studies on Notch have focused on mammals, whereas, in this study, we employed the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei as a model to study the functions of Notch in invertebrate innate immune system. Our results showed that LvNotch was highly expressed in hemocytes and could be strongly induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) injection. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of LvNotch could significantly increase LPS induced L...
April 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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