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Shrimp immune system

Warunthorn Monwan, Piti Amparyup, Anchalee Tassanakajon
Clip domain serine proteinases (ClipSPs) play critical roles in the activation of proteolytic cascade in invertebrate immune systems including the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system. In this study, we characterized a snake-like serine protease, namely PmSnake, from the shrimp Penaeus monodon which has previously been identified based on the subtractive cDNA library of proPO double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-treated hemocytes. An open reading frame of PmSnake contains 1068 bp encoding a predicted protein of 355 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and two conserved domains (N-terminal clip domain and C-terminal trypsin-like serine proteinase domain)...
September 28, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jinbin Zheng, Yong Mao, Yongquan Su, Jun Wang
Nitrite accumulation in aquaculture systems is a potential risk factor that may trigger stress responses in aquatic organisms. However, the mechanisms regulating the responses of shrimp to nitrite stress remain unclear. In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of two apoptosis-related genes, caspase-3 and defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1), were cloned from Marsupenaeus japonicus for the first time, and their expression levels and tissue distribution were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
August 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Bobo Xie, Mingjun Fu, Chao Zhao, Jinxuan Shi, Gongfang Shi, Zongyao Jiao, Lihua Qiu
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ancient cytokine that engages in innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the MIF gene homologue (PmMIF) was cloned from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmMIF was 838 bp and contained 78 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 397 bp 3' UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 363 bp which coded 120 amino acids (aa). Multiple alignment analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared 98% identities with MIF from closely related species of Litopenaeus vannamei...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xiaopeng Xu, Jia Yuan, Linwei Yang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Hongliang Zuo
miR-1959, a novel microRNA identified from Litopenaeus vannamei, mediates a positive feedback loop between Dorsal and Cactus that can continuously maintain the activation of the NF-κB pathway. It has been known that miR-1959 is involved in antibacterial immunity in shrimp, but its function in antiviral responses is still unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of miR-1959 in infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the major viral pathogen in shrimp worldwide. The expression of miR-1959 in shrimp hemocytes, gill, and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated upon WSSV infection...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Wipasiri Soonthornchai, Sage Chaiyapechara, Sirawut Klinbunga, Wilawan Thongda, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Thippawan Yoocha, Padermsak Jarayabhand, Pikul Jiravanichpaisal
Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) is an emerging disease in aquacultured shrimp caused by a pathogenic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. As with several pathogenic bacteria, colonization of the stomach appeared to be the initial step of the infection for AHPND-causing Vibrio. To understand the immune responses in the stomach of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in the stomach during V. parahaemolyticus strain 3HP (VP3HP) infection was examined using Ion Torrent sequencing...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zhi Wang, Fei Zhu
Minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM7) belongs to the MCM protein family and participates in the MCM complex by playing a role in the cell replication cycle and chromosome initiation of eukaryotes. Previously, we found that several genes, including MCM7, were over-expressed in Drosophila melanogaster after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, we aimed to further research the MCM7 of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (mjMCM7) and determine its role in the innate immune system. To this end, we cloned the entire 2307-bp mjMCM7 sequence, including a 1974-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 658-aa-long protein...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hung Nam Mai, Ha Thi Nhu Nguyen, Keiichiro Koiwai, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
Serine proteases and their inhibitors play vital roles in biological processes. Serine protease inhibitors, including Kunitz-type protease inhibitors play important roles not only in physiological process (i.e. blood clotting and fibrinolysis) but also in immune responses. In this study, we characterized a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, designated MjKuPI, from kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. An expression profile showed that MjKuPI was mainly expressed in hemocytes. Immunostaining revealed that some hemocytes expressed MjKuPI (MjKuPI(+) hemocytes) and others did not (MjKuPI(-) hemocytes)...
October 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Daniel Powell, Wayne Knibb, Nguyen Hong Nguyen, Abigail Elizur
Viral pathogens are of serious concern to the culture of penaeid shrimps worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular response of shrimp to viral infection. Selective breeding has been suggested as an effective long-term strategy to manage viral disease, though more information on gene function is needed to help inform breeding programs. The study of cultured banana shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) infected with hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV) provides a unique opportunity to explore the host response to viral infection independent of challenge testing...
June 1, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Leslie S Babonis, Mark Q Martindale, Joseph F Ryan
BACKGROUND: The evolution of novel genes is thought to be a critical component of morphological innovation but few studies have explicitly examined the contribution of novel genes to the evolution of novel tissues. Nematosomes, the free-floating cellular masses that circulate through the body cavity of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, are the defining apomorphy of the genus Nematostella and are a useful model for understanding the evolution of novel tissues. Although many hypotheses have been proposed, the function of nematosomes is unknown...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ting Chen, Chunhua Ren, Yanhong Wang, Peng Luo, Xiao Jiang, Wen Huang, Chang Chen, Chaoqun Hu
The full-length cDNA coding for a novel invertebrate (i-type) lysozyme was identified in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The newly obtained L. vannamei lysozyme is similar to the Penaeus monodon i-type lysozyme 2, but it is distant from the known L. vannamei c-type lysozyme and i-type lysozyme 1 in protein sequence; therefore, it was defined as L. vannamei i-type lysozyme 2 (lyz-i2). Expression of L. vannamei lyz-i2 transcripts were ubiquitously detected in all tissues we selected, with the highest abundance observed in the hemolymph...
July 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jing Qian, Chunhua Ren, Jianjun Xia, Ting Chen, Zonghe Yu, Chaoqun Hu
The non-specific protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) is a key macromolecular glycoprotein that involved in host immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, no research regarding A2M has been developed in echinoderms to date. In this study, the full-length cDNA of A2M was cloned from the sea cucumber (Holothuria atra), which is a tropical species widely distributed along the coasts of the South China Sea and designated HaA2M. HaA2M possesses all three conserved functional domains of known A2M proteins, including the bait region domain, thioester domain and receptor-binding domain...
July 10, 2016: Gene
Xing Zhang, You-Ting Zhu, Xue-Jie Li, Shi-Chuang Wang, Dan Li, Wei-Wei Li, Qun Wang
Melanization mediated by prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system play an essential role in killing invading microorganisms in invertebrates. Lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) as a pattern recognition protein have been demonstrated to active the proPO cascade in insect and shrimp. In this study, we investigated the role of LGBP in prophenoloxidase cascade-induced melanization in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). By RT-PCR analysis, EsLGBP was detected in all tested tissues, and showed highest expression in hemocytes, gill, intestine and brain...
August 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Napol Kaewkascholkul, Kulwadee Somboonviwat, Shuichi Asakawa, Ikuo Hirono, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Kunlaya Somboonwiwat
MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs of RNA interference pathways that regulate gene expression through partial complementary base-pairing to target mRNAs. In this study, miRNAs that are expressed in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Penaeus monodon, were identified using next generation sequencing. Forty-six miRNA homologs were identified from WSSV-infected shrimp hemocyte. Stem-loop real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 11 out of 16 selected miRNAs were differentially expressed upon WSSV infection. Of those, pmo-miR-315 and pmo-miR-750 were highly responsive miRNAs...
July 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ramachandran Ishwarya, Sangily Jayanthi, Perumal Muthulakshmi, Mahalingam Anjugam, Rengarajan Jayakumar, Abdul Khudus Nazar, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan
In the present study, we purified two prophenoloxidases (proPO) from haemolymph of green tiger shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus by gel fermentation chromatography using blue Sepharose matrix. The two purified prophenoloxidase macromolecules are of about 76 and 75 kDa determined through SDS-PAGE and named as Penaeus semisulcatus prophenoloxidase I (PSproPO I) and Penaeus semisulcatus prophenoloxidase II (PSproPO II). It was further characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Circular Dichroism (CD) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis...
April 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Parisa Norouzitallab, Kartik Baruah, Priyanka Biswas, Daisy Vanrompay, Peter Bossier
The invertebrate's innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bas Verbruggen, Lisa K Bickley, Ronny van Aerle, Kelly S Bateman, Grant D Stentiford, Eduarda M Santos, Charles R Tyler
Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease...
January 2016: Viruses
Marcelo R Pinto, Malson N Lucena, Rogério Oliveira Faleiros, Eduardo Alves Almeida, John C McNamara, Francisco A Leone
We evaluate the effects of total ammonia nitrogen-N (TAN) exposure for 72h on (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities and on their subunit expressions in gills of the diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum. Specific (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities increased roughly 1.5- to 2-fold, respectively, after exposure to 2.0mmolL(-1) TAN. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a 2.5-fold increase in V(H(+))-ATPase B subunit mRNA expression while (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase α-subunit expression was unchanged...
January 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Yu-Yuan Chen, Jiann-Chu Chen, Yi-Hsuan Kuo, Yong-Chin Lin, Yu-Hsuan Chang, Hong-Yi Gong, Chien-Lun Huang
Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), important pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-1,3-glucan (βG), known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and subsequently trigger innate immunity. Several seaweed polysaccharides and seaweed extracts increase immune parameters and resistance to pathogens. Here, we constructed the expression vector pET28b-LvLGBP and transferred it into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression and to produce the recombinant protein LGBP (rLvLGBP) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei...
February 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Chaozheng Li, Haoyang Li, Yixiao Chen, Yonggui Chen, Sheng Wang, Shao-Ping Weng, Xiaopeng Xu, Jianguo He
There is a debate on whether invertebrates possess an antiviral immunity similar to the interferon (IFN) system of vertebrates. The Vago gene from arthropods encodes a viral-activated secreted peptide that restricts virus infection through activating the JAK-STAT pathway and is considered to be a cytokine functionally similar to IFN. In this study, the first crustacean IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-like gene was identified in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The L. vannamei IRF showed similar protein nature to mammalian IRFs and could be activated during virus infection...
2015: Scientific Reports
Kartik Baruah, Ho Phuong Pham Duy Phong, Parisa Norouzitallab, Tom Defoirdt, Peter Bossier
The phenolic compound pyrogallol is the functional unit of many polyphenols and currently there has been a growing interest in using this compound in human and animal health owing to its health-promoting effects. The biological actions of pyrogallol moiety (and polyphenols) in inducing health benefitting effects have been studied; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear yet. Here, we aimed at unravelling the underlying mechanism of action behind the protective effects of pyrogallol against bacterial infection by using the gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi as host-pathogen model system...
December 2015: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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