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Shrimp immune system

Pandi Palanikumar, Dani Joel Daffni Benitta, Chinnadurai Lelin, Eswaramoorthy Thirumalaikumar, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Thavasimuthu Citarasu
Argemone mexicana called as Mexican prickly poppy is a species of poppy found in Mexico and now widely naturalized in many parts of the world with broad range of bioactivities including anthelmintic, cures lepsory, skin-diseases, inflammations and bilious fevers. Plant parts of A. mexicana were serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and performed antiviral and immunostimulant screening against WSSV and Vibrio harveyi respectively. The control groups succumbed to death 100% within three days, whereas the mortality was significantly (P < 0...
February 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
David Angelo V Guanzon, Mary Beth B Maningas
There is a continuing debate on whether an antiviral immunity similar to vertebrate interferon response exists in invertebrates. Recent advances in penaeid immunology identified several new members of the Toll receptor family and one of these is LvToll3 (Litopenaeus vannamei Toll3). It is hypothesized in this study that LvToll3 responds to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as dsRNA, which then activates certain antiviral pathways in penaeids. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to determine differences in the expression levels of specific genes putatively involved in the antiviral response through qPCR...
February 5, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Divya T Babu, K Archana, Bhavya Kachiprath, Solly Solomon, G Jayanath, I S Bright Singh, Rosamma Philip
Actinomycetes (277Nos) isolated from marine environments and shrimp culture pond sediments were tested for hydrolytic enzyme production and biogranulation property. Potential isolates were screened for their efficacy in bioremediation of shrimp culture system. Based on the BOD reduction efficiency and water quality parameters, five actinomycete isolates viz., Streptomyces coelicoflavus (A6), Streptomyces diastaticus (A 44), Nocardiopsis alba (A 55), Streptomyces parvus (A 56) and Streptomyces champavatii (R 32) were subjected for tertiary screening in Penaeus monodon larval rearing system and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)...
January 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jing-Rong Kong, Xue-Li Qiao, Ping Yang, Ting Peng, Yuan Liu, Wei-Na Wang
As a crucial molecular switch, Cdc42 is a signal regulation hub which is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cytokinesis, gene expression, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. It has been reported that this GTPase promotes host defense against fatal infection and plays a vital role in the innate immunity system of mammals. But whether and how Cdc42 participates in innate immunity in invertebrates, such as the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, is still unknown. In this study, confocal microscopy analysis showed that LvCdc42 located in both cytoplasm and nucleus of S2 cells depended on its structure...
February 1, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jian-An Xian, Xiu-Xia Zhang, Jing-Feng Sun, Lei Wang, Dong-Mei Wang, Jun-Tao Li, Rui-Jun Duan, Yao-Peng Lu, Pei-Hua Zheng
This study was aimed at investigating the cellular responses of Penaeus monodon haemocytes to poly I:C stimulation using flow cytometric assay. Total haemocyte count (THC), percentages of different haemocyte subpopulations [hyaline cells (HC), semigranular cells (SGC) and granular cells (GC)], non-specific esterase activity (EA), total reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production, nitric oxide (NO) production, apoptotic haemocyte ratio and plasmic phenoloxidase (PO) activity were determined in poly I:C-injected shrimp...
December 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yan Gao, Shu-Cheng Zheng, Chao-Qun Zheng, Yue-Chen Shi, Xiao-Lu Xie, Ke-Jian Wang, Hai-Peng Liu
The gradual increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, absorbed by the ocean surface water through air to sea equilibration termed ocean acidification (OA), leads to the decline of pH in seawater. It is not clear so far how the composition of fatty acids, particular the immune-related, in marine crustacean and the subsequent energy supply in marine ecosystem are affected by OA. The brine shrimp Artemia sinica is an open and common feed that provide essential fatty acids for mariculture. In this study, the fatty acids profiles of brine shrimp cultured under different lower pH levels of CO2 driven seawater were investigated...
December 26, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xia Lu, Sheng Luan, Ping Dai, Xianhong Meng, Baoxiang Cao, Kun Luo, Jie Kong
In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens and even causing high mortality. We have revealed that the survival time under acute ammonia stress varied substantially among different families and obtained ammonia-tolerant (LV_T) and ammonia-sensitive (LV_S) families. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of defense against ammonia toxicity in shrimp, we performed iTRAQ LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis between LV_T and LV_S groups of L...
December 25, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhihong Zheng, Fan Wang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Ruiwei Li, Defu Yao, Mingqi Zhong, Shengkang Li, Yueling Zhang
The recent emergence of acute hepatopancreas necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimps has posed a major challenge in the shrimp aquaculture industry. The Pir toxin proteins carried by some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are believed to play essential roles in the pathogenesis of AHPND. However, few studies have so far explored how the host immune system responds to these bacteria. In this study, AHPND V. parahaemolyticus (with Pir) and non-AHPND V. parahaemolyticus (without Pir) were injected into two groups of shrimps, and the hemocytes collected for comparative transcriptomic analyses...
December 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Wei Liu, Chao Zhao, Pengfei Wang, Shu Wang, Heizhao Lin, Lihua Qiu
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is part of the enzymatic antioxidant system that can eliminate the peroxides produced as effect of reactions of molecules with reactive oxygen species (ROS). We cloned two different GPx genes from Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). Bioinformatics sequence analysis showed that PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 encoded polypeptides of 207 and 208 amino acids, respectively. PmGPx1 has a selenocysteine residue that is encoded by an opal codon 187TGA189. The PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 expression profiles were detected in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimps under osmotic stress, heavy metal exposure and bacterial infection, and the results suggested that PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 are involved in the responses to these stimuli...
December 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Xia Lu, Jie Kong, Xianhong Meng, Baoxiang Cao, Kun Luo, Ping Dai, Sheng Luan
The high concentration of ammonia from deteriorated aquaculture environments and the intensive culture system could increase the susceptibility to pathogens and even cause high mortality in Litopenaeus vannamei. In addition, we have revealed that the ammonia-tolerant shrimp also have high disease resistance in L. vannamei. In the present study, in order to identify SNP markers associated with tolerance to ammonia toxicity, we developed and characterized SNPs from our previous transcriptome sequencing data of ammonia-stressed and control groups, and a marker-trait association analysis was performed for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to increase production in L...
February 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ming Li, Chunxia Ma, Haoyang Li, Jinxia Peng, Digang Zeng, Xiaohan Chen, Chaozheng Li
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the most important players in the innate immune system, providing a principal first-line of defense against the invading pathogens. Crustin, a type of whey acidic protein (WAP) domain-containing and cationic cysteine-rich AMP, can function in a protease inhibition or an effector molecule manner. In the present study, a new Crustin was cloned and identified from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and designated as LvCrustinA. The full-length cDNA of LvCrustinA was 687 bp, with a 519 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a peptide of 172 amino acids...
February 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Cicy Irna, Irwandi Jaswir, Rashidi Othman, Dzun Noraini Jimat
Astaxanthin is one of the main carotenoid pigments. It has beneficial effects on the immune system of the human body due to its powerful antioxidant properties. The application of this bioactive compound can be found to be significant in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. The aim of this research was to investigate astaxanthin yield from six species of Malaysian shrimp carapace. Six types of shrimp species-Parapenaeopsis sculptili, Metapenaeus lysianassa, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Metapenaeopsis hardwickii, Penaeus merguiensis, and Penaeus monodon-were used to investigate total carotenoid content and astaxanthin yield...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Pei Ning, Zhihong Zheng, Jude Juventus Aweya, Defu Yao, Shengkang Li, Hongyu Ma, Fan Wang, Yueling Zhang
Notch signaling pathway was originally discovered in the development stage of drosophila but has recently been found to play essential roles in innate immunity. Most previous studies on Notch have focused on mammals, whereas, in this study, we employed the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei as a model to study the functions of Notch in invertebrate innate immune system. Our results showed that LvNotch was highly expressed in hemocytes and could be strongly induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) injection. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of LvNotch could significantly increase LPS induced L...
April 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Defu Yao, Huimin Su, Jinghua Zhu, Xianliang Zhao, Jude Juventus Aweya, Fan Wang, Mingqi Zhong, Yueling Zhang
Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important regulators in the innate immune system and their genetic variations usually affect the host's susceptibility/resistance to pathogen infections. In this study, we report on the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Toll1 in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvToll1) and how this is associated with immune response. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed genetic polymorphisms in LvToll1 at both the genomic DNA (gDNA) and cDNA levels. Using high-throughput sequencing, 223 SNPs were identified at the gDNA level, of which 145 were non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP), with 3 nsSNPs having frequency over 1%...
January 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhi Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Previously, we found that the expression of several genes, including HR, varied in Drosophila melanogaster after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this present study, we further investigated the role of HR in Kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus and determined its anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation role in the innate immune system. We successfully identified a partial sequence (866 bp in length) of the M. japonicus hormone receptor ligand binding domain (mjHR_LBD/mjHR). The 5' end of mjHR was successfully obtained; the open reading frame (ORF) ran from 33 to 701 bp, and encoded a protein containing 222 amino acids...
January 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Umaporn Khimmakthong, Pimwarang Sukkarun
V. parahaemolyticus are bacteria that cause the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), or Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), in shrimp. To further understand the pathogenesis mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus infection in shrimp, the spreading of this bacterium in various tissues was investigated. The spread of infection in shrimp that were exposed to seawater bacteria was studied by PCR and histopathology at 1 min, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure. The PCR results showed that V. parahaemolyticus was at its most widespread at 6 h after exposure, at which point V...
December 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Phanthipha Runsaeng, Peerapong Puengyam, Prapaporn Utarabhand
Being one type of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), lectins exhibit a crucial role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates which are deficient in an adaptive immune system. A new C-type lectin called FmLC3 was isolated from hepatopancreas of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by cloning approaches, RT-PCR and 5' and 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). A full-length cDNA of FmLC3 contains 607 bp with one open reading frame of 480bp, encoding a 159-amino acids peptide. The predicted primary structure of FmLC3 is composed of a signal peptide, a carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN motif and one Ca2+ binding site-2, including a double-loop region assisted by two conserved disulfide linkages...
December 2017: Molecular Immunology
Amanda S Silveira, Gabriel M Matos, Marcelo Falchetti, Fabio S Ribeiro, Albert Bressan, Evelyne Bachère, Luciane M Perazzolo, Rafael D Rosa
Much of our current knowledge on shrimp immune system is restricted to the defense reactions mediated by the hemocytes and little is known about gut immunity. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional profile of immune-related genes in different organs of the digestive system of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. First, the tissue distribution of 52 well-known immune-related genes has been assessed by semiquantitative analysis in the gastrointestinal tract (foregut, midgut and hindgut) and in the hepatopancreas and circulating hemocytes of shrimp stimulated or not with heat-killed bacteria...
October 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
M Monica, T Priyanka, Murugesan Akshaya, V Rajeswari, Lingappa Sivakumar, S T Somasundaram, R Shenbhagarathai
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is one of the most important causative agents of Penaeid shrimps diseases that incur heavy losses to the shrimp aquaculture. It has severe impact on the sustainability and the production of Penaeus monodon. Hence, the present study focussed on the investigation of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate/biosurfactant as immunostimulants against WSSV infected shrimps. Infection of WSSV was periodically checked in all the experimental shrimps using PCR diagnostic kit. After ensuring all shrimps were free of viral infection, experiments were carried out to analyze the nonspecific immune responses (prophenol oxidase, nitro blue tetrazolium reduction assay and total haemocyte count) both in control and experimental group...
October 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhi Wang, Fei Zhu
In this study, Marsupeneaus japonicus microRNA-S5 (miR-S5) was found to be up-regulated 24 h post white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or V. alginolyticus infection. The loss of function using an anti-microRNA oligonucleotide (AMO-miR-S5) showed that expression levels of multiple innate immune-related genes were affected. The expression of p53 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly down-regulated, expression of myosin was significantly up-regulated. The miR-S5 knockdown delayed WSSV-induced death for 48 h, but the final mortality was not affected, while V...
October 4, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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