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Hypocretin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902669/effects-of-central-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration-on-anxiety-feeding-behavior-and-hypothalamic-neuromodulators-in-the-rat
#1
Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Claudio Ferrante, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Marilisa Pia Dimmito, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando, Sheila Leone
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is strongly involved in the regulation of anxiety and feeding behavior. RVD-hemopressin(α) [RVD-hp(α)], a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of CB2 receptor which has been recently reported to exert anxiolytic/antidepressant and anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration in rats. Pharmacological evidences reported a possible link between brain hypocretin/orexin, monoamine and eCB systems, as regards appetite and emotional behavior control...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881321/pharmacotherapy-of-insomnia
#2
REVIEW
David N Neubauer, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, David Warren Spence, Kenneth Buttoo, Jaime M Monti
Insomnia remains a common clinical concern that is associated with negative daytime consequences for patients and represents a significant public health problem for our society. Although a variety of therapies may be employed to treat insomnia, the use of medications has been a dominant approach. Regulatory agencies have now classified insomnia medications into 4 distinct pharmacodynamics classes. Medications with indications approved for insomnia treatment include benzodiazepine receptor agonists, a melatonin receptor agonist, a selective histamine receptor antagonist, and a dual orexin/hypocretin receptor antagonist...
2018: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873326/erratum-orexin-hypocretin-levels-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-characteristics-of-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-with-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-corrigendum
#3
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 451 in vol. 14, PMID: 29445282.].
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868885/remitting-narcolepsy-longitudinal-observations-in-a-hypocretin-deficient-cohort
#4
F Büchele, C R Baumann, R Poryazova, E Werth, P O Valko
Study objective: Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is considered a chronic, incurable disease. Excessive daytime sleepiness is typically the most troublesome symptom, and more difficult to control by pharmacologic treatment than cataplexy. Although many NT1 patients are monitored by regular follow-ups, the purported relentless persistence of excessive daytime sleepiness has rarely been the object of longitudinal studies. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 26 well-defined hypocretin-deficient NT1 patients who underwent longitudinal assessments of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores under stable pharmacotherapy...
June 4, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852449/hypocretin-orexin-antagonists-decrease-cocaine-self-administration-by-female-rhesus-monkeys
#5
Richard W Foltin, Suzette M Evans
BACKGROUND: The hypocretin/orexin system is involved in regulating arousal, and much recent work demonstrates that decreasing hypocretin receptor-1 (HCRTr1) activity using antagonists decreases appetitive behavior, including stimulant drug self-administration and reinstatement. METHODS: The present study determined the effects of hypocretin-1 and HCRTr1 antagonists on responding reinforced by intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration (0.0125 - 0.05 mg/kg/infusion) in 5 female rhesus monkeys...
May 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845680/multiple-sleep-latency-test-in-narcolepsy-type-1-and-narcolepsy-type-2-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#6
Yu-Shu Huang, Christian Guilleminault, Cheng-Hui Lin, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Chih Chin, Tzu-Shuang Chen
Excessively sleepy teenagers and young adults without sleep-disordered breathing are diagnosed with either narcolepsy type 1 or narcolepsy type 2, or hypersomnia, based on the presence/absence of cataplexy and the results of a multiple sleep latency test. However, there is controversy surrounding this nomenclature. We will try to find the differences between different diagnoses of hypersomnia from the results of the long-term follow-up evaluation of a sleep study. We diagnosed teenagers who had developed excessive daytime sleepiness based on the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805100/a-role-for-hypocretin-orexin-in-metabolic-and-sleep-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-non-metastatic-breast-cancer
#7
Jeremy C Borniger, William H Walker Ii, Surbhi, Kathryn M Emmer, Ning Zhang, Abigail A Zalenski, Stevie L Muscarella, Julie A Fitzgerald, Alexandra N Smith, Cornelius J Braam, Tial TinKai, Ulysses J Magalang, Maryam B Lustberg, Randy J Nelson, A Courtney DeVries
We investigated relationships among immune, metabolic, and sleep abnormalities in mice with non-metastatic mammary cancer. Tumor-bearing mice displayed interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated peripheral inflammation, coincident with altered hepatic glucose processing and sleep. Tumor-bearing mice were hyperphagic, had reduced serum leptin concentrations, and enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ghrelin. We tested whether these phenotypes were driven by inflammation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6; despite the reduction in IL-6 signaling, metabolic and sleep abnormalities persisted...
May 14, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796199/narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-and-hyperthyroidism-sudden-appeared-after-h1n1-vaccination
#8
Silvia Leiva, Jimena Madrazo, Claudio Podesta
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a chronic sleep disorder, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and fragmented nocturnal sleep. It is caused by a hypocretin deficiency due to a significant reduction of the neurons producing it. In the last years, it has been postulated that an autoimmune mechanism would be responsible for the destruction of these neurons in those genetically predisposed patients. The increased incidence of narcolepsy after the pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination campaign in 2009-2010 is known...
January 2018: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784823/continuous-intrathecal-orexin-delivery-inhibits-cataplexy-in-a-murine-model-of-narcolepsy
#9
Mahesh K Kaushik, Kosuke Aritake, Aya Imanishi, Takashi Kanbayashi, Tadashi Ichikawa, Tetsuo Shimizu, Yoshihiro Urade, Masashi Yanagisawa
Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons, associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and fragmentation of nighttime sleep. Currently, human narcolepsy is treated by providing symptomatic therapies, which can be associated with an array of side effects. Although peripherally administered orexin does not efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier, centrally delivered orexin can effectively alleviate narcoleptic symptoms in animal models...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738730/sleep-short-sleepers-should-keep-count-of-their-hypocretin-neurons
#10
Louis C Leung, Philippe Mourrain
Sleep durations vary greatly across animals from 2 to 20 hours with no clear explanation. A small Mexican cavefish reveals how the brain can adapt to increase its wake-stabilizing hypocretin circuit and dramatically reduce sleep, likely to allow adaptive foraging.
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703996/knockdown-of-hypocretin-attenuates-extended-access-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#11
Brooke E Schmeichel, Alessandra Matzeu, Pascale Koebel, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Harpreet Sidhu, Roxana Shahryari, Brigitte L Kieffer, George F Koob, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Candice Contet
The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuropeptide system regulates feeding, arousal state, stress responses, and reward, especially under conditions of enhanced motivational relevance. In particular, HCRT neurotransmission facilitates drug-seeking behavior in circumstances that demand increased effort and/or motivation to take the drug. The present study used a shRNA-encoding adeno-associated viral vector to knockdown Hcrt expression throughout the dorsal hypothalamus in adult rats and determine the role of HCRT in cocaine self-administration...
April 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682090/the-neuropeptide-genes-sst-tac1-hcrt-npy-and-gal-are-powerful-epigenetic-biomarkers-in-head-and-neck-cancer-a-site-specific-analysis
#12
Kiyoshi Misawa, Masato Mima, Atsushi Imai, Daiki Mochizuki, Yuki Misawa, Shiori Endo, Ryuji Ishikawa, Takeharu Kanazawa, Hiroyuki Mineta
Background: Staging and pathological grading systems are convenient but imperfect predictors of recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identifying biomarkers for HNSCC that will progress and cause death is a critical research area, particularly if the biomarker can be linked to selection of patients. Therefore, to identify potential alternative prognostic markers, we investigated the methylation status of five neuropeptide gene promoters. The promoter methylation status was determined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in 230 cases of HNSCC; 58 hypopharynx, 45 larynx, 56 oropharynx, and 71 oral cavity tumor samples were studied...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678754/sex-and-age-dependent-effects-of-orexin-1-receptor-blockade-on-open-field-behavior-and-neuronal-activity
#13
Shannon R Blume, Hannah Nam, Sandra Luz, Debra A Bangasser, Seema Bhatnagar
Adolescence is a sensitive and critical period in brain development where psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to emerge following a stressful life event. Females are two times more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than males. Patients with these disorders show alterations in orexins (also called hypocretins), important neuropeptides that regulate arousal, wakefulness and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Little is known on the role of orexins in mediating arousal behaviors in male and female rats during adolescence or adulthood...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624767/systemic-exertion-intolerance-disease-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-is-common-in-sleep-centre-patients-with-hypersomnolence-a-retrospective-pilot-study
#14
Caroline Maness, Prabhjyot Saini, Donald L Bliwise, Victoria Olvera, David B Rye, Lynn M Trotti
Symptoms of the central disorders of hypersomnolence extend beyond excessive daytime sleepiness to include non-restorative sleep, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. They share much in common with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recently renamed systemic exertion intolerance disease, whose additional features include post-exertional malaise and orthostatic intolerance. We sought to determine the frequency and correlates of systemic exertion intolerance disease in a hypersomnolent population...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623725/an-overview-of-hypocretin-based-therapy-in-narcolepsy
#15
REVIEW
Shinichi Takenoshita, Noriaki Sakai, Yuhei Chiba, Mari Matsumura, Mai Yamaguchi, Seiji Nishino
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most commonly caused by a loss of hypocretin/orexin peptide-producing neurons in the hypothalamus (i.e., Narcolepsy Type 1). Since hypocretin deficiency is assumed to be the main cause of narcoleptic symptoms, hypocretin replacement will be the most essential treatment for narcolepsy. Unfortunately, this option is still not available clinically. There are many potential approaches to replace hypocretin in the brain for narcolepsy such as intranasal administration of hypocretin peptides, developing small molecule hypocretin receptor agonists, hypocretin neuronal transplantation, transforming hypocretin stem cells into hypothalamic neurons, and hypocretin gene therapy...
April 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616340/dopamine-and-wakefulness-pharmacology-genetics-and-circuitry
#16
Jonathan P Wisor
Over the period of decades in the mid to late twentieth century, arousal-promoting functions were attributed to neuromodulators including serotonin, hypocretin, histamine, and noradrenaline. For some time, a relatively minor role in regulating sleep and wake states was ascribed to dopamine and the dopamine-producing cells of the ventral tegmental area, despite the fact that dopaminergic signaling is a major target, if not the primary target, for wake-promoting agents. In recent years, due to observations from human genetic studies, pharmacogenetic studies in animal models, and the increasingly sophisticated methods used to manipulate the nervous systems of experimental animals, it has become clear that dopaminergic signaling is central to the regulation of arousal...
April 4, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580887/neuroimaging-correlates-of-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Masataka Wada, Masaru Mimura, Yoshihiro Noda, Shotaro Takasu, Eric Plitman, Makoto Honda, Akiyo Natsubori, Kamiyu Ogyu, Ryosuke Tarumi, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Shinichiro Nakajima
Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques have advanced our understanding of biological mechanisms underpinning narcolepsy. We used MEDLINE to retrieve neuroimaging studies to compare patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Thirty-seven studies were identified and demonstrated several replicated abnormalities: (1) gray matter reductions in superior frontal, superior and inferior temporal, and middle occipital gyri, hypothalamus, amygdala, insula, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and nucleus accumbens, (2) decreased fractional anisotropy in white matter of fronto-orbital and cingulate area, (3) reduced brain metabolism or cerebral blood flow in middle and superior frontal, and cingulate cortex (4) increased activity in inferior frontal gyri, insula, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, and (5) N-acetylaspartate/creatine-phosphocreatine level reduction in hypothalamus...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542425/progenitor-cell-proliferation-in-the-subventricular-zone-in-a-model-of-narcolepsy
#18
Oscar Arias-Carrion, Emmanuel Ortega-Robles, Benito de Celis-Alonso, Artur Palasz, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Miguel A Mendez-Rojas, Jose Salas-Pacheco, Elias Manjarrez
Adult neurogenesis, a specific form of brain plasticity in mammals occurring in the subventricular zone, is subject to complex regulations. Hypocretin/orexin neurons are implicated in the regulation of sleep and arousal states among other functions. Here, we found orexin afferent projections in the rat subventricular zone, which is a neurogenic region. We therefore studied in detail the origin of the orexinergic innervation to the subventricular zone in rats. Post-mortem retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence procedures indicate orexinergic projections toward the subventricular zone...
March 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541053/non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-parasomnias-and-migraine-a-role-of-orexinergic-projections
#19
Antonietta Messina, Ilaria Bitetti, Francesco Precenzano, Diego Iacono, Giovanni Messina, Michele Roccella, Lucia Parisi, Margherita Salerno, Anna Valenzano, Agata Maltese, Monica Salerno, Francesco Sessa, Giuseppe Davide Albano, Rosa Marotta, Ines Villano, Gabriella Marsala, Christian Zammit, Francesco Lavano, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Serena Marianna Lavano, Beatrice Gallai, Roberto Toraldo, Vincenzo Monda, Marco Carotenuto
Introduction: Sleep and migraine share a common pathophysiological substrate, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The serotonergic and orexinergic systems are both involved in the regulation of sleep/wake cycle, and numerous studies show that both are involved in the migraine etiopathogenesis. These two systems are anatomically and functionally interconnected. Our hypothesis is that in migraine a dysfunction of orexinergic projections on the median raphe (MR) nuclei, interfering with serotonergic regulation, may cause Non-Rapid Eye Movement parasomnias, such as somnambulism...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535612/neural-damage-in-experimental-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense-infection-hypothalamic-peptidergic-sleep-and-wake-regulatory-neurons
#20
Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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