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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345194/decay-of-the-glycolytic-pathway-and-adaptation-to-intranuclear-parasitism-within-enterocytozoonidae-microsporidia
#1
Dominic Wiredu Boakye, Pattana Jaroenlak, Anuphap Prachumwat, Tom A Williams, Kelly S Bateman, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Konrad H Paszkiewicz, Karen A Moore, Grant D Stentiford, Bryony A P Williams
Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are the fundamental pathways of ATP generation in eukaryotes. Yet in microsporidia, endoparasitic fungi living at the limits of cellular streamlining, oxidative phosphorylation has been lost: energy is obtained directly from the host or, during the dispersive spore stage, via glycolysis. It was therefore surprising when the first genome from the Enterocytozoonidae - a major family of human and animal-infecting microsporidians - appeared to have lost glycolysis. Here we sequence and analyse genomes from four additional members of this family, shedding new light on their unusual biology...
March 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344399/extraction-of-chitosan-and-its-oligomers-from-shrimp-shell-waste-their-characterization-and-antimicrobial-effect
#2
Tarun Kumar Varun, Swaraj Senani, Natasha Jayapal, Jayaram Chikkerur, Sohini Roy, Vijay Bhasker Tekulapally, Mayank Gautam, Narender Kumar
AIM: The present study was performed to utilize the shrimp shell waste for chitin and chitosan production, characterization by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique and to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of chitosan oligomers produced by depolymerization of chitosan by nitrous acid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chitosan was extracted from the shrimp shell waste by the chemical method and characterized by FT-IR. Chitooligomers were produced by depolymerising chitosan using nitrous acid, and the chitooligomers were tested for antimicrobial effect against four gut pathogenic organisms, i...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342758/effects-of-low-frequency-ultrasound-on-heterogenous-deacetylation-of-chitin
#3
Ngo Thi Hoai Duong, Ngo Dang Nghia
The effects of low frequency ultrasound to the heterogeneous deacetylation of chitin from the shell of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) were examined. The deacetylation process was carried out in the range of NaOH concentrations from 35% to 65% (w/w) with and without the ultrasound in the frequency of 37kHz, RMS=300W. The chitosan obtained was characterized in the degree of deacetylation, solubility, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the behaviors of the deacetylation in two cases, with and without ultrasound, were similar but the ultrasound enhanced the deacetylation rate and therefore reduced the time of the reaction to get the same degree of deacetylation...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339033/role-of-tropomyosin-in-silkworm-allergy
#4
Kyoung Yong Jeong, In-Soo Han, June Yong Lee, Kyung Hee Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jung-Won Park
Silkworm pupae are widely consumed in Asian countries and allergic reactions following consumption have been described. However, false‑positive responses in skin prick allergy tests or non‑specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to total extract of silkworm pupa make diagnosis difficult. Although improved allergy diagnosis is required, molecular characterization of silkworm allergens has not been performed to date, except for Bomb m 1, an arginine kinase. This study aimed to evaluate the allergenicity of tropomyosin, a well‑established invertebrate pan‑allergen, from silkworm pupa...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336489/current-applications-selection-and-possible-mechanisms-of-actions-of-synbiotics-in-improving-the-growth-and-health-status-in-aquaculture-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Truong-Giang Huynh, Ya-Li Shiu, Thanh-Phuong Nguyen, Quoc-Phu Truong, Jiann-Chu Chen, Chun-Hung Liu
Synbiotics, a conjunction between prebiotics and probiotics, have been used in aquaculture for over 10 years. However, the mechanisms of how synbiotics work as growth and immunity promoters are far from being unraveled. Here, we show that a prebiotic as part of a synbiotic is hydrolyzed to mono- or disaccharides as the sole carbon source with diverse mechanisms, thereby increasing biomass and colonization that is established by specific crosstalk between probiotic bacteria and the surface of intestinal epithelial cells of the host...
March 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336276/chitin-extraction-from-blue-crab-portunus-segnis-and-shrimp-penaeus-kerathurus-shells-using-digestive-alkaline-proteases-from-p-segnis-viscera
#6
Marwa Hamdi, Amal Hammami, Sawssen Hajji, Mourad Jridi, Moncef Nasri, Rim Nasri
Since chitin is closely associated with proteins, deproteinization is a crucial step in the process of extracting chitin. Thus, this research aimed to extract chitin from Portunus segnis and Penaeus kerathurus shells by means of crude digestive alkaline proteases from the viscera of P. segnis, regarding deproteinization step, as an alternative to chemical treatment. Casein zymography revealed that five caseinolytic proteases bands exist, suggesting the presence of at least five different major proteases. The optimum pH and temperature for protease activity was pH 8...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335403/comparison-of-faunal-scavenging-of-submerged-carrion-in-two-seasons-at-a-depth-of-170-m-in-the-strait-of-georgia-british-columbia
#7
Gail S Anderson, Lynne S Bell
The taphonomy of carcasses submerged in the ocean is little understood, yet it is extremely important ecologically and forensically. The objectives of this study were to determine the fate of pig carcasses as human proxies in the Strait of Georgia at 170 m in spring and fall. Using Ocean Networks Canada's Victoria Experimental Network Underseas (VENUS) observatory, two carcasses per season were placed under a cabled platform hosting a webcam and instruments measuring water chemistry. Two minutes of video were recorded every 15 min...
March 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334209/comparative-study-of-chemosensory-organs-of-shrimp-from-hydrothermal-vent-and-coastal-environments
#8
Magali Zbinden, Camille Berthod, Nicolas Montagné, Julia Machon, Nelly Léger, Thomas Chertemps, Nicolas Rabet, Bruce Shillito, Juliette Ravaux
The detection of chemical signals is involved in a variety of crustacean behaviors, such as social interactions, search and evaluation of food and navigation in the environment. At hydrothermal vents, endemic shrimp may use the chemical signature of vent fluids to locate active edifices, however little is known on their sensory perception in these remote deep-sea habitats. Here, we present the first comparative description of the sensilla on the antennules and antennae of 4 hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata, Mirocaris fortunata, Chorocaris chacei, and Alvinocaris markensis) and of a closely related coastal shrimp (Palaemon elegans)...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330853/noncoding-mirnas-bridge-virus-infection-and-host-autophagy-in-shrimp-in-vivo
#9
Yaodong He, Yuechao Sun, Xiaobo Zhang
Autophagy is known to be involved in viral infection. However, the relationship between autophagy and viral infection has not been characterized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), important regulators of gene transcription, play central roles in many biologic processes, including autophagy and viral infection. It was therefore of interest to investigate the miRNAs regulating viral infection and host autophagy. In this study the viral infection (white spot syndrome virus, WSSV) correlated positively with the host autophagy in shrimp...
March 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330752/prevalence-and-distribution-of-covert-mortality-nodavirus-cmnv-in-cultured-crustacean
#10
Qingli Zhang, TingTing Xu, Xiaoyuan Wan, Shuang Liu, Xiuhua Wang, Xiaoping Li, Xuan Dong, Bing Yang, Jie Huang
An emerging covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) was proved to be the infectious agent of shrimp viral covert mortality disease (VCMD). Prevalence and distribution of CMNV were investigated by using the methods of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), nested reverse transcription PCR, gene sequencing, histopathology, in situ RNA hybridization (ISH) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) in this study. RT-LAMP results showed that CMNV positive samples appeared in the cultured crustaceans including Litopenaeus vannamei, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and mostly distributed the coastal provinces in China...
March 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330229/production-purification-and-characterization-of-halophilic-organic-solvent-tolerant-protease-from-marine-crustacean-shell-wastes-and-its-efficacy-on-deproteinization
#11
Thirumalai Maruthiah, Beena Somanath, Jebamonydhas Vijila Jasmin, Grasian Immanuel, Arunachalam Palavesam
The quantum of marine fish wastes produced by fish processing industries has necessitated to search new methods for its disposal. Hence, this study is focused on production and purification of halophilic organic solvent tolerant protease (HOSP) from marine Alcaligenes faecalis APCMST-MKW6 using marine shell wastes as substrate. The candidate bacterium was isolated from the marine sediment of Manakudi coast and identified as A. faecalis APCMST-MKW6. The purified protease showed 16.39-fold purity, 70.34 U/mg specific activity with 21...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328986/estimation-of-genetic-parameters-and-genotype-by-environment-interactions-related-to-acute-ammonia-stress-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-juveniles-at-two-different-salinity-levels
#12
Xia Lu, Sheng Luan, Baoxiang Cao, Xianhong Meng, Juan Sui, Ping Dai, Kun Luo, Xiaoli Shi, Dengchun Hao, Guomin Han, Jie Kong
Regarding the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the deterioration of water quality from intensive culture systems and environmental pollution is a common but troublesome problem in the cultivation of this species. The toxicities that result from deteriorating water quality, such as that from ammonia stress, have lethal effects on juvenile shrimp and can increase their susceptibility to pathogens. The toxicity of ammonia plays an important role in the frequently high mortality during the early stage on shrimp farms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328982/highlighting-of-quorum-sensing-lux-genes-and-their-expression-in-the-hydrothermal-vent-shrimp-rimicaris-exoculata-ectosymbiontic-community-possible-use-as-biogeographic-markers
#13
Simon Le Bloa, Lucile Durand, Valérie Cueff-Gauchard, Josiane Le Bars, Laure Taupin, Charlotte Marteau, Alexis Bazire, Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita
Rimicaris exoculata is a caridean shrimp that dominates the fauna at several hydrothermal vent sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It has two distinct and stable microbial communities. One of these epibiontic bacterial communities is located in the shrimp gut and has a distribution and role that are poorly understood. The second colonizes its enlarged gill chamber and is involved in host nutrition. It is eliminated after each molt, and has colonization processes reminiscent of those of a biofilm. The presence and expression of genes usually involved in quorum sensing (QS) were then studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327516/an-extract-from-shrimp-processing-by-products-protects-sh-sy5y-cells-from-neurotoxicity-induced-by-a%C3%AE-25-35
#14
Yongping Zhang, Guangling Jiao, Cai Song, Shelly Gu, Richard E Brown, Junzeng Zhang, Pingcheng Zhang, Jacques Gagnon, Steven Locke, Roumiana Stefanova, Claude Pelletier, Yi Zhang, Hongyu Lu
Increased evidence suggests that marine unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) can protect neurons from amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) assays showed that the acetone extract 4-2A obtained from shrimp Pandalus borealis industry processing wastes contained 67.19% monounsaturated FAs and 16.84% polyunsaturated FAs. The present study evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-2A in Aβ25-35-insulted differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...
March 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326431/effects-of-a-supraseasonal-drought-on-the-ecological-attributes-of-plagioscion-squamosissimus-heckel-1840-pisces-sciaenidae-in-a-brazilian-reservoir
#15
Antonia E F Souza, Jônnata F Oliveira, Danielle Peretti, Rodrigo Fernandes, Rodrigo S Costa, José Luis Costa Novaes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supraseasonal drought on the ecological attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus. The fish were caught quarterly from February 2010 to November 2014 using gill nets in the reservoir of Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The abundance of the species was evaluated with the catch per unit effort (CPUE) metric and then correlated with the accumulated rainfall and water volume of the reservoir. The diet of the fish was evaluated using the feeding index (IAi)...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323199/acute-toxicity-bioaccumulation-and-effects-of-dietary-transfer-of-silver-from-brine-shrimps-exposed-to-pvp-pei-coated-silver-nanoparticles-to-zebrafish
#16
José María Lacave, Álvaro Fanjul, Eider Bilbao, Nerea Gutierrez, Irantzu Barrio, Inmaculada Arostegui, Miren P Cajaraville, Amaia Orbea
The extensive use and release to the aquatic environment of silver nanoparticles (NPs) could lead to their incorporation into the food web. Brine shrimp larvae of 24h showed low sensitivity to the exposure to PVP/PEI-coated Ag NPs (5nm), with EC50 values at 24h of 19.63mg Ag L(-1), but they significantly accumulated silver after 24h of exposure to 100μg L(-1) of Ag NPs. Thus, to assess bioaccumulation and effects of silver transferred by the diet in zebrafish, brine shrimp larvae were exposed to 100ng L(-1) of Ag NPs as an environmentally relevant concentration or to 100μg L(-1) as a potentially effective concentration and used to feed zebrafish for 21days...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322766/characterization-of-a-molt-related-myostatin-gene-fmmstn-from-the-banana-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis
#17
Rui Qun Zhuo, Ting Ting Zhou, Shi Ping Yang, Siuming Francis Chan
Myostatin is an important member of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) family that functions to regulate muscle growth in animals. In this study, the myostatin gene (FmMstn) and two slightly different (short and long forms) cDNAs of the banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis were cloned and characterized. Similar to Mstn gene of the scallop, fish and mammal, FmMstn gene consists of 3 exons and 2 introns. The 2 kb upstream promoter region of the FmMstn gene consists of putative response elements for myocyte enhancing factor (MEF2) and E-box factors...
March 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322211/prey-species-of-franciscana-pontoporia-blainvillei-as-paratenic-hosts-of-helminths
#18
Tony Silveira, Mariana H Remião, Ricardo B Robaldo, Kaio Freitas, Ana Luísa S Valente
The distribution of franciscana Pontoporia blainvillei Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1884, is restricted to the estuarine and coastal waters of the southwestern Atlantic. The diet of this dolphin is composed of fishes, squids, and shrimps, many of which harbor helminths that may infect franciscana. Larval forms of the trematode Synthesium pontoporiae and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma turbinella have been recorded in franciscana; however, they have not yet been identified in any of the prey species of this cetacean. We evaluated 3 components of the diet of franciscana as possible transmission sources of parasitiasis...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319178/inter-nesting-movements-and-habitat-use-of-adult-female-kemp-s-ridley-turtles-in-the-gulf-of-mexico
#19
Donna J Shaver, Kristen M Hart, Ikuko Fujisaki, David Bucklin, Autumn R Iverson, Cynthia Rubio, Thomas F Backof, Patrick M Burchfield, Raul de Jesus Gonzales Diaz Miron, Peter H Dutton, Amy Frey, Jaime Peña, Daniel Gomez Gamez, Hector J Martinez, Jaime Ortiz
Species vulnerability is increased when individuals congregate in restricted areas for breeding; yet, breeding habitats are not well defined for many marine species. Identification and quantification of these breeding habitats are essential to effective conservation. Satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) were used to define inter-nesting habitat of endangered Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. Turtles were outfitted with satellite transmitters after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA, from 1998 through 2013 (n = 60); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, during 2010 and 2011 (n = 11); and Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico, during 2012 and 2013 (n = 11)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317721/cryoprotective-roles-of-trehalose-and-alginate-oligosaccharides-during-frozen-storage-of-peeled-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#20
Bin Zhang, Hai-Xiao Wu, Hui-Cheng Yang, Xing-Wei Xiang, Hai-Bo Li, Shang-Gui Deng
Cryoprotective saccharides are widely accepted additives that reduce thawing loss, maintain texture, and retard protein denaturation in the frozen seafood. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of trehalose and alginate oligosaccharides on cryoprotection of frozen shrimp, primarily focusing on the interactions between myosin and saccharide molecules using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis. The results indicated that soaking in the trehalose and alginate oligosaccharides solutions markedly reduced thawing and cooking losses in frozen shrimp, with respective values decreasing to 6...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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