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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721835/parasites-as-prey-the-effect-of-cercarial-density-and-alternative-prey-on-consumption-of-cercariae-by-four-non-host-species
#1
Jennifer E Welsh, Caroline Liddell, Jaap VAN DER Meer, David W Thieltges
In parasites with complex life cycles the transmission of free-living infective stages can be influenced by ambient community diversity, in particular via predation. Here, we experimentally investigated whether parasite density and the presence of alternative prey can alter predation rates on free-living cercarial stages of a marine trematode by several non-host predators. All four predator species consumed increasing numbers of cercariae with an increase in cercarial density, indicating that the removal of cercariae by predators is effective over a range of natural densities as well as in the presence of alternative prey for a number of predators typical of marine ecosystems...
July 19, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720940/recovery-of-protein-hydrolysate-and-chitosan-from-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon-heads-approaching-a-zero-waste-process
#2
Pham Thi Dan Phuong, Nguyen Cong Minh, Hoang Ngoc Cuong, Nguyen Van Minh, Nguyen The Han, Nguyen Van Hoa, Ha Thi Hai Yen, Trang Si Trung
Shrimp heads are considered as a potential source for the recovery of many valuable components such as chitin, protein and carotenoids. In the present study, both protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan were recovered using combination of physical, biological and chemical treatments. Shrimp heads were separated from liquid phase by a facile and efficient physical pretreatment. The liquid fraction was then hydrolyzed using formic acid and vacuum concentrated to obtain an astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719813/comparative-stability-indicating-chromatographic-methods-for-determination-of-4-hexylresorcinol-in-pharmaceutical-formulation-and-shrimps
#3
Rafeek F Shokry, Lories I Bebawy, Mohamed R Elghobashy, Samah S Abbas
Three chromatographic stability-indicating methods were developed for determination of 4-hexylresorcinol in pure form and in a pharmaceutical formulation. Method A was based on a gradient elution liquid chromatographic HPLC determination of 4-hexylresorcinol, its related impurities and in presence of its degradation products. UPLC-MS/MS (Method B) was described for determination of the cited drug in presence of its degradation products. Method C was a thin- layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry method for the separation and determination of the active ingredient, one of its related impurities and in presence of its degradation products...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717110/mercury-and-selenium-levels-and-their-molar-ratios-in-several-species-of-commercial-shrimp-in-japan-regarding-the-health-risk-of-methylmercury-exposure
#4
Van Anh Thi Hoang, Mineshi Sakamoto, Megumi Yamamoto
The Japanese shrimp industry depends on importing shrimp from other countries. However, little information is available on mercury speciation and selenium (Se) concentrations in commercial shrimp available in Japan. The present study determined the concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in the muscles (wet weight) of imported and domestic commercial shrimp from Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures to obtain information for assessing the risk of MeHg exposure. The median concentrations of T-Hg, MeHg and Se in shrimp imported from three different countries were, respectively: black tiger shrimp (n = 18), 15...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716629/characterization-of-novel-bacillus-strain-n31-from-mariculture-water-capable-of-halophilic-heterotrophic-nitrification-aerobic-denitrification
#5
Fei Huang, Luqing Pan, Na Lv, Xianming Tang
The development of an intensive aquaculture industry has been accompanied by increasing environmental impacts, especially nitrogen pollution. In this study, a novel halophilic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from mariculture water and identified as Bacillus litoralis N31. The efficiency of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate removal by N31 were 86.3%, 89.3% and 89.4%, respectively, after a 48-h cultivation in sole N-source medium with initial nitrogen approximately 20 mg/L...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715471/habitat-and-indigenous-gut-microbes-contribute-to-the-plasticity-of-gut-microbiome-in-oriental-river-prawn-during-rapid-environmental-change
#6
Cheng-Yu Chen, Po-Cheng Chen, Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Daryi Wang
Growing evidence points out that the capacity of organisms to acclimate or adapt to new habitat conditions basically depends on their phenomic plasticity attributes, of which their gut commensal microbiota might be an essential impact factor. Especially in aquatic organisms, which are in direct and continual contact with the aquatic environment, the complex and dynamic microbiota have significant effects on health and development. However, an understanding of the relative contribution of internal sorting (host genetic) and colonization (environmental) processes is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713654/predator-prey-interactions-between-native-brine-shrimp-artemia-parthenogenetica-and-the-alien-boatman-trichocorixa-verticalis-influence-of-salinity-predator-sex-and-size-abundance-and-parasitic-status-of-prey
#7
Vanessa Céspedes, Marta I Sánchez, Andy J Green
Trichocorixa verticalis (T. verticalis), native to North America and the Caribbean islands, is an invasive waterboatman species (Corixidae) in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous studies in the native range have suggested that predation by T. verticalis can regulate the abundance of Anostracan and Cladoceran zooplankton in saline ecosystems, causing increases in phytoplankton through a trophic cascade. In this experimental study, we tested the predator-prey relationship between the native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, and T...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712317/genetic-variation-of-the-land-locked-freshwater-shrimp-caridina-pseudodenticulata-decapoda-atyidae-caridina-in-taiwan
#8
Chiao-Chuan Han, Lee-Shing Fang, I-Ming Chang, Hung-Du Lin
Caridina pseudodenticulata is a land-locked freshwater shrimp, which is endemic to North and West Taiwan. It is listed as Vulnerable under criteria A1ce in the IUCN Red List. Our study used mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene to examine its genetic structure. In total, 204 sequences were analyzed from 22 populations, and all 39 haplotypes were identified. Our study (1) found that the genetic diversity within population of this species was similar to that of other land-locked freshwater prawn in Taiwan; (2) displayed that during glaciation, the Taiwan Strait was largely above water, an event which created opportunities for colonization Taiwan and dispersal widely; (3) showed that although the phylogenetic analysis showed the lack of a population genetic structure, the AMOVA and haplotypes distribution pattern revealed geographically divided; (4) indicated that C...
July 15, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712022/effects-of-dietary-lactobacillus-plantarum-on-growth-performance-digestive-enzymes-and-gut-morphology-of-litopenaeus-vannamei
#9
Xiaoting Zheng, Yafei Duan, Hongbiao Dong, Jiasong Zhang
A 15-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and gut morphology of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (initial body weight = 7.96 ± 0.59 g). Four microbound diets were formulated to contain fermentation supernatant (FS), live bacteria (LB), dead bacteria (DB), and cell-free extract (CE) of L. plantarum. Results indicated that final weight was significantly higher in FS, DB, and CE group in comparison to the control group (P < 0...
July 15, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710691/monitoring-of-inland-waters-for-culturing-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-application-of-a-method-based-on-survival-and-chemical-composition
#10
G Valencia-Castañeda, M I Millán-Almaraz, J F Fierro-Sañudo, M G Fregoso-López, F Páez-Osuna
This study evaluated the suitability of 21 inland waters (16 well waters and 5 surface waters) from Northwest Mexico via short- (48 h) and medium-term (28 days) tests using postlarvae (PL18) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the short test, survival was assessed at 48 h after shrimp were placed in groups of 10 postlarvae into 2-L containers of inland water, to which they had been previously acclimated. The second, medium-term test consisted of four replicates with 10 postlarvae, and each group was placed in 15-L containers with the treatment water...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709908/variable-rna-expression-from-recently-acquired-endogenous-viral-elements-eve-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-in-shrimp
#11
Heny Budi Utari, Chumporn Soowannayan, Timothy W Flegel, Boonsirm Whityachumnarnkul, Maleeya Kruatrachue
The viral accommodation hypothesis proposes that endogenous viral elements (EVE) from both RNA and DNA viruses are being continually integrated into the shrimp genome by natural host processes and that they can result in tolerance to viral infection by fortuitous production of antisense, immunospecific RNA (imRNA). Thus, we hypothesized that previously reported microarray results for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) open reading frames (ORFs) formerly called 151, 366 and 427 in a domesticated giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) breeding stock might have represented expression from EVE, since the stock had shown uninterrupted freedom from white spot disease (WSD) for many generations...
July 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709724/a-probiotic-bacillus-strain-containing-amorphous-poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-phb-stimulates-the-innate-immune-response-of-penaeus-monodon-postlarvae
#12
Joseph Leopoldo Q Laranja, Edgar C Amar, Gladys L Ludevese-Pascual, Yufeng Niu, Mary Joy Geaga, Peter De Schryver, Peter Bossier
In this study, the PHB-accumulating Bacillus sp. JL47 strain (capable of accumulating 55% PHB on cell dry weight) was investigated for its effects on the immune response of giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) postlarvae (PL) before and after the Vibrio campbellii challenge. Briefly, shrimp PL were cultured and fed with Artemia nauplii enriched with Bacillus sp. JL47. Shrimp receiving the Artemia nauplii without JL47 enrichment were used as control. After 15 days of feeding, the shrimp were challenged with pathogenic V...
July 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709722/involvement-of-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-in-the-neuroendocrine-immune-regulatory-network-of-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#13
Winton Cheng, Ya-Wen Ka, Chin-Chyuan Chang
In shrimp, the biosynthesis of catecholamines, including dopamine and norepinephrine, is required for physiological and immunological responses against stress. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), a copper-containing monooxygenase enzyme that plays an important role in catecholamine synthesis of the neuroendocrine regulatory network, was identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, the potential role of DBH in the immunocompetence of L. vannamei was further estimated by depleting DBH by pharmaceutical inhibition of disulfiram and a gene silencing technique of L...
July 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708608/magnetic-schiff-s-base-sorbent-based-on-shrimp-peels-wastes-for-consummate-sorption-of-chromate
#14
Khalid Z Elwakeel, Ahmed M Elgarahy, Samya H Mohammad
Magnetic Schiff's base chitosan composite has been prepared starting from shrimp peels as a raw material. Chitosan extraction involved three main stages as preconditioning, demineralization deproteinization and deacetylation. Chitosan modification process took place through the reaction between chitosan and polymeric Schiff's base of thiourea/glutaraldehyde in the presence of magnetite. The synthetic hybrid composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analyses and tested as sorbent for Cr(VI) recovery from aqueous solution...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705629/foraging-preferences-influence-microplastic-ingestion-by-six-marine-fish-species-from-the-texas-gulf-coast
#15
Colleen A Peters, Peyton A Thomas, Kaitlyn B Rieper, Susan P Bratton
This study evaluated the influence of foraging preferences on microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast. A total of 1381 fish were analyzed and 42.4% contained ingested microplastic, inclusive of fiber (86.4%), microbead (12.9% %), and fragment (<1.0%) forms. Despite a substantial overlap in diet, ordination of ingested prey items clustered samples into distinctive species groupings, reflective of the foraging gradient among species. Orthopristis chrysoptera displayed the lowest overall frequency of microplastic ingestion and the most distinctive ordination grouping, indicating their selective invertebrate foraging preferences...
July 10, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704667/occurrence-and-temporal-variation-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-args-in-shrimp-aquaculture-args-dissemination-from-farming-source-to-reared-organisms
#16
Haochang Su, Shan Liu, Xiaojuan Hu, Xiangrong Xu, Wujie Xu, Yu Xu, Zhuojia Li, Guoliang Wen, Yousheng Liu, Yucheng Cao
Considerable attention has been paid to the occurrence and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environments. However, the temporal variation and dissemination of ARGs in aquaculture environments and reared organisms need further study. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of ARGs and bacterial community in water source, shrimp pond water, sediment, and shrimps during the rearing period in Pearl River Delta region, South China. The results showed that sul1, qnrD, cmlA, and floR were the predominant ARGs in the aquaculture samples...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702797/purification-and-antibacterial-mechanism-of-fish-borne-bacteriocin-and-its-application-in-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei-for-inhibiting-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#17
Xinran Lv, Jingfang Du, Yu Jie, Bolin Zhang, Fengling Bai, Hongfei Zhao, Jianrong Li
Vibrio parahaemolyticus: is recognized as the main cause of gastroenteritis associated with consumption of seafood. Bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum FGC-12 isolated from golden carp intestine had strong antibacterial activity toward V. parahaemolyticus. The fish-borne bacteriocin was purified by a three-step procedure consisting of ethyl acetate extraction, gel filtration chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Its molecular weight was estimated at 4.1 kDa using SDS-PAGE. The fish-borne bacteriocin reached the maximum production at stationary phase after 20 h...
August 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702793/the-gut-eukaryotic-microbiota-influences-the-growth-performance-among-cohabitating-shrimp
#18
Wenfang Dai, Weina Yu, Jinjie Zhang, Jinyong Zhu, Zhen Tao, Jinbo Xiong
Increasing evidence has revealed a close interplay between the gut bacterial communities and host growth performance. However, until recently, studies generally ignored the contribution of eukaryotes, endobiotic organisms. To fill this gap, we used Illumina sequencing technology on eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene to compare the structures of gut eukaryotic communities among cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimp obtained from identically managed ponds. Results showed that a significant difference between gut eukaryotic communities differed significantly between water and intestine and among three shrimp categories...
July 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702372/elements-for-optimizing-a-one-step-enzymatic-bio-refinery-process-of-shrimp-cuticles-focus-on-enzymatic-proteolysis-screening
#19
R Baron, M Socol, R Kaas, A Arhaliass, J Rodriguez Del Pino, K Le Roux, C Donnay-Moreno, J P Bergé
This article complements an earlier work published in 2015 Baron et al. (2015) that showed the interest of a shrimp shells bio-refining process. We compare here the effect of eleven commercial proteases at pH 3.5 or 4.0 on a residual amount of shrimp shells proteins after 6 h at 50 °C. The two pH are obtained when respectively 40 and 25 mmol of formic acid are added to 5 g of mild dried shell. Deproteinisation yield above 95% are obtained. Residual amino acids profile in the solid phase was identical for the eleven proteases except for pepsin which was similar to the raw material profile...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702002/production-of-lipopeptide-biosurfactant-by-a-marine-nesterenkonia-sp-and-its-application-in-food-industry
#20
George S Kiran, Sethu Priyadharsini, Arya Sajayan, Gopal B Priyadharsini, Navya Poulose, Joseph Selvin
Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilizing agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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