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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649752/investigating-dna-rna-and-protein-based-features-as-a-means-to-discriminate-pathogenic-synonymous-variants
#1
Mark Livingstone, Lukas Folkman, Yuedong Yang, Ping Zhang, Matthew Mort, David N Cooper, Yunlong Liu, Bela Stantic, Yaoqi Zhou
Synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs), although they do not alter the encoded protein sequences, have been implicated in many genetic diseases. Experimental studies indicate that synonymous SNVs can lead to changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of DNA and RNA, thereby impacting translational efficiency, co-translational protein folding as well as the binding of DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the importance of these various features in disease phenotypes is not clearly understood. Here we have built a support vector machine model (termed DDIG-SN) as a means to discriminate disease-causing synonymous variants...
June 25, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649329/food-availability-as-a-major-driver-in-the-evolution-of-life-history-strategies-of-sibling-species
#2
Raphaël Arlettaz, Philippe Christe, Michael Schaub
Life-history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive and survival traits such that different strategies or environmental constraints may yield comparable lifetime reproductive success among conspecifics. Food availability is one of the most important environmental factors shaping developmental processes. It notably affects key life-history components such as reproduction and survival prospect. We investigated whether food resource availability could also operate as an ultimate driver of life-history strategy variation between species...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643518/mini-c-arm-fluoroscopy-does-its-configuration-matter-for-radiation-exposure-to-the-surgeon
#3
Talia Chapman, Dennis P Martin, Christopher Williamson, Brian Tinsley, Mark L Wang, Asif M Ilyas
BACKGROUND: The risk of occupational radiation exposure to the surgeon associated with the use of a mini C-arm has yet to reach a wide consensus. Using a distal radius fracture surgery model, we tested the hypothesis that radiation exposure to the surgeon's critical body parts is independent of mini C-arm configuration. METHODS: An anthropomorphic mannequin (representing the upper body of a 60" male surgeon) was seated at a hand table as if operating on a volar-plated wrist Sawbone model...
June 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636718/trends-and-outcomes-of-off-label-use-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-insights-from-the-ncdr-sts-acc-tvt-registry
#4
Ravi S Hira, Sreekanth Vemulapalli, Zhuokai Li, James M McCabe, John S Rumsfeld, Samir R Kapadia, Mahboob Alam, Hani Jneid, Creighton Don, Mark Reisman, Salim S Virani, Neal S Kleiman
Importance: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for severe aortic stenosis in patients who cannot undergo surgery and for patients at high operative risk. Use of TAVR for off-label indications has not been previously reported. Objective: To evaluate patterns and adverse outcomes of off-label use of TAVR in US clinical practice. Design, Setting and Participants: Patients receiving commercially funded TAVR in the United States are included in the Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633765/neck-dissection-for-unknown-cancer-of-the-head-and-neck-in-the-era-of-chemoradiation
#5
Mark J Amsbaugh, Mehran Yusuf, Jeremy Gaskins, Craig Silverman, Kevin Potts, Jeffrey Bumpous, Rebecca Redman, Cesar Perez, Neal Dunlap
PURPOSE: To report outcomes for patients with cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary site of the head and neck treated with either non-operative therapy or neck dissection followed by adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with squamous cell carcinoma of an unknown primary site of the head or neck seen between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival, local recurrence free survival, loco-regional recurrence free survival, and progression free survival...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624576/agreement-between-magnetic-resonance-imaging-proton-density-fat-fraction-measurements-and-pathologist-assigned-steatosis-grades-of-liver-biopsies-from-adults-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
Michael S Middleton, Elhamy R Heba, Catherine A Hooker, Mustafa R Bashir, Kathryn J Fowler, Kumar Sandrasegaran, Elizabeth M Brunt, David E Kleiner, Edward Doo, Mark L Van Natta, James Tonascia, Joel E Lavine, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Arun Sanyal, Rohit Loomba, Claude B Sirlin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We assessed the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in grading hepatic steatosis and change in hepatic steatosis in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a multi-center study, using central histology as reference. METHODS: We collected data from 113 adults with NASH participating in a multi-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial to compare the efficacy cross-sectionally and longitudinally of obeticholic acid vs placebo...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609315/the-role-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-simulation-training-at-extracorporeal-life-support-organization-centers-in-the-united-states
#7
Mark F Weems, Philippe S Friedlich, Lara P Nelson, Alyssa J Rake, Laura Klee, James E Stein, Theodora A Stavroudis
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requires a multidisciplinary healthcare team. The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization publishes training guidelines but leaves specific requirements up to each institution. Simulation training has shown promise, but it is unclear how many institutions have incorporated simulation techniques into ECMO training to date. METHODS: We sent an electronic survey to ECMO coordinators at Extracorporeal Life Support Organization sites in the United States...
June 12, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600853/mixed-methods-study-on-the-use-of-and-attitudes-towards-safety-checklists-in-interventional-radiology
#8
Zachary Munn, Kristy Giles, Edoardo Aromataris, Anita Deakin, Timothy Schultz, Catherine Mandel, Micah Dj Peters, Guy Maddern, Alan Pearson, William Runciman
INTRODUCTION: The use of safety checklists in interventional radiology is an intervention aimed at reducing mortality and morbidity. Currently there is little known about their practical use in Australian radiology departments. The primary aim of this mixed methods study was to evaluate how safety checklists (SC) are used and completed in radiology departments within Australian hospitals, and attitudes towards their use as described by Australian radiologists. METHODS: A mixed methods approach employing both quantitative and qualitative techniques was used for this study...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594761/wound-complication-rates-after-staples-or-suture-for-midline-vertical-skin-closure-in-obese-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Lindsay M Kuroki, Mary M Mullen, L Stewart Massad, Ningying Wu, Jingxia Liu, David G Mutch, Matthew A Powell, Andrea R Hagemann, Premal H Thaker, Carolyn K McCourt, Akiva P Novetsky
OBJECTIVE: To compare wound complication rates after skin closure with staples and subcuticular suture in obese gynecology patients undergoing laparotomy through a midline vertical incision. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, women with body mass indexes (BMIs) of 30 or greater undergoing surgery by a gynecologic oncologist through a midline vertical incision were randomized to skin closure with staples or subcuticular 4-0 monofilament suture. The primary outcome was the rate of wound complication, defined as the presence of a wound breakdown, or infection, within 8 weeks postoperatively...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573685/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-infections-in-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation-for-hilar-cholangiocarcinoma
#10
Poornima Ramanan, Nathan W Cummins, Mark P Wilhelm, Julie K Heimbach, Ross Dierkhising, Walter K Kremers, Charles B Rosen, Gregory J Gores, Raymund R Razonable
The epidemiology of infection after liver transplantation for hilar cholangiocarcinoma has not been systematically investigated. In this study of 124 patients, 255 infections occurred in 105 patients during the median follow-up of 4.2 years. The median time to first infection was 15.1 weeks (IQR 1.6 - 62.6). The most common sites were the abdomen, bloodstream and musculoskeletal system. Risk factors for any post-transplant infection were pre-transplant VRE colonization (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.9, p=0.002), living donor transplantation (HR 6...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560765/an-amazonian-rainforest-and-its-fragments-as-a-laboratory-of-global-change
#11
William F Laurance, José L C Camargo, Philip M Fearnside, Thomas E Lovejoy, G Bruce Williamson, Rita C G Mesquita, Christoph F J Meyer, Paulo E D Bobrowiec, Susan G W Laurance
We synthesize findings from one of the world's largest and longest-running experimental investigations, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP). Spanning an area of ∼1000 km(2) in central Amazonia, the BDFFP was initially designed to evaluate the effects of fragment area on rainforest biodiversity and ecological processes. However, over its 38-year history to date the project has far transcended its original mission, and now focuses more broadly on landscape dynamics, forest regeneration, regional- and global-change phenomena, and their potential interactions and implications for Amazonian forest conservation...
May 30, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532856/implementation-of-a-referral-to-discharge-glycemic-control-initiative-for-reduction-of-surgical-site-infections-in-gynecologic-oncology-patients
#12
Laura Hopkins, Jennifer Brown-Broderick, James Hearn, Janine Malcolm, James Chan, Wendy Hicks-Boucher, Filomena De Sousa, Mark C Walker, Sylvain Gagné
OBJECTIVE(S): To evaluate the frequency of surgical site infections before and after implementation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary perioperative glycemic control initiative. STUDY METHODS: As part of a CUSP (Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program) initiative, between January 5 and December 18, 2015, we implemented comprehensive, multidisciplinary glycemic control initiative to reduce SSI rates in patients undergoing major pelvic surgery for a gynecologic malignancy ('Group II')...
May 20, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529358/how-do-psychiatrists-in-india-construct-their-professional-identity-a-critical-literature-review
#13
Clement Bayetti, Sushrut Jadhav, Smita N Deshpande
Psychiatric practice in India is marked by an increasing gulf between largely urban-based mental health professionals and a majority rural population. Based on the premise that any engagement is a mutually constructed humane process, an understanding of the culture of psychiatry including social process of local knowledge acquisition by trainee psychiatrists is critical. This paper reviews existing literature on training of psychiatrists in India, the cultural construction of their professional identities and autobiographical reflections...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523361/can-laparoscopic-surgery-prevent-incisional-hernia-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-a-comparison-study-of-750-patients-undergoing-open-and-laparoscopic-bowel-resection
#14
Tomas M Heimann, Santosh Swaminathan, Adrian J Greenstein, Alexander J Greenstein, Sergey Khaitov, Randolph M Steinhagen, Barry A Salky
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia (IH) is a frequent occurrence following open surgery for Crohn's disease (CD). This study compares the IH rates of patients with CD undergoing open versus laparoscopic bowel resection. METHODS: Seven hundred and fifty patients with CD operated by the authors at the Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, USA, were reviewed from a prospectively maintained surgical database. Five hundred patients with Crohn's disease undergoing open surgery were compared to 250 patients undergoing laparoscopic bowel resection...
May 18, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521445/low-expression-levels-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-are-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Jinjin Yan, Xinzheng Yang, Lin Li, Pengtao Liu, Honghui Wu, Zhanao Liu, Qingyi Li, Guozhen Liao, Xinlong Wang
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has previously been identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene. The present study investigated the clinical and prognostic significance of IGFBP-3 expression levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) probing for IGFBP-3 was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from 120 patients with HCC, including tissue samples from 120 primary cancer sites and 50 matched adjacent non-malignant sites. Receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine the cut-off scores for the presence of IGFBP-3-positive tumor cells and to estimate the survival time of the patients...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493599/spinal-cord-stimulator-implant-infection-rates-and-risk-factors-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#16
Bryan C Hoelzer, Mark A Bendel, Timothy R Deer, Jason S Eldrige, David R Walega, Zhen Wang, Shrif Costandi, Gerges Azer, Wenchun Qu, Steven M Falowski, Stephanie A Neuman, Susan M Moeschler, Catherine Wassef, Christopher Kim, Tariq Niazi, Taher Saifullah, Brian Yee, Chong Kim, Christine L Oryhan, Joshua M Rosenow, Daniel T Warren, Imanuel Lerman, Ruben Mora, Salim M Hayek, Michael Hanes, Thomas Simopoulos, Sanjiv Sharma, Chris Gilligan, Warren Grace, Timothy Ade, Nagy A Mekhail, John P Hunter, Daniel Choi, Deborah Y Choi
OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation is an evidence-based treatment for a number of chronic pain conditions. While this therapy offers improvement in pain and function it is not without potential complications. These complications include device failure, migration, loss of therapeutic paresthesia, and infection. This article looked to establish a modern infection rate for spinal cord stimulators, assess the impact of known risk factors for surgical site infections and to determine the impact of certain preventative measures on the rate of infection...
May 11, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483635/crystal-structure-of-tissue-factor-in-complex-with-antibody-10h10-reveals-the-signaling-epitope
#17
Alexey Teplyakov, Galina Obmolova, Thomas J Malia, Bingyuan Wu, Yonghong Zhao, Susann Taudte, G Mark Anderson, Gary L Gilliland
Tissue factor (TF) initiates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation through sequential binding and activation of coagulation factors VII (FVII) and X (FX). In addition, through activation of G-protein-coupled protease activated receptors (PARs) TF induces cell signaling that is related to cancer, angiogenesis and inflammation. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) proved to be a useful tool for studying the interplay between TF signaling and coagulation. MAb 10H10 is unique in that it blocks the signaling pathway and thus inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth without interfering with coagulation...
May 5, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476440/efficacy-and-safety-of-subcutaneous-rituximab-versus-intravenous-rituximab-for-first-line-treatment-of-follicular-lymphoma-sabrina-a-randomised-open-label-phase-3-trial
#18
Andrew Davies, Francesco Merli, Biljana Mihaljević, Santiago Mercadal, Noppadol Siritanaratkul, Philippe Solal-Céligny, Axel Boehnke, Claude Berge, Magali Genevray, Artem Zharkov, Mark Dixon, Michael Brewster, Martin Barrett, David MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Intravenous rituximab is the standard of care in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is administered over 1·5-6 h. A subcutaneous formulation could reduce patients' treatment burden and improve resource utilisation in health care. We aimed to show the pharmacokinetic non-inferiority of subcutaneous rituximab to intravenous rituximab in follicular lymphoma and to provide efficacy and safety data. METHODS: SABRINA is a two-stage, randomised, open-label phase 3 study at 113 centres in 30 countries...
June 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462011/comparison-of-two-detailed-models-of-aedes-aegypti-population-dynamics
#19
Mathieu Legros, Marcelo Otero, Victoria Romeo Aznar, Hernan Solari, Fred Gould, Alun L Lloyd
The success of control programs for mosquito borne diseases can be enhanced by crucial information provided by models of the mosquito populations. Models, however, can differ in their structure, complexity and biological assumptions, and these differences impact their predictions. Unfortunately, it is typically difficult to determine why two complex models make different predictions because we lack structured side-by-side comparisons of models using comparable parameterization. Here we present a detailed comparison of two complex, spatially-explicit, stochastic models of the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses...
October 2016: Ecosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455286/ultrasound-biomicroscopy-validation-of-a-murine-model-of-cardiac-hypertrophic-preconditioning-comparison-with-a-hemodynamic-assessment
#20
Jiayuan Huang, Jian Wu, Shijun Wang, Jieyun You, Yong Ye, Zhiwen Ding, Fenghua Yang, Xingxu Wang, Junjie Guo, Leilei Ma, Jie Yuan, Yunli Shen, Xiangdong Yang, Aijun Sun, Hong Jiang, Liping Bu, Peter H Backx, Junbo Ge, Yunzeng Zou
In mice, myocardial hypertrophic preconditioning (HP), which is produced by the removal of short-term transverse aortic constriction (TAC), was recently reported to render the heart resistant to hypertrophic responses induced by subsequent re-constriction (Re-TAC). However, there is no efficient non-invasive method for ensuring that the repeated aortic manipulations were successfully performed. We previously demonstrated that ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is a non-invasive and effective approach for predicting TAC success...
April 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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