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Clare Jackson, Victoria Land, Edward J B Holmes
OBJECTIVE: Communication during labour is consequential for women's experience yet analyses of situated labour-ward interaction are rare. This study demonstrates the value of explicating the interactional practices used to initiate 'decisions' during labour. METHODS: Interactions between 26 labouring women, their birth partners and HCPs were transcribed from the British television programme, One Born Every Minute. Conversation analysis was used to examine how decisions were initiated and accomplished in interaction...
October 11, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Victor E Ezeugwu, Neera Garga, Patricia J Manns
PURPOSE: Understanding the determinants of sedentary behaviour (sitting or lying with low energy expenditure) in stroke survivors can enhance the development of successful behaviour change strategies. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of stroke survivors about sedentary behaviour and ways in which it can be changed. METHODS: An interpretative qualitative inquiry was used with thematic analysis of interview data. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured guide with 13 stroke survivors...
October 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Richun Li, Ruiqian Xie, Chong Yang, Melinda Frost
OBJECTIVE: To identify the general public's perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in humans in 2013. METHODS: Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide...
July 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Abebe Bimerew, Muluken Teshome, Getachew Mullu Kassa
BACKGROUND: Early initiation of breastfeeding is a simple and cost effective intervention to advance the health of mothers and newborn babies. A large number of neonatal deaths could be prevented if infants were breastfed. However, there is poor practice related to breastfeeding initiation within the first one hour of birth, and the factors affecting it are not well understood. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of timely breastfeeding initiation and associated factors in Dembecha district, North West Ethiopia...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Mussa N Sweya, Sia E Msuya, Michael J Mahande, Rachel Manongi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that knowledge of contraceptives, especially among the youth in universities, remains limited, and the rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies, and illegal abortions remains higher among university students. This study aimed to assess contraceptive knowledge, sexual behavior, and factors associated with contraceptive use among female undergraduate university students in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May to June 2015 among undergraduate female students in four universities in Kilimanjaro region...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Jonathan A Mitchell, Marsha Dowda, Russell R Pate, Katarzyna Kordas, Karsten Froberg, Luís B Sardinha, Elin Kolle, Angela Page
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine if moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) were used to address our objectives (N=11,115; 6-18y; 51% female). We calculated age and gender specific body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) Z-scores and used accelerometry to estimate MVPA and total SB...
October 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Maya B Mathur, Michael Gould, Nayer Khazeni
Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce "boomerang effects," meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual "problem status" often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kara M Whitaker, Andrew O Odegaard, David R Jacobs, Stephen Sidney, Mark A Pereira
PURPOSE: We examined whether sedentary lifestyle habits and physical activity level are associated with abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and liver attenuation, independently of each other and potential confounders. METHODS: Analysis of 3,010 African American and Caucasian men and women, aged 42-59 years, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who completed multiple-slice abdominal computed tomography (CT) in 2010-2011...
October 3, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Geoffrey Miller, William D Graf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Alistair Wardrope, Markus Reuber
Most work addressing clinical workers' professional responsibilities concerns the norms of conduct within established professional-patient relationships, but such responsibilities may extend beyond the clinical context. We explore health workers' professional responsibilities in such "informal" encounters through the example of a doctor witnessing the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of a serious long-term condition in a television documentary, arguing that neither internalist approaches to professional responsibility (such as virtue ethics or care ethics) nor externalist ones (such as the "social contract" model) provide sufficiently clear guidance in such situations...
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Meghan R Longacre, Keith M Drake, Linda J Titus, Jennifer Harris, Lauren P Cleveland, Gail Langeloh, Kristy Hendricks, Madeline A Dalton
Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013...
October 13, 2016: Appetite
Francesco Martino, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Feliciana Lamacchia, Chiara Colantoni, Cristina Zanoni, Francesco Barillà, Eliana Martino, Francesco Angelico
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) and physical activity on metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence in children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 863 boys and 780 girls, 6-14years old, from primary and secondary schools in a 14-town Southern Italian community. We modified the KIDMED questionnaire to adapt it to the local reality. RESULTS: Poor adherence to MD was seen in 18...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Cheng Sun, Alysa Pomer, Kelsey N Dancause, Chim W Chan, Kathryn M Olszowy, Harold Silverman, Gwang Lee, Len Tarivonda, George Taleo, Ralph Regenvanu, Akira Kaneko, Charles A Weitz, Ralph M Garruto, J Koji Lum
OBJECTIVE: The Republic of Vanuatu, like many developing nations, is undergoing a rapid health transition. Our previous study identified several behavioral risk factors for the rising prevalence of obesity. Unexpectedly, daily time spent using television and radio was revealed as a protective factor for obesity in 2007. In this study, we sought to explore associations between ownership of consumer electronics (CE) and measures of adiposity in Vanuatu in 2011. METHODS: We surveyed 873 adults from five islands varying in level of economic development...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
W M Hajjar, S A Bin Abdulqader, S S Aldayel, A W Alfardan, N I Alzaidy
BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ diseases. The demand for organs has exceeded the available supply, which becomes a major obstacle worldwide. Identifying the factors affecting this gap will help in overcoming this obstacle. The purpose of the work was to study the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of organ donation and to determine the knowledge of brain death among social media users. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among social media users living in Saudi Arabia...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Sofie Compernolle, Katrien De Cocker, Célina Roda, Jean-Michel Oppert, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Jeroen Lakerveld, Ketevan Glonti, Helga Bardos, Harry Rutter, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
BACKGROUND: The relation between neighbourhood environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviours among adults remains unclear. This study firstly aims to examine the association of perceived and objectively measured neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, destinations and functionality with transport-related, work-related and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. Secondly, the study aims to assess whether these associations are moderated by age, gender or educational level. METHODS: In 60 randomly sampled neighbourhoods from 5 urban regions in Europe (Ghent and suburbs, Paris and inner suburbs, Budapest and suburbs, the Randstad, and Greater London), a virtual audit with Google Street View was performed to assess environmental characteristics...
2016: PloS One
Ian Litchfield, Martie van Tongeren, Tom Sorahan
Little is known about personal exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields amongst employees in the telecommunications industry responsible for installing and maintaining transmitters. IARC classified RF exposure as a possible carcinogen, although evidence from occupational studies was judged to be inadequate. Hence, there is a need for improved evidence of any potentially adverse health effects amongst the workforce occupationally exposed to RF radiation. In this study, results are presented from an exposure survey using data from personal monitors used by employees in the broadcasting and telecommunication industries of the UK...
October 13, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Loredana Protesescu, Sergii Yakunin, Maryna I Bodnarchuk, Federica Bertolotti, Norberto Masciocchi, Antonietta Guagliardi, Maksym V Kovalenko
Bright green emitters with adjustable photoluminescence (PL) maxima in the range of 530-535 nm and full-width at half-maxima (FWHM) of 25 nm are particularly desirable for applications in television displays and related technologies. Towards this goal, we have developed a facile synthesis of highly monodisperse, cubic-shaped formamidinium lead bromide nanocrystals (FAPbBr3 NCs) with perovskite crystal structure, tunable PL in the range of 470-540 nm by adjusting the nanocrystal size (5-12 nm), high quantum yield (QY) of up to 85% and PL FWHM of 22 nm...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
María Rosa Gudiño, Susana Sosenski
This article resurrects the puppet show Las calenturas de Don Ferruco (Don Ferruco's Fevers), which was televised in the late 1950s in order to help eradicate malaria in Mexico, as a useful instrument for health education. It analyzes how the spread of educational puppet shows on Mexican television showed the need to keep updating preventive healthcare pedagogy and it underlines the importance of television as an educational health-promotion production in the mid-twentieth century. The article discusses the early use of puppet shows as an especially important tool for what would later become mass-media transmission of discourses from the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Department of Health and Healthcare)...
October 10, 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Alexander Scholz, Daniel Gimenez-Monzo, Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz, Manuela Garcia-de-la-Hera, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Adonina Tardon, Loreto Santa Marina, Amaia Irazabal, Dora Romaguera, Mònica Guxens, Jordi Julvez, Sabrina Llop, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Jesus Vioque
Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4-5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1...
October 10, 2016: Nutrients
Hannah Arem, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Steven C Moore, Louise A Brinton, Charles E Matthews
PURPOSE: Endometrial cancer (EC) survivors are the second largest group of female cancer survivors in the USA, with high prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. While higher pre-diagnosis body mass index (BMI) has been associated with higher all-cause and disease-specific mortality, pre-diagnosis physical activity has shown mixed evidence of an association with mortality. However, the association between BMI, physical activity, and TV viewing measured after diagnosis and mortality risk among EC survivors is unknown...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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