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Naveed Mansoori, Nighat Nisar, Naveen Shahid, Syed Muhammad Mubeen, Shahid Ahsan
A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted during 2012 in private and public-sector schools of Karachi to determine the prevalence and factors influencing overweight and obesity among school children (aged 11-15 years). Sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits were explored. The CDC Growth Chart was used to record height and weight. Of a total of 887 children, being overweight and frankly obese was found in 169 (19.1%) and 96 (10.8%), respectively. Of these, 176 (66.4%) were from private schools, and significant associations were found in 202 (76...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
Morseda Chowdhury, Michael J Dibley, Ashraful Alam, Tanvir M Huda, Camille Raynes-Greenow
Background: More than one-third of the population in Bangladesh is affected by household food insecurity in a setting where child survival and well-being are under threat. The relation between household food security and birth size of infants is an important area to explore given its explicit effect on mortality and morbidity. Objective: Our study aims to estimate the association between household food security and birth size of infants. Methods: For the analysis we used a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 8753 households with a live birth between 2006 and 2011, collected under the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011...
March 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Namanjeet Ahluwalia, Steven M Frenk, Stuart F Quan
Background: Screen time (ST) behaviours, for example, television (TV) watching and computer use, among youth are associated with unhealthy eating, and these patterns track over time. A positive association between ST and TV watching with consumption of caffeinated foods and beverages has been described in national samples of children in a few European countries. The association of ST behaviours with caffeine intake has not been previously reported. We examined whether ST behaviours were associated with caffeine intake on a given day (% consumers and amount consumed) in a nationally representative sample of US children...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Frank Schwab, Christine Hennighausen, Dorothea C Adler, Astrid Carolus
We provide a literature overview of 30 years of research on the amount of invested mental effort (AIME, Salomon, 1984), illuminating relevant literature in this field. Since the introduction of AIME, this concept appears to have vanished. To obtain a clearer picture of where the theory of AIME has diffused, we conducted a literature search focusing on the period 1985-2015. We examined scientific articles ( N = 244) that cite Salomon (1984) and content-analyzed their keywords. Based on these keywords, we identified seven content clusters: affect and motivation , application fields , cognition and learning , education and teaching , media technology, learning with media technology , and methods ...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Xuning Zhuang, Yu Wang, Wenyi Yuan, Jianfeng Bai, Jingwei Wang
Cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), with mercury as their essential component, were widely used as backlight in liquid crystal display (LCD) appliances before 2008. Since 2008, the mercury-free light emitting diode started to be used as a substitute for CCFLs and the replacement finished in about 2014. Nowadays, CCFLs are obsolete products from the viewpoint of manufacture but they are important as waste. In recent years, large amounts of CCFLs are flowing to waste phase for treatment and this has become a major issue in most countries...
July 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Jonathan Intravia
Prior research suggests that media consumption influences attitudes toward punitiveness. Traditionally, prior efforts have generally examined television news and crime-related programming. However, less is known whether more contemporary forms of media consumption, such as social media, are related to punitive attitudes. Using a multisite sample of more than 900 mostly young adults, the current study examines (a) the relationship between four types of social media consumption (overall, general news, crime-specific content, and punishment-specific content) on penal attitudes and (b) whether these relationships vary based on key characteristics...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Sabine Plancoulaine, Eve Reynaud, Anne Forhan, Sandrine Lioret, Barbara Heude, Marie-Aline Charles
OBJECTIVE: Sleep duration may vary both interindividually and intraindividually over time. We aimed to identify night-sleep duration (NSD) trajectories among preschoolers and to study associated factors. METHODS: NSD was collected within the French birth-cohort study EDEN at ages 2, 3, and 5-6 years through parental questionnaires, and were used to model NSD trajectories among 1205 children. Familial socioeconomic factors, maternal sociodemographic, health and lifestyle characteristics, as well as child health, lifestyle, and sleep characteristics at birth and/or at age two years were investigated in association with NSD using multinomial logistic regressions...
August 2018: Sleep Medicine
Man-Pui Sally Chan, Kenneth Winneg, Lauren Hawkins, Mohsen Farhadloo, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Dolores Albarracín
OBJECTIVE: Both legacy media, such as television and newspapers, and online social media are potentially important but incompletely understood sources of information in the face of emerging public health risks. This research aimed to understand media effects on risk perceptions and behaviors concerning the Zika virus in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed a multi-wave nationally representative survey (N = 29,062) and the volume of communications in social and legacy media (i...
July 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Brian G Southwell, Sarah A Parvanta, Mihaela M Johnson, Amie C O'Donoghue, Helen W Sullivan, Sarah E Ray, Cynthia S Soloe, Christine N Davis, Nancy McKenna
Public health researchers face important challenges if they wish to include measures of hearing or cognitive ability in risk communication studies. We sought validity evidence for self-report measures of hearing and cognitive ability by comparing those measures to performance-based measures and risk information recall. We measured hearing ability (with audiologist-assisted assessment and self report), cognitive ability (with an established performance task and self report), and reactions to direct-to-consumer prescription drug promotion with adults 18 and older ( n  = 1064) in North Carolina, USA, in 2017...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Nirmala Gamage, Nirmala Rathnayake, Gayani Alwis
The knowledge and perception of falls facilitate a better pathway to improve the health status among the elderly. Knowledge and perception of falls among community dwelling elderly were assessed in 300 participants (175 females) aged 65 years and above using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Mean (SD) age of the participants was 73.0 (6.7) years. Majority (72%) knew some biological factors, and 60% knew environmental and behavioral factors which increase the risk of falls. Among 300 participants, 18% had poor, 61% had average, and 21% had good knowledge on falls...
2018: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Heather O'Reilly-Duff, Paul Best, Mark A Tully
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to health-related behaviours on television has been shown to influence smoking and drinking in young people, but little research has been conducted on the portrayal physical activity. The aim of the current project was to explore the portrayal of physical activity in television programmes aimed specifically at adolescent females. Content analysis of 120 episodes of four popular adolescent television programmes was performed. Information on the type and context of physical activity, motivating factors and characters involved was recorded...
July 11, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Osamu Itani, Yoshitaka Kaneita, Kazuto Doi, Mikiko Tokiya, Maki Jike, Sachi Nakagome, Yuichiro Otsuka, Takashi Ohida
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the incidence of predictive risk factors for poor mental health status in Japanese adolescents. METHODS: In 2010, baseline surveys of first-year junior and senior high school students were conducted at 10 randomly selected junior high schools and 14 senior high schools in Japan. After 2 years, follow-up surveys were conducted on the same students. For both surveys, a self-administered questionnaire about mental health status and lifestyle, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), was provided to the students...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Juliette Tobias-Webb, Rebecca L Griggs, Nataly Kaufman, Luke Clark
Experimental studies examining the relationship between alcohol use and gambling have focused predominantly on alcohol's influence on gambling behavior. There has been little consideration of the reverse pathway: whether gambling influences subsequent alcohol use. Two experiments examined whether gambling and gambling outcomes (i.e. profits during a gambling session) influenced subsequent alcohol consumption. Experiment 1 (n = 53) used an ad libitum consumption test, in which participants could request beverages during a 30 min window...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Silje Skaug, Kjellrun T Englund, Lars Wichstrøm
Television is one of the most commonly viewed forms of media by children throughout the world. Excessive television viewing can influence the quality of children's relationships and interactions with their parents. We examined the emotional availability (EA) of children toward their parents by assessing child responsiveness and child involvement, using a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. We employed a large and representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds (n = 995) who were followed up at 6 years old (n = 795)...
July 10, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Ana Iza Gomes da Penha Sobral, Cláudia Marina Tavares de Araújo, Marcos Felipe Falcão Sobral
Mild Cognitive Impairment is characterized as an intermediate form between age-related change and dementia. For the elderly, autonomy and independence are related to the ability to remain active in conducting their social activities and, for this to occur, communication is fundamental in this process. Objective: To assess the association between communication and the abilities of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment to perform instrumental activities of daily living. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative, analytical, correlational study was conducted at the Open University of the Third Age (UnATI), a program of the Federal University of Pernambuco...
April 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
LeeAnn Tan, See Hoe Ng, Azahadi Omar, Tilakavati Karupaiah
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy food marketing to children is a key risk factor for childhood obesity. Online video platforms have surpassed television as the primary choice for screen viewing among children but the extent of food marketing through such media is relatively unknown. We aimed to examine food and beverage advertisements (ads) encountered in YouTube videos targeting children in Malaysia. METHODS: The social media analytics site was used to identify the most popular YouTube videos (n = 250) targeting children...
July 9, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Lucy A Tully, Patrycja J Piotrowska, Daniel A J Collins, Paul J Frick, Vicki Anderson, Caroline Moul, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Eva R Kimonis, David Hawes, Mark R Dadds
There is substantial evidence that parenting programs are effective in improving parenting and child mental health outcomes. While there is increasing focus on delivering parenting interventions online to increase their reach and dissemination, fathers are underrepresented in all formats of parenting programs. However, research suggests that father participation is important for intervention effectiveness. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a media campaign for increasing awareness of, and participation in, an online father-inclusive parenting program called 'ParentWorks'...
July 9, 2018: Health Communication
Madhusudan Saha, Dipal Krishna Adhikary, Irin Parvin, Yuba Raj Sharma, Fahmida Akhter, Monojit Majumder
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is found in affluent society, less physical activity and changes in food pattern. This study was designed to see prevalence and risk factors of childhood obesity among school children of Sylhet city. METHODS: Students of class five and six of two schools of Sylhet city were randomly selected. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected and recorded in predesigned data sheet. BMI and percentile were calculated using official centre for disease control growth chart for 2 to 20 years...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Bishwajit Ghose, Sanni Yaya
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the (1) time trends in body mass index (BMI) and (2) relationship between media use and body weight status among adult women in Nigeria. We hypothesise that higher frequency of media use is associated with higher likelihood of being overweight and obesity among adult women. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Urban and rural settings in Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years...
July 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Freda Patterson, Alicia Lozano, Liming Huang, Mackenzie Perkett, Jacqueline Beeson, Alexandra Hanlon
OBJECTIVES: In response to a call from the American Heart Association to more clearly identify the demographic factors associated with sedentary behaviours, this study aimed to identify the hierarchy of demographic characteristics associated with the sedentary behaviours of television viewing, recreational computer use and driving. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected as part of the UK Biobank. The UK Biobank is a population cohort recruited from 22 centres across the UK...
July 6, 2018: BMJ Open
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