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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046975/the-genetics-of-physical-activity
#1
REVIEW
Xiaochen Lin, Charles B Eaton, JoAnn E Manson, Simin Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical activity (PA) is a well-established modifiable lifestyle determinant for multiple cardio-metabolic outcomes. While many psychosocial and environmental correlates of PA have been identified, current understanding of the genetic architecture that contributes to PA is still very limited, especially when compared to other phenotypes such as obesity and diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: This review systematically and comprehensively assesses available evidence from animal experiments, family studies, population-based candidate gene analyses, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) studying the genetics of physical activity patterns...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024614/staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-german-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-orthopedic-surgery-incidence-risk-factors-and-clinical-and-health-economic-outcomes
#2
Fraence Gottschalk, Thomas Wilke, Sabrina Mueller, Kirstin Heinrich, Ulf Maywald, Andreas Fuchs, Holly Yu
BACKGROUND: This study assessed Staphylococcus aureus infection risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing an orthopedic knee, hip, or spine surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with a diagnosis of T2DM in the period from 2010 to 2012 were identified from a German claims database. First inpatient knee, hip, or spine surgery was used as index date. Cumulative incidence of S. aureus infections was calculated for several time intervals...
October 12, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020307/follow-up-blood-cultures-in-gram-negative-bacteremia-are-they-needed
#3
Christina N Canzoneri, Bobak J Akhavan, Zehra Tosur, Pedro E Alcedo Andrade, Gabriel M Aisenberg
Background: Bloodstream infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteremia is typically transient and usually resolves rapidly after the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy and source control. The optimal duration of treatment and utility of follow-up blood cultures (FUBC) have not been studied in detail. Currently, the management of Gram-negative bacteremia is determined by clinical judgment. To investigate the value of repeat blood cultures, we analyzed 500 episodes of bacteremia to determine frequency of FUBC and identify risk factors for persistent bacteremia...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994334/clinical-and-economics-benefits-of-professional-cgm-among-people-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-united-states-analysis-of-claims-and-lab-data
#4
Joseph A Sierra, Mona Shah, Max S Gill, Zachery Flores, Hiten Chawla, Francine R Kaufman, Robert Vigersky
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that one in ten people in the United States have a diagnosis of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 95% of all cases in the United States, with annual costs estimated to be $246 billion per year. We investigated the impact of a glucose-measuring intervention to the burden of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This analysis seeks to understand how professional continuous glucose monitoring (professional CGM) impacts clinical and economic outcomes when compared to patients who are not prescribed professional CGM...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991947/regional-variation-in-standardized-costs-of-care-at-children-s-hospitals
#5
Jennifer A Jonas, Samir S Shah, Isabella Zaniletti, Matthew Hall, Jeffrey D Colvin, Laura M Gottlieb, Marion R Sills, Jessica Bettenhausen, Rustin B Morse, Michelle L Macy, Evan S Fieldston
OBJECTIVE: (1) To evaluate regional variation in costs of care for 3 inpatient pediatric conditions, (2) assess potential drivers of variation, and (3) estimate cost savings from reducing variation. DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of hospitalizations for asthma, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) at 46 children<s hospitals from October 2014 to September 2015. MEASUREMENTS: Variation in trimmed standardized costs were assessed within and across regions...
October 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989095/risk-factors-and-prevention-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Naoto Fujiwara, Scott L Friedman, Nicolas Goossens, Yujin Hoshida
Chronic fibrotic liver disease caused by viral or metabolic etiologies is a high-risk condition for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even after complete HCC tumor resection or ablation, the carcinogenic tissue microenvironment in the remnant liver can give rise to recurrent de novo HCC tumors, which progress into incurable, advanced-stage disease in the majority of patients. Thus, early detection and prevention of HCC development is, in principle, the most impactful strategy to improve patient prognosis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976723/cost-effectiveness-of-prevention-and-management-of-diabetic-foot-ulcer-and-amputation-in-a-health-resource-limited-setting
#7
Bin Wu, Xu Wan, Jing Ma
BACKGROUND: To estimate the lifetime health and economic effects of different strategies of caring the diabetic foot in the Chinese setting. METHODS: A mathematical model was developed to simulate the onset and progression of diabetic foot disease in patients with type 2 diabetes managed with optimal care and usual care. Clinical and utility data were obtained from the published literature. Direct medical costs and resource utilization in the Chinese health care setting were considered...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964434/cost-utility-analysis-of-extending-public-health-insurance-coverage-to-include-diabetic-retinopathy-screening-by-optometrists
#8
Sasha van Katwyk, Ya-Ping Jin, Graham E Trope, Yvonne Buys, Lisa Masucci, Richard Wedge, John Flanagan, Michael H Brent, Sherif El-Defrawy, Hong Anh Tu, Kednapa Thavorn
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. METHODS: We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered...
September 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964382/emergency-department-hospital-inpatient-and-mortality-burden-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-united-states-2006-to-2014
#9
Sandra L Jackson, Xin Tong, Xiaoping Yin, Mary G George, Matthew D Ritchey
The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing in the United States as the population ages, but national surveillance is lacking. This cross-sectional study (2006 to 2014) analyzed data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, and the National Vital Statistics System. Event totals were estimated independently for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and mortality, and then collectively after applying criteria to identify mutually exclusive events...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962601/a-systematic-overview-of-the-literature-regarding-group-prenatal-care-for-high-risk-pregnant-women
#10
Brittany M Byerley, David M Haas
BACKGROUND: Group prenatal care (GPC) models have been gaining popularity in recent years. Studies of high-risk groups have shown improved outcomes. Our objective was to review and summarize outcomes for women in GPC for women with specific high-risk conditions. METHODS: A systematic literature review of Ovid, PubMed, and Google Scholar was performed to identify studies reporting the effects of group prenatal care in high-risk populations. Studies were included if they reported on pregnancy outcome results for women using GPC...
September 29, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958470/co-located-specialty-care-within-primary-care-practice-settings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Muhamad Y Elrashidi, Khaled Mohammed, Pavithra R Bora, Qusay Haydour, Wigdan Farah, Ramona DeJesus, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Jon O Ebbert
BACKGROUND: Co-location of specialists in primary care has been suggested as an approach to reduce care fragmentation, inefficiency, and cost. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the impact of co-located specialty care models in primary care settings. METHODS: Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus was conducted through February 2015...
September 23, 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958400/the-case-for-stepped-care-for-weight-management-after-bariatric-surgery
#12
Melissa A Kalarchian, Marsha D Marcus
Among carefully screened patients, bariatric surgery has proven safe and efficacious in the management of clinically severe obesity and poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Nonetheless, individual outcomes vary, suggesting the need for interventions to maximize and sustain the health benefits of surgery. In this short review, we synthesize findings from the extant research literature to suggest the potential utility of a stepped care approach to optimize the postsurgery weight trajectory, which requires further research using adaptive designs...
July 20, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957347/changes-in-inpatient-payer-mix-and-hospitalizations-following-medicaid-expansion-evidence-from-all-capture-hospital-discharge-data
#13
Seth Freedman, Sayeh Nikpay, Aaron Carroll, Kosali Simon
CONTEXT: The Affordable Care Act resulted in unprecedented reductions in the uninsured population through subsidized private insurance and an expansion of Medicaid. Early estimates from the beginning of 2014 showed that the Medicaid expansion decreased uninsured discharges and increased Medicaid discharges with no change in total discharges. OBJECTIVE: To provide new estimates of the effect of the ACA on discharges for specific conditions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We compared outcomes between states that did and did not expand Medicaid using state-level all-capture discharge data from 2009-2014 for 42 states from the Healthcare Costs and Utilization Project's FastStats database; for a subset of states we used data through 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954564/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-pregnant-women-with-fibromyalgia-a-population-based-study-of-12-million-births
#14
Glenda Gatan Magtanong, Andrea R Spence, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Haim Arie Abenhaim
PURPOSE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a rheumatologic disorder marked by chronic, widespread pain and associated comorbid conditions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of FM on maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1999 to 2013, we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study consisting of women who delivered during that period. Logistic regression was used to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnancies in women with and without FM...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949834/use-of-international-classification-of-diseases-ninth-revision-codes-for-obesity-trends-in-the-united-states-from-an-electronic-health-record-derived-database
#15
Michelle Mocarski, Ye Tian, B Gabriel Smolarz, John McAna, Albert Crawford
Obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor for many diseases, and a better understanding of its impact on health care utilization, costs, and medical outcomes is needed. The ability to accurately evaluate obesity outcomes depends on a correct identification of the population with obesity. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) coding for overweight and obesity within a US primary care electronic health record (EHR) database compared against actual body mass index (BMI) values from recorded clinical patient data; characteristics of patients with obesity who did or did not receive ICD-9 codes for overweight/obesity also were evaluated...
September 26, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947309/wilson-s-disease-and-cardiac-myopathy
#16
Donald J Grandis, Gregory Nah, Isaac R Whitman, Eric Vittinghoff, Thomas A Dewland, Jeffrey E Olgin, Gregory M Marcus
Wilson's disease is a well-characterized disorder known to cause liver and brain disease due to abnormal copper deposition. Data regarding copper infiltration of the heart is conflicting, and the risk of heart disease has not been well described. We aimed to determine whether Wilson's disease is associated with cardiac myopathy, clinically evident in the atria as atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the ventricles as heart failure (HF). We longitudinally assessed 14.3 million patients in the California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database from 2005 through 2009 for diagnoses of Wilson's disease, AF, HF, and covariates using International Classification of Diseases-9th Edition codes...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946757/the-financial-impact-of-inaccurate-blood-glucose-monitoring-systems
#17
Kurt Fortwaengler, Enrique Campos-Náñez, Christopher G Parkin, Marc D Breton
OBJECTIVE: An in silico study of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients utilized the UVA-PADOVA Type 1 Diabetes Simulator to assess the effect of patient blood glucose monitoring (BGM) system accuracy on clinical outcomes. We applied these findings to assess the financial impact of BGM system inaccuracy. METHODS: The study included 43 BGM systems previously assessed for accuracy according to ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 criteria. Glycemic responses for the 100 in silico adult T1DM subjects were generated, using each meter...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945173/insulin-degludec-versus-insulin-glargine-u100-for-patients-with-type-1-or-type-2-diabetes-in-the-us-a-budget-impact-analysis-with-rebate-tables
#18
Wendy S Lane, James Weatherall, Jens Gundgaard, Richard F Pollock
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Drug rebates are almost universally negotiated privately between the manufacturer and the payer in the US. The aim of the present study was to illustrate the use of a "rebate table" to improve the transparency and utility of published budget impact analyses in the US by modeling ranges of hypothetical rebates for two comparators. Worked examples were conducted to illustrate the budgetary implications of using insulin degludec (IDeg) relative to insulin glargine (IGlar) U100 in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942485/crowdsourcing-and-automated-retinal-image-analysis-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
REVIEW
Lucy I Mudie, Xueyang Wang, David S Friedman, Christopher J Brady
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the USA is expected to increase threefold by 2050, the need to reduce health care costs associated with screening for this treatable disease is ever present. Crowdsourcing and automated retinal image analysis (ARIA) are two areas where new technology has been applied to reduce costs in screening for DR. This paper reviews the current literature surrounding these new technologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Crowdsourcing has high sensitivity for normal vs abnormal images; however, when multiple categories for severity of DR are added, specificity is reduced...
September 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918230/biosensing-methods-for-determination-of-triglycerides-a-review
#20
REVIEW
C S Pundir, Vinay Narwal
Triglycerides (TGs) are the major transporters of dietary fats throughout the bloodstream. Besides transporting fat, TGs also act as stored fat in adipose tissue, which is utilized during insufficient carbohydrates supply. TG level is below 150mg/dL in healthy persons. Elevated TGs level in blood over 500mg/dL is a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer disease, pancreatitis and diabetes. Numerous methods are accessible for recognition of TGs, among them, most are cumbersome, time-consuming, require sample pre-treatment, high cost instrumental set-up and experienced personnel to operate...
September 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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