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stimuli responsive

Carlos A Campos, Anna J Bowen, Carolyn W Roman, Richard D Palmiter
Animals must respond to various threats to survive. Neurons that express calcitonin gene-related peptide in the parabrachial nucleus (CGRPPBN neurons) relay sensory signals that contribute to satiation and pain-induced fear behaviour, but it is unclear how they encode these distinct processes. Here, by recording calcium transients in vivo from individual neurons in mice, we show that most CGRPPBN neurons are activated by noxious cutaneous (shock, heat, itch) and visceral stimuli (lipopolysaccharide). The same neurons are inhibited during feeding, but become activated during satiation, consistent with evidence that CGRPPBN neurons prevent overeating...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Daisuke Shimaoka, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Changes in arousal modulate the activity of mouse sensory cortex, but studies in different mice and different sensory areas disagree on whether this modulation enhances or suppresses activity. We measured this modulation simultaneously in multiple cortical areas by imaging mice expressing voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFP). VSFP imaging estimates local membrane potential across large portions of cortex. We used temporal filters to predict local potential from running speed or from pupil dilation, two measures of arousal...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Julius A Edson, Dominique Ingato, Shirley Wu, Bianca Lee, Young Jik Kwon
Despite its promises for biomedical applications, the lack of solubility in a physiological solution, the limited molecular interactions with nucleic acids due to the rigid backbone, and the inefficient intracellular release limits the use of chitosan, a natural cationic polysaccharide, for gene delivery. In this study, a flexible, aqueous-soluble aminoethoxy branch was conjugated to the primary hydroxyl group of chitosan via an acid-cleavable ketal linkage, resulting in acid-transforming chitosan (ATC) with greatly increased aqueous solubility, improved siRNA complexation, and degradability in response to an acidic pH...
March 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Manabu Masuda, Takashi Iida, Fernando G Exposto, Lene Baad-Hansen, Misao Kawara, Osamu Komiyama, Peter Svensson
AIMS: To determine if standardized palpation of the masseter muscle can evoke referred pain and/or sensations in healthy individuals and to compare the mechanical sensitivities in response to three different levels of palpation force. METHODS: A total of 32 pain-free individuals participated. The right masseter muscle was divided into 15 test sites. Mechanical sensitivity of the masseter was assessed with three mechanical stimuli (0.5 kg, 1.0 kg, or 2.0 kg) applied by palpometers to the 15 test sites for 5 seconds each site...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
Géraldine Coppin, David Sander, Alain Golay, Zoltan Pataky
Besides hormonal regulation of appetite and satiety, food intake depends on the activity of certain brain systems. Functional imaging studies are useful to better understand this central regulation of energy intake. Obesity is associated with increased brain responses to food stimuli at the level of the reward system. More specifically, studies have shown in obese individuals an increased motivation to obtain food reward as well as a decrease in pleasure during its actual consumption. Food consumption may be, in some instances, comparable to addiction, and be reflected by irresistible cravings for certain foods...
March 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Kaleb S Abbott, Hope M Queener, Lisa A Ostrin
SIGNIFICANCE: We investigated links between the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, light exposure, refractive error, and sleep. Results showed that morning melatonin was associated with light exposure, with modest differences in sleep quality between myopes and emmetropes. Findings suggest a complex relationship between light exposure and these physiological processes. PURPOSE: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) signal environmental light, with pathways to the midbrain to control pupil size and circadian rhythm...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Kali Esancy, Logan Condon, Jing Feng, Corinna Kimball, Andrew Curtright, Ajay Dhaka
Little is known about the capacity of lower vertebrates to experience itch. A screen of itch-inducing compounds (pruritogens) in zebrafish larvae yielded a single pruritogen, the TLR7 agonist imiquimod, that elicited a somatosensory neuron response. Imiquimod induced itch-like behaviors in zebrafish distinct from those induced by the noxious TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate. In the zebrafish, imiquimod-evoked somatosensory neuronal responses and behaviors were entirely dependent upon TRPA1, while in the mouse TRPA1 was required for the direct activation of somatosensory neurons and partially responsible for behaviors elicited by this pruritogen...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Rose Z Hill, Benjamin U Hoffman, Takeshi Morita, Stephanie M Campos, Ellen A Lumpkin, Rachel B Brem, Diana M Bautista
Somatosensory neurons mediate responses to diverse mechanical stimuli, from innocuous touch to noxious pain. While recent studies have identified distinct populations of A mechanonociceptors (AMs) that are required for mechanical pain, the molecular underpinnings of mechanonociception remain unknown. Here, we show that the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P Receptor 3 (S1PR3) are critical regulators of acute mechanonociception. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of S1PR3, or blockade of S1P production, significantly impaired the behavioral response to noxious mechanical stimuli, with no effect on responses to innocuous touch or thermal stimuli...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Guangheng Dong, Lingxiao Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Marc N Potenza
BACKGROUND: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been proposed as a behavioral addiction warranting additional investigation. Craving is considered a core component of addictions. However, few studies to date have investigated craving in IGD. In the current study, we investigated how gaming was associated with changes in response to gaming-related stimuli in subjects with IGD and those with recreational game use (RGU). METHODS: Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 individuals with IGD and 43 individuals with RGU...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Daphne Everaerd, Floris Klumpers, Richard Oude Voshaar, Guillén Fernández, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Healthy aging has been associated with stable emotional well-being and attenuated brain responses to negative stimuli. At the same time, depressive symptoms are common in older adults. The neural mechanisms behind this paradox remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that acute stress could alter emotion processing in healthy aging brain and constitute a pathway to vulnerability. METHODS: Using a randomized, controlled crossover design, we explored the influence of acute stress on brain responses to happy and fearful facial expressions in 25 older adults (60-75 years of age) and 25 young (18-30 years of age) control subjects...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Xiaoxiao Lin, Christy A Itoga, Sharif Taha, Ming H Li, Ryan Chen, Kirolos Sami, Fulvia Berton, Walter Francesconi, Xiangmin Xu
Real-world stressors are complex and multimodal, involving physical, psychological, and social dimensions. However, the brain networks that mediate stress responses to these stimuli need to be further studied. We used c-Fos mapping in mice to characterize brain circuits activated by exposure to a single episode of multimodal stress (MMS), and compared these to circuits activated by electric foot shocks (EFS). We focused on characterizing c-Fos activity in stress-relevant brain regions including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Safia Ladha, Xiaofan Qiu, Lorenzo Casal, Nicholas S Caron, Dagmar E Ehrnhoefer, Michael R Hayden
Traditionally, the family of caspases has been subcategorised according to their respective main roles in mediating apoptosis or inflammation. However, recent studies have revealed that caspases participate in diverse cellular functions beyond their canonical roles. Caspase-6 (C6) is one such protease known for its role as a pro-apoptotic executioner caspase and its aberrant activity in several neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to apoptosis, C6 has been shown to regulate B-cell activation and differentiation in plasma cells as well as macrophage activation...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Yuan Huang, Yiming Guo, Yuting Liu, Feng Zhang, Zhikui Wang, Hongyan Wang, Feng Wang, Dongping Li, Dandan Mao, Sheng Luan, Manzhong Liang, Liangbi Chen
Although abscisic acid (ABA) is an important hormone that regulates seed dormancy, stomatal closure, plant development, as well as responses to environmental stimuli, the physiological mechanisms of ABA response to multiple stress in rice remain poorly understood. In the ABA biosynthetic pathway, 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the key rate-limiting enzyme. Here, we report important functions of OsNCED3 in multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice. The OsNCED3 is constitutively expressed in various tissues under normal condition, Its expression is highly induced by NaCl, PEG, and H2 O2 stress, suggesting the roles for OsNCED3 in response to the multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Benjamin J Wolf, Jiyoung Elizabeth Choi, Mark A Exley
iNKT cells are a subset of innate-like T cells that utilize an invariant TCR alpha chain complexed with a limited repertoire of TCR beta chains to recognize specific lipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules. Because iNKT cells have an invariant TCR, they can be easily identified and targeted in both humans and mice via standard reagents, making this a population of T cells that has been well characterized. iNKT cells are some of the first cells to respond during an infection. By making different types of cytokines in response to different infection stimuli, iNKT cells help determine what kind of immune response then develops...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yuuki Ooishi
A sound-induced sympathetic tone has been used as an index for orienting responses to auditory stimuli. The resting testosterone/cortisol ratio is a biomarker of social aggression that drives an approaching behavior in response to environmental stimuli, and a higher testosterone level and a lower cortisol level can facilitate the sympathetic response to environmental stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that the testosterone/cortisol ratio is correlated with the sound-induced sympathetic tone. The current study investigated the relationship between the resting testosterone/cortisol ratio and vasoconstriction induced by listening to sound stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ekta Makhija, Anna Jagielska, Lena Zhu, Alexander C Bost, William Ong, Sing Y Chew, G V Shivashankar, Krystyn J Van Vliet
Mechanical and physical stimuli including material stiffness and topography or applied mechanical strain have been demonstrated to modulate differentiation of glial progenitor and neural stem cells. Recent studies probing such mechanotransduction in oligodendrocytes have focused chiefly on the biomolecular components. However, the cell-level biophysical changes associated with such responses remain largely unknown. Here, we explored mechanotransduction in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) during the first 48 h of differentiation induction by quantifying the biophysical state in terms of nuclear dynamics, cytoskeleton organization, and cell migration...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Claire Hudson, Tomomi E Kimura, Aparna Duggirala, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Andrew C Newby, Mark Bond
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation has been implicated in the development of restenosis after angioplasty, vein graft intimal thickening and atherogenesis. We investigated the mechanisms underlying positive and negative regulation of VSMC proliferation by the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). Incubation with the cAMP elevating stimuli, adenosine, prostacyclin mimetics or low levels of forksolin activated CREB without changing CREB phosphorylation on serine-133 but induced nuclear translocation of the CREB co-factors CRTC-2 and CRTC-3...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manuel Oliva, Andrey Anikin
The processing of emotional signals usually causes an increase in pupil size, and this effect has been largely attributed to autonomic arousal prompted by the stimuli. Additionally, changes in pupil size were associated with decision making during non-emotional perceptual tasks. Therefore, in this study we investigated the relationship between pupil size fluctuations and the process of emotion recognition. Participants heard human nonverbal vocalizations (e.g., laughing, crying) and indicated the emotional state of the speakers as soon as they had identified it...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Inga Griskova-Bulanova, Evaldas Pipinis, Aleksandras Voicikas, Thomas Koenig
Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are increasingly used in research of neuropsychiatric disorders and for brain-computer interface applications. However, results on attentional modulation of ASSRs are inconclusive. The evaluation of large-scale effects of task-related modulation on ASSRs might give better estimation of the induced changes. The aim of the study was to test global field synchronization - a reference-independent evaluation of the amount of phase-locking among all active regions at a given frequency - during tasks differing in attentional demands to 40 Hz auditory stimulation...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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