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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334294/an-examination-of-the-role-of-l-glutamate-and-inosine-5-monophosphate-in-hedonic-taste-guided-behavior-by-mice-lacking-the-t1r1-t1r3-receptor
#1
Ginger D Blonde, Alan C Spector
The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334241/rmats-dvr-rmats-discovery-of-differential-variants-in-rna
#2
Jinkai Wang, Yang Pan, Shihao Shen, Lan Lin, Yi Xing
Motivation: RNA sequences of a gene can have single nucleotide variants (SNVs) due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genome, or RNA editing events within the RNA. By comparing RNA-seq data of a given cell type before and after a specific perturbation, we can detect and quantify SNVs in the RNA and discover SNVs with altered frequencies between distinct cellular states. Such differential variants in RNA (DVRs) may reflect allele-specific changes in gene expression or RNA processing, as well as changes in RNA editing in response to cellular perturbations or stimuli...
March 11, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334180/sugar-diet-affects-odor-reception-but-variation-in-sugar-concentration-plays-minimal-role-in-the-response-of-the-parasitoid-microplitis-croceipes-hymenoptera-braconidae-to-host-related-plant-volatiles
#3
Matthew Burrows, Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Parasitoids utilize various sugar resources in nature, and rely on odor cues from plants to locate their food and hosts. However, lack of sugar in the diet may negatively impact odor reception in parasitoids, thus affecting foraging efficiency. We used Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a model species to test the hypothesis that variation in sugar diet of parasitoids affects their olfactory response to host-related odors...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334175/attenuated-fast-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-during-human-sleep
#4
Omer Sharon, Yuval Nir
During sleep, external sensory events rarely elicit a behavioral response or affect perception. However, how sensory processing differs between wakefulness and sleep remains unclear. A major difficulty in this field stems from using brief auditory stimuli that often trigger nonspecific high-amplitude "K-complex" responses and complicate interpretation. To overcome this challenge, here we delivered periodic visual flicker stimulation across sleep and wakefulness while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in humans...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334121/interspersed-distribution-of-selectivity-to-kinematic-stimulus-features-in-supragranular-layers-of-mouse-barrel-cortex
#5
Francisco J Martini, Manuel Molano-Mazón, Miguel Maravall
Neurons in the primary sensory regions of neocortex have heterogeneous response properties. The spatial arrangement of neurons with particular response properties is a key aspect of population representations and can shed light on how local circuits are wired. Here, we investigated how neurons with sensitivity to different kinematic features of whisker stimuli are distributed across local circuits in supragranular layers of the barrel cortex. Using 2-photon calcium population imaging in anesthetized mice, we found that nearby neurons represent diverse kinematic features, providing a rich population representation at the local scale...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333967/reconstructing-spectral-cues-for-sound-localization-from-responses-to-rippled-noise-stimuli
#6
A John Van Opstal, Joyce Vliegen, Thamar Van Esch
Human sound localization in the mid-saggital plane (elevation) relies on an analysis of the idiosyncratic spectral shape cues provided by the head and pinnae. However, because the actual free-field stimulus spectrum is a-priori unknown to the auditory system, the problem of extracting the elevation angle from the sensory spectrum is ill-posed. Here we test different spectral localization models by eliciting head movements toward broad-band noise stimuli with randomly shaped, rippled amplitude spectra emanating from a speaker at a fixed location, while varying the ripple bandwidth between 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333509/how-perception-guides-action-figure-ground-segmentation-modulates-integration-of-context-features-into-s-r-episodes
#7
Christian Frings, Klaus Rothermund
Perception and action are closely related. Responses are assumed to be represented in terms of their perceptual effects, allowing direct links between action and perception. In this regard, the integration of features of stimuli (S) and responses (R) into S-R bindings is a key mechanism for action control. Previous research focused on the integration of object features with response features while neglecting the context in which an object is perceived. In 3 experiments, we analyzed whether contextual features can also become integrated into S-R episodes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332834/multicomponent-platinum-ii-cages-with-tunable-emission-and-amino-acid-sensing
#8
Mingming Zhang, Manik Lal Saha, Ming Wang, Zhixuan Zhou, Bo Song, Chenjie Lu, Xuzhou Yan, Xiaopeng Li, Feihe Huang, Shouchun Yin, Peter J Stang
The syntheses, characterization and the emission properties of three tetragonal prismatic cages 4a-4c constructed from eight 90o Pt(II) acceptors, four linear dipyridyl ligands and two tetraphenylethene (TPE) based sodium benzoate ligands are described. These cages are emissive in dilute solutions due to the metal-coordination induced partial restriction of intramolecular rotation of their TPE units, while the dipyridyl moieties which act as the pillars as well as the solvents strongly influence these emissions...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332741/robust-stimuli-responsive-membranes-prepared-from-a-blend-of-polysulfone-and-a-graft-copolymer-bearing-binary-side-chains-with-thermo-and-ph-responsive-switching-behavior
#9
Lei Miao, Yuanyuan Tu, Yang Yang, Shudong Lin, J W Hu, Min Zhang, Yue Li, Fei Li, Yangmiao Mo
Reported herein is the fabrication of a stimuli-responsive membrane exhibiting independent pH- and temperature-responsive behavior that was prepared from a blend of commercial polysulfone with a functional amphiphilic binary graft copolymer denoted as polysulfone-graft-(poly(isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid)-random-poly(methyl acrylate) (or PSf-g-(P(NIPAAm-co-AA)-r-PMMA)). This series of two graft copolymers with different lengths of P(NIPAAm-co-AA) side-chains were respectively designed and enriched on the membrane surface to serve as thermo- and pH-responsive "on/off" switches...
March 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332564/pupillary-responses-in-non-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#10
Jason C Park, Yi-Fan Chen, Norman P Blair, Felix Y Chau, Jennifer I Lim, Yannek I Leiderman, Mahnaz Shahidi, J Jason McAnany
The goal of this study was to determine the extent of rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated pupillary light reflex (PLR) abnormalities in diabetic patients who have non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Fifty diabetic subjects who have different stages of NPDR and 25 age-equivalent, non-diabetic controls participated. PLRs were measured in response to full-field, brief-flash stimuli under conditions that target the rod, cone, and intrinsically-photosensitive (melanopsin) retinal ganglion cell pathways...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331799/commonalities-and-differences-in-the-neural-substrates-of-threat-predictability-in-panic-disorder-and-specific-phobia
#11
Anna Luisa Klahn, Isabelle A Klinkenberg, Ulrike Lueken, Swantje Notzon, Volker Arolt, Christo Pantev, Peter Zwanzger, Markus Junghoefer
Different degrees of threat predictability are thought to induce either phasic fear or sustained anxiety. Maladaptive, sustained anxious apprehension is thought to result in overgeneralization of anxiety and thereby to contribute to the development of anxiety disorders. Therefore, differences in threat predictability have been associated with pathological states of anxiety with specific phobia (SP) representing phasic fear as heightened response to predictable threat, while panic disorder (PD) is characterized by sustained anxiety (unpredictable threat) and, as a consequence, overgeneralization of fear...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331784/photo-cross-linked-dual-responsive-hollow-capsules-mimicking-cell-membrane-for-controllable-cargo-post-encapsulation-and-release
#12
Xiaoling Liu, Dietmar Appelhans, Qiang Wei, Brigitte Voit
Multifunctional and responsive hollow capsules are ideal candidates to establish highly sophisticated compartments mimicking cell membranes for controllable bio-inspired functions. For this purpose pH and temperature dual-responsive and photo-cross-linked hollow capsules, based on silica-templated layer-by-layer approach by using poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-block-polymethacrylate) and polyallylamine, have been prepared to use them for the subsequent and easily available post-encapsulation process of protein-like macromolecules at room temperature and pH 7...
March 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331576/bumblebees-require-visual-pollen-stimuli-to-initiate-and-multimodal-stimuli-to-complete-a-full-behavioral-sequence-in-close-range-flower-orientation
#13
Saskia Wilmsen, Robin Gottlieb, Robert R Junker, Klaus Lunau
Flower visits are complex encounters, in which animals are attracted by floral signals, guided toward the site of the first physical contact with a flower, land, and finally take up floral rewards. At close range, signals of stamens and pollen play an important role to facilitate flower handling in bees, yet the pollen stimuli eliciting behavioral responses are poorly known. In this study, we test the response of flower-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) toward single and multimodal pollen stimuli as compared to natural dandelion pollen...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331355/observing-continuous-change-in-heart-rate-variability-and-photoplethysmography-derived-parameters-during-the-process-of-pain-production-relief-with-thermal-stimuli
#14
Jing-Jhao Ye, Kuan-Ting Lee, Jing-Siang Lin, Chiung-Cheng Chuang
Continuously monitoring and efficiently managing pain has become an important issue. However, no study has investigated a change in physiological parameters during the process of pain production/relief. This study modeled the process of pain production/relief using ramped thermal stimulation (no pain: 37°C water, process of pain production: a heating rate of 1°C/min, and subject feels pain: water kept at the painful temperature for each subject, with each segment lasting 10 min). In this duration, the variation of the heat rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters was observed...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331179/hyperosmolarity-impedes-the-cross-priming-competence-of-dendritic-cells-in-a-trif-dependent-manner
#15
Zoran V Popovic, Maria Embgenbroich, Federica Chessa, Viola Nordström, Mahnaz Bonrouhi, Thomas Hielscher, Norbert Gretz, Shijun Wang, Daniel Mathow, Thomas Quast, Jan-Gero Schloetel, Waldemar Kolanus, Sven Burgdorf, Hermann-Josef Gröne
Tissue osmolarity varies among different organs and can be considerably increased under pathologic conditions. Hyperosmolarity has been associated with altered stimulatory properties of immune cells, especially macrophages and dendritic cells. We have recently reported that dendritic cells upon exposure to hypertonic stimuli shift their profile towards a macrophage-M2-like phenotype, resulting in attenuated local alloreactivity during acute kidney graft rejection. Here, we examined how hyperosmotic microenvironment affects the cross-priming capacity of dendritic cells...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331100/microrna-434-3p-regulates-age-related-apoptosis-through-eif5a1-in-the-skeletal-muscle
#16
Patricia S Pardo, Ameena Hajira, Aladin M Boriek, Junaith S Mohamed
Sarcopenia is caused by increased activation of catabolic pathways, including apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying sarcopenia is not well understood. We report that aging alters miRNA expression profile as evidenced by miRNA microarray and real-time PCR. Our data show that miR-434-3p is highly downregulated miRNA in skeletal muscles of the aging mouse and provided the first evidence that miR-434 is a novel regulator of apoptosis. Myocytes transfected with miR-434-3p mimic prevents apoptosis induced by various apoptotic stimuli, and that inhibitory role of miR-434-3p was abolished by its antagomir, suggesting a role for miR-434-3p in apoptosis...
March 22, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331082/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-hijacks-rna-polymerase-ii-to-create-a-viral-transcriptional-factory
#17
Christopher Phillip Chen, Yuanzhi Lyu, Frank Chuang, Kazushi Nakano, Chie Izumiya, Di Jin, Mel Campbell, Yoshihiro Izumiya
Locally concentrated nuclear factors ensure efficient binding to the DNA templates, facilitating RNA polymerase II recruitment and frequent reutilization of stable pre-initiation complexes. Here we have uncovered a mechanism for effective viral transcription by focal assembly of RNA polymerase II around KSHV genomes in the host cell nucleus. Using immunofluorescent labeling of latent nuclear antigen (LANA) protein, together with fluorescence in situ RNA hybridization (RNA-FISH) of the intron region of immediate-early transcripts, we visualized active transcription of viral genomes in naturally infected cells...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330990/on-the-growth-and-form-of-shoots
#18
Raghunath Chelakkot, L Mahadevan
Growing plant stems and shoots exhibit a variety of shapes that embody growth in response to various stimuli. Building on experimental observations, we provide a quantitative biophysical theory for these shapes by accounting for the inherent observed passive and active effects: (i) the active controllable growth response of the shoot in response to its orientation relative to gravity, (ii) proprioception, the shoot's growth response to its own observable current shape, and (iii) the passive elastic deflection of the shoot due to its own weight, which determines the current shape of the shoot...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330777/altered-visual-repetition-suppression-in-fragile-x-syndrome-new-evidence-from-erps-and-oscillatory-activity
#19
Simon Rigoulot, Inga S Knoth, Marc-Philippe Lafontaine, Phetsamone Vannasing, Philippe Major, Sébastien Jacquemont, Jacques L Michaud, Karim Jerbi, Sarah Lippe
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. In particular, neuronal habituation processes have been shown to be altered in FXS patients. Yet, while such deficits have been primarily explored using auditory stimuli, less is known in the visual modality. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of repetition suppression using faces in FXS patients compared to controls that had the same age distribution. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were acquired while participants were presented with 18 different faces, each repeated ten times successively...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330758/regulation-of-type-i-interferon-signaling-in-immunity-and-inflammation-a-comprehensive-review
#20
REVIEW
Kun Chen, Juan Liu, Xuetao Cao
Type I interferons (IFNs) play essential roles in establishing and modulating host defense against microbial infection via induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) through Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway. However, dysregulation of IFNs production and function could also mediate immune pathogenesis such as inflammatory autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases via aberrantly activating inflammatory responses or improperly suppressing microbial controls...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
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