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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342238/rhythmic-spontaneous-activity-mediates-the-age-related-decline-in-somatosensory-function
#1
Rachel K Spooner, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Sensory gating is a neurophysiological process whereby the response to a second stimulus in a pair of identical stimuli is attenuated, and it is thought to reflect the capacity of the CNS to preserve neural resources for behaviorally relevant stimuli. Such gating is observed across multiple sensory modalities and is modulated by age, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. In this study, we examined somatosensory gating in 68 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and advanced oscillatory and time-domain analysis methods...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342237/the-roles-of-subdivisions-of-human-insula-in-emotion-perception-and-auditory-processing
#2
Yang Zhang, Wenjing Zhou, Siyu Wang, Qin Zhou, Haixiang Wang, Bingqing Zhang, Juan Huang, Bo Hong, Xiaoqin Wang
Previous studies have shown insular activations involving sensory, motor, and affective processing. However, the functional roles of subdivisions within the human insula are still not well understood. In the present study, we used intracranial electroencephalography and electrical cortical stimulation to investigate the causal roles of subdivisions of the insula in auditory emotion perception in epilepsy patients implanted with depth electrodes in this brain region. The posterior and the anterior subdivisions of the human insula, identified based on structural and functional analyses, showed distinct response properties to auditory emotional stimuli...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341931/bioinspired-capsules-based-on-nanocellulose-xyloglucan-and-pectin-the-influence-of-capsule-wall-composition-on-permeability-properties
#3
T Paulraj, A V Riazanova, A J Svagan
Materials based on renewable biopolymers, selective permeability and stimuli-responsive release/loading properties play an important role in biomedical applications. Here, in order to mimic the plant primary cell-wall, microcapsules have been fabricated using cell wall polysaccharides, namely pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose nanofibers. For the first time, a large amount of xyloglucan was successfully included in such capsules. These capsules demonstrated stimuli-responsive (ON/OFF) permeability and biocompatibility...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341140/lipoprotein-modifications-by-gingipains-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#4
J Lönn, S Ljunggren, K Klarström-Engström, I Demirel, T Bengtsson, H Karlsson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown an association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD, and a key event in the development of atherosclerosis is accumulation of lipoproteins within the arterial wall. Bacteria are the primary etiologic agents in periodontitis and Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major pathogen in the disease. Several studies support a role of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in atherogenesis; however, the pathogenic stimuli that induce the changes and the mechanisms by which this occur are unknown...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340998/on-pacing-trials-while-scanning-brain-hemodynamics-the-case-of-the-snarc-effect
#5
Sabrina Brigadoi, Sara Basso Moro, Roberta Falchi, Simone Cutini, Roberto Dell'Acqua
Experimental designs used to describe psychological effects on overt human behavior are seldom suited to localize their corresponding neural substrates based on the analysis of stimulus-evoked brain hemodynamic responses. This is because stimuli in behavioral studies are usually separated by intertrial intervals (ITIs) in the order of 1 second or so following a behavioral response, which is notoriously too brief a time to detect a corresponding hemodynamic response. In fact, a solution commonly adopted in neuroimaging studies is to prolong the ITI up to several seconds...
January 16, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340584/long-interval-intracortical-inhibition-as-biomarker-for-epilepsy-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#6
Prisca R Bauer, Annika A de Goede, William M Stern, Adam D Pawley, Fahmida A Chowdhury, Robert M Helling, Romain Bouet, Stiliyan N Kalitzin, Gerhard H Visser, Sanjay M Sisodiya, John C Rothwell, Mark P Richardson, Michel J A M van Putten, Josemir W Sander
Cortical excitability, as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electromyography, is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and follow-up of epilepsy. We report on long-interval intracortical inhibition data measured in four different centres in healthy controls (n = 95), subjects with refractory genetic generalized epilepsy (n = 40) and with refractory focal epilepsy (n = 69). Long-interval intracortical inhibition was measured by applying two supra-threshold stimuli with an interstimulus interval of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ms and calculating the ratio between the response to the second (test stimulus) and to the first (conditioning stimulus)...
January 11, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340284/optical-imaging-during-toddlerhood-brain-responses-during-naturalistic-social-interactions
#7
Yoko Hakuno, Laura Pirazzoli, Anna Blasi, Mark H Johnson, Sarah Lloyd-Fox
Despite the importance of our ability to interact and communicate with others, the early development of the social brain network remains poorly understood. We examined brain activity in 12- to 14-month-old infants while they were interacting live with an adult in two different naturalistic social scenarios (i.e., reading a picture book versus singing nursery rhymes with gestures), as compared to baseline (i.e., showing infants a toy without eye contact or speech). We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) recorded over the right temporal lobe of infants to assess the role of the superior temporal sulcus-temporoparietal junction (STS-TPJ) region during naturalistic social interactions...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340053/indomethacin-based-stimuli-responsive-micelles-combined-with-paclitaxel-to-overcome-multidrug-resistance
#8
Shuanghu Wang, Xueying Tan, Shujuan Li, Yunfang Zhou, Peiwu Geng, Ailian Hua, Aiping Deng, Zhihong Yu
Development of multidrug resistance against antitumor agents is a major limiting factor for the successful chemotherapy. Currently, both amphiphilic polymeric micelles and chemosensitizers have been proposed to overcome MDR during chemotherapy. Herein, the redox-responsive polymeric micelles composed of dextran and indomethacin (as chemosensitizer) using a disulfide bond as the linker are prepared (DEX-SS-IND) for delivery of antitumor agent paclitaxel (PTX). The high level of glutathione in tumor cells selectively breaks the disulfide bond, leading to the rapid breakdown and deformation of redox-responsive polymeric micelles...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339805/first-description-of-behavior-and-immune-system-relationship-in-fish
#9
Karina Kirsten, Débora Fior, Luiz Carlos Kreutz, Leonardo José Gil Barcellos
Considering the intriguing relationship between immune system and behavior recently described in mammals, and the lack of information of this relationship in fish, here we describe for the first time the interaction between the immune system and social and exploratory behavior in zebrafish. Fish high responders to novelty (HRN) presented a proinflammatory profile, with increased IL-1β and reduced IL-10 expression compared to fish low responders to novelty (LRN). Likewise, fish less responsive to social stimuli have a reduced expression of INF-γ...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339561/prepared-stimuli-enhance-aversive-learning-without-weakening-the-impact-of-verbal-instructions
#10
Lauren Y Atlas, Elizabeth A Phelps
Fear-relevant stimuli such as snakes and spiders are thought to capture attention due to evolutionary significance. Classical conditioning experiments indicate that these stimuli accelerate learning, while instructed extinction experiments suggest they may be less responsive to instructions. We manipulated stimulus type during instructed aversive reversal learning and used quantitative modeling to simultaneously test both hypotheses. Skin conductance reversed immediately upon instruction in both groups. However, fear-relevant stimuli enhanced dynamic learning, as measured by higher learning rates in participants conditioned with images of snakes and spiders...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339559/evidence-of-structure-and-persistence-in-motivational-attraction-to-serial-pavlovian-cues
#11
Elizabeth B Smedley, Kyle S Smith
Sign-tracking is a form of autoshaping where animals develop conditioned responding directed toward stimuli predictive of an outcome even though the outcome is not contingent on the animal's behavior. Sign-tracking behaviors are thought to arise out of the attribution of incentive salience (i.e., motivational value) to reward-predictive cues. It is not known how incentive salience would be attributed to serially occurring cues, despite cues often occurring in a sequence in the real world as reward approaches...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339443/immune-system-the-seventh-sense
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan Kipnis
The brain is our computing machine that integrates stimuli from the environment and orchestrates responses to these stimuli. Here, I propose that the defining role of the immune system is to sense microorganisms and to inform the brain about them.
January 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339313/the-human-body-odor-compound-androstadienone-increases-neural-interference-coupled-to-higher-behavioral-costs-during-an-emotional-stroop-task
#13
Jonas Hornung, Lydia Kogler, Michael Erb, Jessica Freiherr, Birgit Derntl
The androgen derivative androstadienone (AND) is a substance found in human sweat and thus may act as human chemosignal. With the current experiment, we aimed to explore in which way AND affects interference processing during an emotional Stroop task which used human faces as target and emotional words as distractor stimuli. This was complemented by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to unravel the neural mechanism of AND-action. Based on previous accounts we expected AND to increase neural activation in areas commonly implicated in evaluation of emotional face processing and to change neural activation in brain regions linked to interference processing...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339172/self-relevant-processing-of-stranger-s-name-in-chinese-society-surname-matters
#14
Siyu Zhu, Quanshang Long, Xiang Li, Jiemin Yang, Hong Li, Jiajin Yuan
Stimuli that have been frequently used to induce self-relevant processing are highly familiar to individuals (e.g., self-name [SN] and self-face). One's surname is an important form of collective self-concept; it represents the line of ancestry, and is psychologically salient. According to this concept, a stranger with the same surname elicits salient self-relevant processing, despite unfamiliarity; however, this has not yet been directly investigated. The present study adopted a three-stimulus oddball paradigm and multimodal electroencephalography to study the potential self-relevant processing of such stimuli...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339147/neural-signatures-for-active-maintenance-and-interference-during-working-memory-updating
#15
Adrià Vilà-Balló, Juha Salmi, Anna Soveri, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Minna Lehtonen, Matti Laine
Although working memory (WM) is amongst the most studied neurocognitive functions, temporal patterns of its component processes are not fully understood. We examined the neural underpinnings of active maintenance and interference management in the n-back task by manipulating load (1-back vs 3-back) and including so-called lure stimuli. ERPs of 27 young adults revealed that the 1-back condition enabling active maintenance showed a positive slow wave (PSW) prior to the next stimulus (-600-0 ms) and augmented P2 (190-290 ms) and P3b (330-430 ms) responses after the stimulus appeared, albeit the latter effects were driven by the initial PSW...
January 12, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338716/donor-age-affects-proteome-composition-of-tenocyte-derived-engineered-tendon
#16
Agnieszka J Turlo, Yalda Ashraf Kharaz, Peter D Clegg, James Anderson, Mandy J Peffers
BACKGROUND: The concept of tissue engineering is to deliver to the injury site biological scaffolds carrying functional cells that will enhance healing response. The preferred cell source is autologous in order to reduce immune response in the treated individual. However, in elderly patients age-related changes in synthetic activity of the implanted cells and subsequent alterations in tissue protein content may affect therapeutic outcomes. In this study we investigated the effect of donor age on proteome composition of tenocyte-derived tendon tissue-engineered constructs...
January 16, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337730/effects-of-electrical-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-the-perceived-intensity-of-repetitive-painful-heat-stimuli-a-blinded-placebo-and-sham-controlled-randomized-crossover-investigation
#17
Henriette Janner, Catharina Klausenitz, Nancy Gürtler, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Taras I Usichenko
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (TVNS) is a promising treatment for acute and chronic pain. However, experimental studies yielded controversial results. We examined if TVNS reduces the perceived intensity of repetitive painful heat stimulation and temporal summation of pain (TSP) in healthy volunteers in comparison with placebo and sham stimulation, as well as no intervention. METHODS: In 4 sessions, 90 heat pulse stimuli at individual pain tolerance temperature were applied to the ventral forearm of 49 healthy volunteers (25 women) using a Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator thermode (Medoc, Ramat Yishai, Israel)...
January 15, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337582/perceiving-groups-the-people-perception-of-diversity-and-hierarchy
#18
L Taylor Phillips, Michael L Slepian, Brent L Hughes
The visual perception of individuals has received considerable attention (visual person perception), but little social psychological work has examined the processes underlying the visual perception of groups of people (visual people perception). Ensemble-coding is a visual mechanism that automatically extracts summary statistics (e.g., average size) of lower-level sets of stimuli (e.g., geometric figures), and also extends to the visual perception of groups of faces. Here, we consider whether ensemble-coding supports people perception, allowing individuals to form rapid, accurate impressions about groups of people...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337437/canonical-signaling-and-nuclear-activity-of-mtor-a-teamwork-effort-to-regulate-metabolism-and-cell-growth
#19
REVIEW
Vincent Giguère
Mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase that regulates almost all functions related to cell growth and metabolism in response to extra- and intracellular stimuli such as availability of nutrients, presence of growth factors or the energy status of the cell. As part of two distinct protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, the kinase has been shown to influence cell growth and proliferation by controlling ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, protein degradation, autophagy as well as microtubule and actin dynamics...
January 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337239/background-suppression-and-its-relation-to-foreground-processing-of-speech-versus-non-speech-streams
#20
Xiaochen Zhang, Xiaolin Li, Jingjing Chen, Qin Gong
Since sound perception takes place against a background with a certain amount of noise, both speech and non-speech processing involve extraction of target signals and suppression of background noise. Previous works on early processing of speech phonemes largely neglected how background noise is encoded and suppressed. This study aimed to fill in this gap. We adopted an oddball paradigm where speech (vowels) or non-speech stimuli (complex tones) were presented with or without a background of amplitude-modulated noise and analyzed cortical responses related to foreground stimulus processing, including mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b, and P300, as well as neural representations of the background noise, i...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
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