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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637171/representation-of-rapid-image-sequences-in-v4-networks
#1
Jose A Fernandez-Leon, Bryan J Hansen, Valentin Dragoi
Natural viewing often consists of sequences of brief fixations to image patches of different structure. Whether and how briefly presented sequential stimuli are encoded in a temporal-position manner is poorly understood. Here, we performed multiple-electrode recordings in the visual cortex (area V4) of nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) viewing a sequence of 7 briefly flashed natural images, and measured correlations between the cue-triggered population response in the presence and absence of the stimulus. Surprisingly, we found significant correlations for images occurring at the beginning and the end of a sequence, but not for those in the middle...
June 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637053/a-new-analytical-method-for-characterizing-nonlinear-visual-processes-with-stimuli-of-arbitrary-distribution-theory-and-applications
#2
Ryusuke Hayashi, Osamu Watanabe, Hiroki Yokoyama, Shin'ya Nishida
Characterization of the functional relationship between sensory inputs and neuronal or observers' perceptual responses is one of the fundamental goals of systems neuroscience and psychophysics. Conventional methods, such as reverse correlation and spike-triggered data analyses are limited in their ability to resolve complex and inherently nonlinear neuronal/perceptual processes because these methods require input stimuli to be Gaussian with a zero mean. Recent studies have shown that analyses based on a generalized linear model (GLM) do not require such specific input characteristics and have advantages over conventional methods...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636927/noxious-but-not-innocuous-thermal-stimuli-evoke-perk-expression-in-dorsal-horn-neurons-after-spared-nerve-injury-in-adult-rats
#3
Mohamad S Samour, Sumaiya M Shaikh, David A Mahns, Peter J Shortland
Noxious stimulation of sensory afferents evokes phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) expression in spinal cord neurons. This study investigated the expression of pERK in the dorsal horn neurons in response to innocuous and noxious cold stimuli in naïve versus spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. Noxious cold or hot stimuli (0 or 45°C) elicited pERK expression in laminae I-II whereas cooling stimuli from 32°C to 25, 15 or 5°C produced no or little pERK expression in dorsal horn neurons...
June 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635346/effect-of-drug-related-cues-on-response-inhibition-through-abstinence-a-pilot-study-in-male-heroin-abstainers
#4
Bobo Su, Ling Yang, Grace Y Wang, Sha Wang, Shaomei Li, Hua Cao, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chronic heroin use can cause a deficit of inhibitory function, leading to a loss of control over drug use. Exposure to drug-related cues is considered as one of the contributing factors. However, it is unclear whether there are dynamic changes on the effect of drug-related cues on response inhibition following prolonged abstinence. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effect of drug-related cues on response inhibition in heroin abstainers at different abstinent phases...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635252/proton-fueled-reversible-dna-hybridization-chain-assembly-for-ph-sensing-and-imaging
#5
Lan Liu, Jin-Wen Liu, Zhi-Mei Huang, Han Wu, Na Li, Li-Juan Tang, Jian-Hui Jiang
Design of DNA self-assembly with reversible responsiveness to external stimuli is of great interest for diverse applications. We for the first time develop a pHresponsive, fully-reversible hybridization chain reaction (HCR) assembly that allows sensitive sensing and imaging of pH in living cells. Our design relies on the triplex forming sequences that form DNA triplex with toehold regions under acidic conditions and then induce a cascade of strand displacement and DNA assembly. The HCR assembly has shown dynamic responses in physiological pH ranges with excellent reversibility and demonstrated the potential for in vitro detection and live-cell imaging of pH...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635250/a-highly-stimuli-responsive-au-nanorods-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-pnipam-composite-hydrogel-for-smart-switch
#6
Chuan-Ling Zhang, Fu-Hu Cao, Jin-Long Wang, Zhi-Long Yu, Jin Ge, Yang Lu, Zhi-Hua Wang, Shu-Hong Yu
To achieve both fast response and structural integrity during the repeating volume changes are the most significant chal-lenges for thermo-responsive hydrogels. In this work, AuNRs/PNIPAM composite hydrogel with fast thermal/optical re-sponse and structural integrity is facilely prepared by electrospinning and following a curing treatment. By combining the photothermal property of AuNRs and thermal-responsive effect of PNIPAM, the composite hydrogel shows fast thermal/photo-response, high heating rate and high structural integrity with fiercely size change...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634479/whole-blood-profiling-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-trained-innate-immunity-in-infants-identifies-epidermal-growth-factor-il-6-platelet-derived-growth-factor-ab-bb-and-natural-killer-cell-activation
#7
Steven G Smith, Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis, Mihai G Netea, Hazel M Dockrell
Vaccination of infants with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activates both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The antimycobacterial effects of these responses most likely account for the ability of BCG to protect against childhood forms of tuberculosis (TB). There is also evidence for a heterologous protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB-unrelated mortality in low birth weight infants. A possible mechanism of action of this effect, the induction of trained innate immunity, has been demonstrated when cells from BCG-vaccinated adults are restimulated in vitro with non-related microbial stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634435/the-clinical-uses-of-electrocochleography
#8
REVIEW
William P Gibson
The clinical uses of electrocochleography are reviewed with some technical notes on the apparatus needed to get clear recordings under different conditions. Electrocochleography can be used to estimate auditory thresholds in difficult to test children and a golf club electrode is described. The same electrode can be used to obtain electrical auditory brainstem responses (EABR). Diagnostic testing in the clinic can be performed with a transtympanic needle electrode, and a suitable disposable monopolar electrode is described...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634370/microbial-antigens-stimulate-metalloprotease-7-secretion-in-human-b-lymphocytes-using-mtor-dependent-and-independent-pathways
#9
Mohamed F Ali, Harika Dasari, Virginia P Van Keulen, Divi Cornec, George Vasmatzis, Tobias Peikert, Eva M Carmona
Metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tissue remodeling and acute inflammation not only by degrading extracellular matrix proteins but also by controlling the influx of chemokines through the regulation and shedding of syndecans. B-lymphocytes, in addition to their well-known function as antibody producing cells, participate in the innate immune response by secreting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, there is little information about the role of B-lymphocytes in the regulation of MMPs; consequently, herein we investigated whether activated human circulating B-lymphocytes contributed to the secretion of MMPs...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634321/a-central-mechanism-enhances-pain-perception-of-noxious-thermal-stimulus-changes
#10
B Petre, P Tetreault, V A Mathur, M W Schurgin, J Y Chiao, L Huang, A V Apkarian
Pain perception temporarily exaggerates abrupt thermal stimulus changes revealing a mechanism for nociceptive temporal contrast enhancement (TCE). Although the mechanism is unknown, a non-linear model with perceptual feedback accurately simulates the phenomenon. Here we test if a mechanism in the central nervous system underlies thermal TCE. Our model successfully predicted an optimal stimulus, incorporating a transient temperature offset (step-up/step-down), with maximal TCE, resulting in psychophysically verified large decrements in pain response ("offset-analgesia"; mean analgesia: 85%, n = 20 subjects)...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#11
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634082/cytokine-modulation-by-stress-hormones-and-antagonist-specific-hormonal-inhibition-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-and-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-head-kidney-primary-cell-culture
#12
Ali Reza Khansari, David Parra, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluís Tort
A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)...
June 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633960/effect-of-stimulus-level-on-the-temporal-response-properties-of-the-auditory-nerve-in-cochlear-implants
#13
Michelle L Hughes, Sarah A Laurello
Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) have been used to examine temporal response patterns of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. ECAP responses to individual pulses in a pulse train vary across stimulation rates for individual CI users. For very slow rates, auditory neurons have ample time to discharge, recover, and respond to each pulse in the train. As the pulse rate increases, an alternating ECAP-amplitude pattern occurs. As the stimulation rate increases further, the alternating pattern eventually ceases and the overall ECAP amplitudes are diminished, yielding a relatively stochastic state that presumably reflects a combination of adaptation, desynchronization, and facilitation across fibers...
June 13, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633887/visual-integration-of-fear-and-anger-emotional-cues-by-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-and-neurotypical-peers-an-eeg-study
#14
Evie Malaia, Debbie Cockerham, Katherine Rublein
Communication deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often related to inefficient interpretation of emotional cues, which are conveyed visually through both facial expressions and body language (Apicella et al., 2012). The present study examined ASD behavioral and ERP responses to emotional expressions of anger and fear, as conveyed by the face and body. Behavioral results showed significantly faster response times for the ASD than for the typically developing (TD) group when processing fear, but not anger, in isolated face expressions, isolated body expressions, and in the integration of the two...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633813/multi-stimuli-responsive-smart-chitosan-based-microcapsules-for-targeted-drug-delivery-and-triggered-drug-release
#15
Xuejun Cui, Xinyu Guan, Shuangling Zhong, Jie Chen, Houjuan Zhu, Zhanfeng Li, Fengzhi Xu, Peng Chen, Hongyan Wang
In the present study, we designed a novel, multi-stimuli responsive, biocompatible and non-immunogenic smart carrier for targeted delivery and triggered release of hydrophobic drugs. The designed multi-stimuli responsive smart chitosan-based microcapsules (MSRS-CS-MCs) have been fabricated successfully from folic acid (FA) functionalized thiolated chitosan via a facile sonochemical method. Targeting moiety FA and red fluorescent dye (Rhodamine B isothiocyanate, RITC) were immobilized onto the shells of microcapsules...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633624/the-automatic-mapping-of-magnitude-to-temporal-order-is-space-dependent
#16
Shachar Ben-Meir, Dana Ganor-Stern, Joseph Tzelgov
Past research has shown that performance in ordinal magnitude tasks is enhanced when stimuli are presented in ascending order, suggesting that magnitude is mapped to temporal order, with small magnitude associated with early and large with late presentation. The present study addresses the automaticity of this effect and its limitations. We used the "same/different" task for numbers (Experiment 1) and physical sizes of shapes (Experiment 2) as well as identity of shapes (Experiment 3). The advantage for stimuli in ascending order was found for both numbers and physical sizes of shapes...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633582/dopamine-and-light-effects-on-facial-emotion-recognition
#17
Elizabeth Cawley, Maria Tippler, Nicholas J Coupland, Chawki Benkelfat, Diane B Boivin, Marije Aan Het Rot, Marco Leyton
Bright light can affect mood states and social behaviours. Here, we tested potential interacting effects of light and dopamine on facial emotion recognition. Participants were 32 women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder tested in either a bright (3000 lux) or dim light (10 lux) environment. Each participant completed two test days, one following the ingestion of a phenylalanine/tyrosine-deficient mixture and one with a nutritionally balanced control mixture, both administered double blind in a randomised order...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633298/protein-expression-in-tension-wood-formation-monitored-at-high-tissue-resolution-in-populus
#18
Joakim Bygdell, Vaibhav Srivastava, Ogonna Obudulu, Manoj K Srivastava, Robert Nilsson, Björn Sundberg, Johan Trygg, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Gunnar Wingsle
Tension wood (TW) is a specialized tissue with contractile properties that is formed by the vascular cambium in response to gravitational stimuli. We quantitatively analysed the proteomes of Populus tremula cambium and its xylem cell derivatives in stems forming normal wood (NW) and TW to reveal the mechanisms underlying TW formation. Phloem-, cambium-, and wood-forming tissues were sampled by tangential cryosectioning and pooled into nine independent samples. The proteomes of TW and NW samples were similar in the phloem and cambium samples, but diverged early during xylogenesis, demonstrating that reprogramming is an integral part of TW formation...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633291/p2x7-receptors-drive-spine-synapse-plasticity-in-the-learned-helplessness-model-of-depression
#19
L Otrokocsi, Á Kittel, B Sperlágh
Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments, however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632779/base-rate-sensitivity-through-implicit-learning
#20
Andrew J Wismer, Corey J Bohil
Two experiments assessed the contributions of implicit and explicit learning to base-rate sensitivity. Using a factorial design that included both implicit and explicit learning disruptions, we tested the hypothesis that implicit learning underlies base-rate sensitivity from experience (and that explicit learning contributes comparatively little). Participants learned to classify two categories of simple stimuli (bar graph heights) presented in a 3:1 base-rate ratio. Participants learned either from "observational" training to disrupt implicit learning or "response" training which supports implicit learning...
2017: PloS One
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