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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535568/tianeptine-reduces-mechanical-allodynia-in-spinal-nerve-ligated-and-chemotherapy-induced-neuropathic-mice
#1
Seong Min Han, Young Hoon Kim, Hyeon Uk Jo, Jung Ah Kwak, Hue Jung Park
BACKGROUND: Spinal nerve-ligated neuropathy and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy produce a persistent tactile allodynia in mice. Tianeptine is an antidepressant that exhibits structural similarities to tricyclic antidepressants but has distinct neurochemical properties. OBJECTIVE: Here we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) tianeptine on allodynia in spinal nerve-ligated and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic mice. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, experimental trial...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534730/big-stimulus-little-ears-safety-in-administering-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-children
#2
Megan L A Thomas, Denis Fitzpatrick, Ryan McCreery, Kristen L Janky
BACKGROUND: Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have become common clinical vestibular assessments. However, VEMP testing requires high intensity stimuli, raising concerns regarding safety with children, where sound pressure levels may be higher due to their smaller ear canal volumes. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the range of peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure levels (peSPLs) in child and adult ears in response to high intensity stimuli (i...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534673/effects-of-preference-and-sensory-modality-on-behavioral-reaction-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#3
L Heine, B Tillmann, M Hauet, A Juliat, A Dubois, S Laureys, M Kandel, J Plailly, J Luauté, F Perrin
BACKGROUND: Reliable evaluation of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in a minimally conscious state (MCS) remains a major challenge. It has been suggested that the expression of residual cerebral function could be improved by allowing patients to listen to their favourite music. However, the potential effect of music on behavioural responsiveness, as well as the effect of preferred stimuli in other sensory modalities (e.g. olfaction), remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of sensory modality (auditory versus olfactory) and preference (preferred versus neutral) of the test stimuli on patients' subsequent performance on the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R)...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534668/does-spatial-attention-modulate-the-earliest-component-of-the-visual-evoked-potential
#4
Hannah M Baumgartner, Christian J Graulty, Steven A Hillyard, Michael A Pitts
Whether visual spatial attention can modulate feedforward input to human primary visual cortex (V1) is debated. A prominent and long-standing hypothesis is that visual spatial attention can influence processing in V1, but only at delayed latencies suggesting a feedback-mediated mechanism and a lack of modulation during the initial afferent volley. The most promising challenge to this hypothesis comes from an event-related potential (ERP) study that showed an amplitude enhancement of the earliest visual ERP component, called the "C1", in response to spatially-attended relative to spatially-unattended stimuli (Kelly et al...
May 23, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534502/engaging-and-disengaging-recurrent-inhibition-coincides-with-sensing-and-unsensing-of-a-sensory-stimulus
#5
Debajit Saha, Wensheng Sun, Chao Li, Srinath Nizampatnam, William Padovano, Zhengdao Chen, Alex Chen, Ege Altan, Ray Lo, Dennis L Barbour, Baranidharan Raman
Even simple sensory stimuli evoke neural responses that are dynamic and complex. Are the temporally patterned neural activities important for controlling the behavioral output? Here, we investigated this issue. Our results reveal that in the insect antennal lobe, due to circuit interactions, distinct neural ensembles are activated during and immediately following the termination of every odorant. Such non-overlapping response patterns are not observed even when the stimulus intensity or identities were changed...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534459/differences-in-neural-response-to-extinction-recall-in-young-adults-with-or-without-history-of-behavioral-inhibition
#6
Tomer Shechner, Nathan A Fox, Jamie A Mash, Johanna M Jarcho, Gang Chen, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Jennifer C Britton
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is associated with risk for anxiety disorders, yet only about half of behaviorally inhibited children manifest anxiety later in life. We compared brain function and behavior during extinction recall in a sample of nonanxious young adults characterized in childhood with BI (n = 22) or with no BI (n = 28). Three weeks after undergoing fear conditioning and extinction, participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging extinction recall task assessing memory and threat differentiation for conditioned stimuli...
May 23, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534413/versatile-assembly-of-metal-coordinated-calix-4-resorcinarene-cavitands-and-cages-through-ancillary-linker-tuning
#7
Wen-Yuan Pei, Guohai Xu, Jin Yang, Hui Wu, Banglin Chen, Wei Zhou, Jian-Fang Ma
We propose a design strategy for assembly of metal-coordinated calix[4]resorcinarene cavitands and cages by tuning of the ancillary linkers. Assembly of newly functionalized cavitand with angular isophthalic acid analogs affords three intriguing metal-coordinated cavitands with deep cavities, 1a-1c. Further, by mediating appropriate spacers between two isophthalic acids, two bowl-shaped cavitands are successfully joined together to produce three elegant coordination cages with tunable sizes and shapes, 2a-2c...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534246/microglia-housekeeper-of-the-central-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
John Alimamy Kabba, Yazhou Xu, Handson Christian, Wenchen Ruan, Kitchen Chenai, Yun Xiang, Luyong Zhang, Juan M Saavedra, Tao Pang
Microglia, of myeloid origin, play fundamental roles in the control of immune responses and the maintenance of central nervous system homeostasis. These cells, just like peripheral macrophages, may be activated into M1 pro-inflammatory or M2 anti-inflammatory phenotypes by appropriate stimuli. Microglia do not respond in isolation, but form part of complex networks of cells influencing each other. This review addresses the complex interaction of microglia with each cell type in the brain: neurons, astrocytes, cerebrovascular endothelial cells, and oligodendrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534049/bio-inspired-metal-coordinate-hydrogels-with-programmable-viscoelastic-material-functions-controlled-by-longwave-uv-light
#9
Scott C Grindy, Niels Holten-Andersen
Control over the viscoelastic mechanical properties of hydrogels intended for use as biomedical materials has long been a goal of soft matter scientists. Recent research has shown that materials made from polymers with reversibly associating transient crosslinks are a promising strategy for controlling viscoelasticity in hydrogels, for example leading to systems with precisely tunable mechanical energy-dissipation. We and others have shown that bio-inspired histidine:transition metal ion complexes allow highly precise and tunable control over the viscoelastic properties of transient network hydrogels...
May 23, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534010/autophagy-in-the-placenta
#10
REVIEW
Soo-Young Oh, Cheong-Rae Roh
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catalytic process by which cytoplasmic components including damaged macromolecules and organelles are degraded. The role of autophagy includes adaptive responses to nutrition deprivation or intracellular stimuli. Although autophagosomes were first observed in early 1960s, it was 1990s that autophagy-related genes in yeast were identified and studied. Nowadays, the molecular machinery of autophagy and signaling pathway to various stimuli are almost outlined. Dysregulation of autophagic activity has been implicated in many human diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, infection and inflammation, and malignancies...
May 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534002/purposeful-engagement-healthy-aging-and-the-brain
#11
Carol D Ryff, Aaron S Heller, Stacey M Schaefer, Carien van Reekum, Richard J Davidson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research on psychological well-being in later life has identified strengths and vulnerabilities that occur with aging. We review the conceptual and philosophical foundations of a eudaimonic model of well-being and its empirical translation into six key dimensions of positive functioning. We also consider its implications for health, broadly defined. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous findings from national longitudinal samples of U.S. adults are described...
December 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533780/innate-immune-function-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
David Sancho, Michel Enamorado, Johan Garaude
Sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger signals by innate immune receptors drives a complex exchange of information. Innate receptor signaling not only triggers transcriptional events but also induces profound changes in metabolic fluxes, redox balance, and metabolite abundance thereby influencing immune cell function. Mitochondria are at the core of metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. The close interaction between mitochondrial metabolism and immune signaling has emerged as a central regulator of innate sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533756/guinea-pig-oxygen-sensing-and-carotid-body-functional-properties
#13
Elvira Gonzalez-Obeso, Inmaculada Docio, Elena Olea, Angel Cogolludo, Ana Obeso, Asuncion Rocher, Angela Gomez-Niño
Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533406/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-word-retrieval-in-speech-production-revealed-by-cortical-high-frequency-band-activity
#14
Stephanie K Riès, Rummit K Dhillon, Alex Clarke, David King-Stephens, Kenneth D Laxer, Peter B Weber, Rachel A Kuperman, Kurtis I Auguste, Peter Brunner, Gerwin Schalk, Jack J Lin, Josef Parvizi, Nathan E Crone, Nina F Dronkers, Robert T Knight
Word retrieval is core to language production and relies on complementary processes: the rapid activation of lexical and conceptual representations and word selection, which chooses the correct word among semantically related competitors. Lexical and conceptual activation is measured by semantic priming. In contrast, word selection is indexed by semantic interference and is hampered in semantically homogeneous (HOM) contexts. We examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of these complementary processes in a picture naming task with blocks of semantically heterogeneous (HET) or HOM stimuli...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533384/changes-in-perceptual-sensitivity-related-to-spatial-cues-depends-on-subcortical-activity
#15
Lee P Lovejoy, Richard J Krauzlis
Spatial cues allow animals to selectively attend to relevant visual stimuli while ignoring distracters. This process depends on a distributed neuronal network, and an important current challenge is to understand the functional contributions made by individual brain regions within this network and how these contributions interact. Recent findings point to a possible anatomical segregation, with cortical and subcortical brain regions contributing to different functional components of selective attention. Cortical areas, especially visual cortex, may be responsible for implementing changes in perceptual sensitivity by changing the signal-to-noise ratio, whereas other regions, such as the superior colliculus, may be involved in processes that influence selection between competing stimuli without regulating perceptual sensitivity...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533376/b12-dependent-photoresponsive-protein-hydrogels-for-controlled-stem-cell-protein-release
#16
Ri Wang, Zhongguang Yang, Jiren Luo, I-Ming Hsing, Fei Sun
Thanks to the precise control over their structural and functional properties, genetically engineered protein-based hydrogels have emerged as a promising candidate for biomedical applications. Given the growing demand for creating stimuli-responsive "smart" hydrogels, here we show the synthesis of entirely protein-based photoresponsive hydrogels by covalently polymerizing the adenosylcobalamin (AdoB12)-dependent photoreceptor C-terminal adenosylcobalamin binding domain (CarHC) proteins using genetically encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher chemistry under mild physiological conditions...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533182/biased-visceral-perception-through-fear-learning-biased-intensity-judgements-of-visceral-sensations-after-learning-to-fear-visceral-stimuli-a-drift-diffusion-approach
#17
Jonas Zaman, Victoria J Madden, Julie Iven, Katja Wiech, Nathalie Weltens, Huynh Giao Ly, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with non-painful esophageal balloon distensions of two different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised pre-acquisition, acquisition and post-acquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532712/photosensitivity-and-epilepsy-current-concepts-and-perspectives-a-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
A Martins da Silva, Bárbara Leal
The authors review the influence of photic stimuli on the generation of epileptic seizures, addressing the first descriptions of the phenomenon and its subsequent exploration. Initially defined in the 1950's, links between intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and seizures were well understood by the 1970. Since then the increasing exposure to photic stimuli associated with modern life (for instance through TVs, patterns, computer games and electronic instruments with flickering displays) has led to an increased interest in this issue...
April 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532644/increasing-gaba-reverses-age-related-alterations-in-excitatory-receptive-fields-and-intensity-coding-of-auditory-midbrain-neurons%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-aged-mice
#19
Elliott J Brecht, Kathy Barsz, Benjamin Gross, Joseph P Walton
A key feature of age-related hearing loss is a reduction in the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. This loss is partially responsible for changes in central auditory processing, as inhibitory receptive fields play a critical role in shaping neural responses to sound stimuli. Vigabatrin (VGB), an antiepileptic agent that irreversibly inhibits γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase, leads to increased availability of GABA throughout the brain. This study used multi-channel electrophysiology measurements to assess the excitatory frequency response areas in old CBA mice to which VGB had been administered...
April 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532288/effects-of-happy-and-sad-facial-expressions-on-the-perception-of-time-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Giovanna Mioni, Simon Grondin, Lucia Meligrana, Francesco Perini, Luigi Bartolomei, Franca Stablum
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by deterioration of the dopaminergic system. Previous studies have demonstrated temporal as well as emotional facial recognition impairment in PD patients. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that emotional facial expressions alter temporal judgments. In the present study, we investigate the magnitude of temporal distortions caused by the presentation of emotional facial expressions (happiness, sadness, and neutral) in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and controls...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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