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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156434/we-prefer-what-we-fear-a-response-preference-bias-mimics-attentional-capture-in-spider-fear
#1
Anke Haberkamp, Melanie Biafora, Thomas Schmidt, Katharina Weiß
The extent to which emotionally significant stimuli capture visual attention remains elusive because a preference for reporting or choosing emotionally significant stimuli could mimic attentional capture by these stimuli. We conducted two prior-entry experiments to disentangle whether phobic and fear-relevant stimuli capture attention or merely produce a response bias in spider-fearful participants. Prior entry denotes the effect that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli as indicated by temporal order judgments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155975/induced-cortical-responses-require-developmental-sensory-experience
#2
Prasandhya Astagiri Yusuf, Peter Hubka, Jochen Tillein, Andrej Kral
Sensory areas of the cerebral cortex integrate the sensory inputs with the ongoing activity. We studied how complete absence of auditory experience affects this process in a higher mammal model of complete sensory deprivation, the congenitally deaf cat. Cortical responses were elicited by intracochlear electric stimulation using cochlear implants in adult hearing controls and deaf cats. Additionally, in hearing controls, acoustic stimuli were used to assess the effect of stimulus mode (electric versus acoustic) on the cortical responses...
November 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155808/a-hierarchical-stochastic-model-for-bistable-perception
#3
Stefan Albert, Katharina Schmack, Philipp Sterzer, Gaby Schneider
Viewing of ambiguous stimuli can lead to bistable perception alternating between the possible percepts. During continuous presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur as single events, whereas during intermittent presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur at more or less regular intervals either as single events or bursts. Response patterns can be highly variable and have been reported to show systematic differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Existing models of bistable perception often use detailed assumptions and large parameter sets which make parameter estimation challenging...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155366/applications-of-stimuli-responsive-nanoscale-drug-delivery-systems-in-translational-research
#4
REVIEW
Mengjie Gu, Xin Wang, Tan Boon Toh, Edward Kai-Hua Chow
Nanoscale drug delivery systems or nanocarriers have shown tremendous promise in the target-specific delivery of therapeutics as well as diagnostic agents. Additional properties can be introduced into nanocarriers to enhance the bioavailability and targeting efficiency of the transported drugs at diseased sites. Such nanocarriers are usually incorporated with stimuli-responsive components that can be triggered by specific stimuli (e.g., temperature, pH, or enzymes) and further induced by certain biological responses, such as enzyme hydrolysis and molecular conformational changes, leading to the controlled release of the transported molecules at targeted sites...
November 16, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155218/the-collective-influence-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-with-physiological-fluid-shear-stress-on-osteoblasts
#5
Yan Li, Jiafeng Yuan, Qianwen Wang, Lijie Sun, Yunying Sha, Yanxiang Li, Lizhong Wang, Zhonghua Wang, Yonggang Ma, Hui Cao
1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 (OH)2 D3) and mechanical stimuli in physiological environment contributes greatly to osteoporosis pathogenesis. Wide investigations have been conducted on how 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and mechanical stimuli separately impact osteoblasts. This study reports the collective influences of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and flow shear stress (FSS) on biological functions of osteoblasts. 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 were prepared in various kinds of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 nmmol/L), while physiological fluid shear stress (12 dynes/cm(2)) was produced by using a parallel-plate fluid flow system...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155090/proteome-and-phosphoproteome-analysis-of-commensally-induced-dendritic-cell-maturation-states
#6
Ali Giray Korkmaz, Todor Popov, Loulou Peisl, Marius Cosmin Codrea, Sven Nahnsen, Alexander Steimle, Ana Velic, Boris Macek, Martin von Bergen, Joerg Bernhardt, Julia-Stefanie Frick
Dendritic cells (DCs) can shape the immune system towards an inflammatory or tolerant state depending on the bacterial antigens and the environment they encounter. In this study we provide a proteomic catalogue of differentially expressed proteins between distinct DC maturation states, brought about by bacteria that differ in their endotoxicity. To achieve this, we have performed proteomics and phosphoproteomics on murine DC cultures. Symbiont and pathobiont bacteria were used to direct dendritic cells into a semi-mature and fully-mature state, respectively...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154631/alertness-and-cognitive-control-testing-the-early-onset-hypothesis
#7
Darryl W Schneider
Previous research has revealed a peculiar interaction between alertness and cognitive control in selective-attention tasks: Congruency effects are larger on alert trials (on which an alerting cue is presented briefly in advance of the imperative stimulus) than on no-alert trials, despite shorter response times (RTs) on alert trials. One explanation for this finding is the early onset hypothesis, which is based on the assumptions that increased alertness shortens stimulus-encoding time and that cognitive control involves gradually focusing attention during a trial...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154616/do-we-see-it-or-not-sensory-attenuation-in-the-visual-domain
#8
Katharina A Schwarz, Roland Pfister, Michel Kluge, Lisa Weller, Wilfried Kunde
Sensory consequences of an agent's actions are perceived less intensely than sensory stimuli that are not caused (and thus not predicted) by the observer. This effect of sensory attenuation has been discussed as a key principle of perception, potentially mediating various crucial functions such as agency and the discrimination of self-caused sensory stimulation from stimuli caused by external factors. Precise models describe the theoretical underpinnings of this phenomenon across a variety of modalities, especially the auditory, tactile, and visual domain...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154587/attentional-avoidance-of-emotional-stimuli-in-postpartum-women-with-childhood-history-of-maltreatment-and-difficulties-with-emotion-regulation
#9
Gillian England-Mason, Jennifer Khoury, Leslie Atkinson, Geoffrey B Hall, Andrea Gonzalez
Child abuse and neglect can lead to difficulties regulating responses to threatening and emotional situations. Exposure to childhood maltreatment has been linked to conflicting findings of both attention biases toward and away from threat-related information. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether emotion regulation moderated the association between history of childhood maltreatment and attention bias in a sample of postpartum women. One hundred forty women participated in the study at 7 months postpartum...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154463/establishing-upper-limits-on-neuronal-activity-evoked-ph-changes-with-apt-cest-mri-at-7-t
#10
Vitaliy Khlebnikov, Jeroen C W Siero, Alex A Bhogal, Peter R Luijten, Dennis W J Klomp, Hans Hoogduin
PURPOSE: To detect neuronal activity-evoked pH changes by amide proton transfer-chemical exchange saturation transfer (APT-CEST) MRI at 7 T. METHODS: Three healthy subjects participated in the study. A low-power 3-dimensional APT-CEST sequence was optimized through the Bloch-McConnell equations. pH sensitivity of the sequence was estimated both in phantoms and in vivo. The feasibility of pH-functional MRI was tested in Bloch-McConnell-simulated data using the optimized sequence...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154435/braking-of-a-light-driven-molecular-rotary-motor-by-chemical-stimuli
#11
Thomas van Leeuwen, Wojciech Danowski, Stefano F Pizzolato, Peter Štacko, Sander J Wezenberg, Ben L Feringa
Artificial molecular motors hold great promise for application in responsive functional materials as well as to control the properties of biohybrid systems. Herein a strategy is reported to modulate the rotation of light-driven molecular motors. That is, the rotary speed of a molecular motor, functionalized with a biphenol moiety, could be decreased in situ by non-covalent substrate binding, as was established by (1) H NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. These findings constitute an important step in the development of multi-responsive molecular machinery...
November 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154366/generalization-of-conditioned-auditory-fear-is-regulated-by-maternal-effects-on-ventral-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#12
Huy-Bin Nguyen, Carine Parent, Yiu Chung Tse, Tak Pan Wong, Michael J Meaney
Maternal care shapes individual differences in fear-associated neural circuitry. In rats, maternal licking and grooming (LG) in early life regulates ventral hippocampal (VH) function and plasticity in adulthood, but its consequent effect on the regulation of fear memories remains unknown. We report an effect of maternal care on generalization of learned fear, such that offspring of high LG mothers express generalized fear responses when confronted with neutral stimuli following auditory fear conditioning. These animals simultaneously display a reduction in the magnitude of VH-LTP expressed and reduced input-output transformation in Schaffer Collateral synapses...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154365/is-neural-processing-of-negative-stimuli-altered-in-addiction-independent-of-drug-effects-findings-from-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-youth-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#13
Sarah W Yip, James J Gross, Megha Chawla, Shan-Shan Ma, Xing-Hui Shi, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Lei Zhu, Patrick D Worhunsky, Jintao Zhang
Difficulties in emotion regulation are commonly reported among individuals with alcohol and drug addictions and contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Alterations in neural processing of negative affective stimuli have further been demonstrated among individuals with addictions. However, it is unclear whether these alterations are a general feature of addictions or are a result of prolonged exposure to drugs-of-abuse. To test the hypothesis of altered negative affect processing independent of drug effects, this study assessed neural function among drug-naïve youth with a behavioral addiction-Internet gaming disorder (IGD)...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153480/spatial-orientation-and-postural-control-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
E Pawlitzki, C Schlenstedt, N Schmidt, I Tödt, F Gövert, G Hartwigsen, K Witt
Postural instability is one of the most disabling and risky symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how this is mediated by a centrally impaired spatial orientation. Therefore, we performed a spatial orientation study in 21 PD patients (mean age 68years, SD 8.5 years, 9 women) in a medically on condition and 21 healthy controls (mean age 68.9years, SD 5.5years, 14 women). We compared their spatial responses to the horizontal axis (Sakashita's visual target cancellation task), the vertical axis (bucket-test), the sagittal axis (tilt table test) and postural stability using the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB)...
November 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152821/skin-care-products-can-aggravate-epidermal-function-studies-in-a-murine-model-suggest-a-pathogenic-role-in-sensitive-skin
#15
Zhengxiao Li, Lizhi Hu, Peter M Elias, Mao-Qiang Man
BACKGROUND: Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin...
November 20, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151691/parallel-mrna-proteomics-and-mirna-expression-analysis-in-cell-line-models-of-the-intestine
#16
Finbarr O'Sullivan, Joanne Keenan, Sinead Aherne, Fiona O'Neill, Colin Clarke, Michael Henry, Paula Meleady, Laura Breen, Niall Barron, Martin Clynes, Karina Horgan, Padraig Doolan, Richard Murphy
AIM: To identify miRNA-regulated proteins differentially expressed between Caco2 and HT-29: two principal cell line models of the intestine. METHODS: Exponentially growing Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were harvested and prepared for mRNA, miRNA and proteomic profiling. mRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. miRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix Genechip miRNA 3.0 array...
November 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151620/in-silico-synthesis-of-microgel-particles
#17
Nicoletta Gnan, Lorenzo Rovigatti, Maxime Bergman, Emanuela Zaccarelli
Microgels are colloidal-scale particles individually made of cross-linked polymer networks that can swell and deswell in response to external stimuli, such as changes to temperature or pH. Despite a large amount of experimental activities on microgels, a proper theoretical description based on individual particle properties is still missing due to the complexity of the particles. To go one step further, here we propose a novel methodology to assemble realistic microgel particles in silico. We exploit the self-assembly of a binary mixture composed of tetravalent (cross-linkers) and bivalent (monomer beads) patchy particles under spherical confinement in order to produce fully bonded networks...
November 14, 2017: Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150757/invisible-side-of-emotions-somato-motor-responses-to-affective-facial-displays-in-alexithymia
#18
Cristina Scarpazza, Elisabetta Làdavas, Luigi Cattaneo
According to recent theories, the detection of emotions involves somatic experiences. In this study, we investigated the relation between somatic responses to affective stimuli, emotion perception, and alexithymia. Variations in automatic rapid facial reactions (RFRs) were measured in a selected population of participants with high and low levels of alexithymia (HA and LA, respectively). Electromyographic activity was recorded from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomaticus major, while participants performed a gender classification task on faces expressing various emotional states...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150600/mapping-tenascin-c-interaction-with-toll-like-receptor-4-reveals-a-new-subset-of-endogenous-inflammatory-triggers
#19
Lorena Zuliani-Alvarez, Anna M Marzeda, Claire Deligne, Anja Schwenzer, Fiona E McCann, Brian D Marsden, Anna M Piccinini, Kim S Midwood
Pattern recognition underpins innate immunity; the accurate identification of danger, including infection, injury, or tumor, is key to an appropriately targeted immune response. Pathogen detection is increasingly well defined mechanistically, but the discrimination of endogenous inflammatory triggers remains unclear. Tenascin-C, a matrix protein induced upon tissue damage and expressed by tumors, activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sterile inflammation. Here we map three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with TLR4...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150345/hydrostatic-pressure-as-epigenetic-modulator-in-chondrocyte-cultures-a-study-on-mirna-155-mirna-181a-and-mirna-223-expression-levels
#20
Anna De Palma, Sara Cheleschi, Nicola Antonio Pascarelli, Stefano Giannotti, Mauro Galeazzi, Antonella Fioravanti
Mechanical stimuli and hydrostatic pressure (HP) play an important role in the regulation of chondrocytes metabolism. Growing evidence demonstrated the ability of mechanical loading to modulate the expression of microRNA (miRNA) involved in chondrocytes homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The expression of miR-155, miR-181a and miR-223 in normal and OA chondrocyte cultures, and their potential modifications following exposure to three hours of a cyclic HP (1-5 MPa, frequency 0.25 Hz) were investigated...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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