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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930561/immune-ligands-for-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-ctls-in-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#1
Ioannis A Voutsadakis
   The immune system has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics in recent years with the success of immune blockade inhibitors in a variety of cancers whose list is increasing with a quick pace. Despite the efficacy of these drugs across a significant part of the cancer spectrum, responses are still seen only in a minority of patients, that implies that most patients are refractory or promptly develop resistance to these agents. Mechanisms of this resistance are important to decipher as this knowledge may lead to the introduction of additional therapies or manipulations to modulate resistance...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930487/emerging-roles-of-inflammasomes-in-acute-pneumonia
#2
Sangeetha Ravi Kumar, Sagar Paudel, Laxman Ghimire, Scott Bergeron, Shanshan Cai, Rachel L Zemans, Gregory P Downey, Samithamby Jeyaseelan
Pneumonia is responsible for a substantial burden on healthcare worldwide and the single largest cause for death of infants globally. Pneumonia is caused by a variety of pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The lung has developed complex innate immune mechanisms to combat these infections while minimizing tissue damage. One essential mechanism that drives the initial innate immune response is sensing a broad spectrum of stimuli in the cytosol by inflammasomes. Inflammasomes are composed of NLR and non-NLR proteins, and activate caspase-1 that results in proinflammatory cytokine activation...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930451/a-biomimetic-stress-sensitive-hydrogel-controlled-by-dna-nanoswitches
#3
Swapneel R Deshpande, Roel Hammink, Frank H T Nelissen, Alan E Rowan, Hans A Heus
One of the most intriguing and important aspects of biological supramolecular materials is its ability to adapt macroscopic properties in response to environmental cues for controlling cellular processes. Recently, bulk matrix stiffness, in particular stress sensitivity, has been established as a key mechanical cue in cellular function and development. However, stress-stiffening capacity and the ability to control and exploit this key characteristic is relatively new to the field of biomimetic materials. In this work, DNA-responsive hydrogels, composed of semiflexible PIC polymers equipped with DNA cross-linkers, were engineered to create mimics of natural biopolymer networks that capture these essential elastic properties and can be controlled by external stimuli...
September 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929542/visuomotor-effects-of-body-part-movements-presented-in-the-first-person-perspective-on-imitative-behavior
#4
Rui Watanabe, Takahiro Higuchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Masato Taira
Imitative stimuli presented from a first-person perspective (FPP) produce stronger visuomotor effects than those presented from a third-person perspective (TPP) due to the relatively greater response of the mirror neuron system (MNS) to FPP stimuli. Some previous studies utilizing TPP stimuli have reported no differences in MNS activity between moving and static bodies' stimuli. However, few studies have compared visuomotor effects of such stimuli when presented in the FPP. To clarify this issue, we measured cortical activation in 17 participants during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imitation task involving three conditions: moving (a lifting finger was presented), static (an "X" appeared on a static finger), and control (an "X" appeared on a button)...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929510/laminar-specific-encoding-of-texture-elements-in-rat-barrel-cortex
#5
Benjamin J Allitt, Dasuni S Alwis, Ramesh Rajan
Texture discrimination by rats is exquisitely guided by fine-grain mechanical stick-slip motions of the face whiskers as they encounter, stick to, and slip past successive texture-defining surface features like bumps and grooves. Neural encoding of successive stick-slip texture events will be shaped by adaptation, common to all sensory systems, whereby receptor and neural responses to a stimulus are affected by responses to preceding stimuli, allowing resetting to signal novel information. Additionally, when a whisker is actively moved to contact and brush over surfaces, that motion itself generates neural responses that could cause adaptation of responses to subsequent stick-slip events...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929494/crhr2-ucn2-signaling-is-a-novel-regulator-of-mir-7-yy1-fas-circuitry-contributing-to-reversal-of-colorectal-cancer-cell-resistance-to-fas-mediated-apoptosis
#6
Charalabos Pothoulakis, Monica Torre-Rojas, Marco A Duran-Padilla, Jonathan Gevorkian, Odysseas Zoras, Emmanuel Chrysos, George Chalkiadakis, Stavroula Baritaki
Colorectal cancer (CRC) responds poorly to immuno-mediated cytotoxicity. Underexpression of Corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2 (CRHR2) in CRC, promotes tumor survival, growth and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), in vitro and in vivo. We explored the role of CRHR2 downregulation in CRC cell resistance to Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanism. CRC cell sensitivity to CH11-induced apoptosis was compared between Urocortin-2 (Ucn2)-stimulated parental and CRHR2-overexpressing CRC cell lines and targets of CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling were identified through in vitro and ex vivo analyses...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929401/making-time-estimation-of-internally-versus-externally-defined-durations
#7
Michael D Klein, Jennifer A Stolz
Most research on the topic of duration estimation has examined the mechanisms underlying estimation of durations that are demarcated by experimental stimuli. It is not clear whether the estimation of durations that are instead defined by our own mental processes (e.g., response times) is underlain by the same mechanisms. Across five experiments, we tested whether the pattern of interference between concurrent temporal and nontemporal tasks was similar for the two types of intervals. Duration estimation of externally defined intervals slowed performance on a concurrent equation verification task, regardless of whether participants were required to report their estimate by clicking within an analogue scale or by reproducing the duration...
September 19, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929390/does-repeated-testing-impact-concordance-between-genital-and-self-reported-sexual-arousal-in-women
#8
Julia Velten, Meredith L Chivers, Lori A Brotto
Women show a substantial variability in their genital and subjective responses to sexual stimuli. The level of agreement between these two aspects of response is termed sexual concordance and has been increasingly investigated because of its implications for understanding models of sexual response and as a potential endpoint in clinical trials of treatments to improve women's sexual dysfunction. However, interpreting changes in sexual concordance may be problematic because, to date, it still is unclear how repeated testing itself influences sexual concordance in women...
September 19, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929362/brain-reactivity-to-visual-food-stimuli-after-moderate-intensity-exercise-in-children
#9
Travis D Masterson, C Brock Kirwan, Lance E Davidson, Michael J Larson, Kathleen L Keller, S Nicole Fearnbach, Alyssa Evans, James D LeCheminant
Exercise may play a role in moderating eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of exercise on neural responses to visual food stimuli in children ages 8-11 years. We hypothesized that acute exercise would result in reduced activity in reward areas of the brain. Using a randomized cross-over design, 26 healthy weight children completed two separate laboratory conditions (exercise; sedentary). During the exercise condition, each participant completed a 30-min bout of exercise at moderate-intensity (~ 67% HR maximum) on a motor-driven treadmill...
September 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929264/a-novel-and-cheap-method-to-correlate-subjective-and-objective-visual-acuity-by-using-the-optokinetic-response
#10
Carlo Aleci, Martina Scaparrotti, Sabrina Fulgori, Lorenzo Canavese
PURPOSE: To describe a novel optokinetic visual acuity estimator (Oktotype) and to report the preliminary results obtained in poorly and non-collaborative subjects. METHODS: Eleven series of symbols arranged horizontally and moving from left to right at a constant rate were displayed. In each sequence, the size of the stimuli was reduced logarithmically. By using this paradigm, the objective visual acuity was computed in 26 normal subjects as the minimum size of the symbols able to evoke the optokinetic response...
September 19, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929247/are-parrots-poor-at-motor-self-regulation-or-is-the-cylinder-task-poor-at-measuring-it
#11
Can Kabadayi, Anastasia Krasheninnikova, Laurie O'Neill, Joost van de Weijer, Mathias Osvath, Auguste M P von Bayern
The ability to inhibit unproductive motor responses triggered by salient stimuli is a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation is thought to underlie more complex cognitive mechanisms, like self-control. Recently, a large-scale study, comparing 36 species, found that absolute brain size best predicted competence in motor inhibition, with great apes as the best performers. This was challenged when three Corvus species (corvids) were found to parallel great apes despite having much smaller absolute brain sizes...
September 19, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929040/cardiovascular-dysfunction-presenting-as-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-a-patient-with-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Ahmed H Qavi, Salman Assad, Wardha Shabbir, Maryam Kundi, Maham Habib, Sumbal Babar, Mehr Zahid
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a medical emergency that is characterized by hypertension as an autonomic response to noxious stimuli in patients with a history of spinal cord injury at the level of T6 or above. We present the case of a 31-year-old Caucasian male with a history of spinal cord injury at the level of C3-C4, with symptoms described as recurring episodes of hypertension with flushing and sweating above the level of the lesion for the past five to six years. His symptoms are triggered by bowel distention, excitement, a bumpy car ride, or a simple turning of the neck to the left...
July 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928642/key-odorants-regulate-food-attraction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Thomas Giang, Jianzheng He, Safaa Belaidi, Henrike Scholz
In insects, the search for food is highly dependent on olfactory sensory input. Here, we investigated whether a single key odorant within an odor blend or the complexity of the odor blend influences the attraction of Drosophila melanogaster to a food source. A key odorant is defined as an odorant that elicits a difference in the behavioral response when two similar complex odor blends are offered. To validate that the observed behavioral responses were elicited by olfactory stimuli, we used olfactory co-receptor Orco mutants...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928581/a-comparative-study-of-intravenous-esmolol-labetalol-and-lignocaine-in-low-doses-for-attenuation-of-sympathomimetic-responses-to-laryngoscopy-and-endotracheal-intubation
#14
Ekta Ratnani, Om Prakash Sanjeev, Abhishek Singh, Manoj Tripathi, Hemant Kumar Chourasia
BACKGROUND: Direct layngoscopy and endotracheal intubation is a noxious stimuli and induces sympathomimetic responses. Although well tolerated in healthy subjects, it may impose life threatening arrhythmias, left ventricular failure or rupture of cerebral aneurysm in susceptible patients. Esmolol, Labetalol and Lignocaine attenuate these responses but are associated with side effects of bradycardia, hypotension etc. In lower doses, chances of these side effects are comparatively low. So we designed this prospective clinical trial to assess the efficacy of intravenous esmolol, labetalol and lignocaine in low doses for attenuation of sympathomimetic responses to endotracheal intubation...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928268/mild-acidosis-delays-neutrophil-apoptosis-via-multiple-signaling-pathways-and-acts-in-concert-with-inflammatory-mediators
#15
Driss El Kebir, Everton de Oliveira Lima Dos Santos, Soukaina Mansouri, Meriem Sekheri, János G Filep
Accumulating evidence indicates development of local extracellular acidosis in inflamed tissues in response to infection and tissue injury. Activation of infiltrating neutrophils contributes to a transient decrease in pH, which, in turn, triggers innate immunity. In this study, we investigated the impact of extracellular acidosis on neutrophil apoptosis, a critical determinant of the outcome of the inflammatory response and analyzed the underlying signaling pathways. Culture of human isolated neutrophils in mildly acidotic conditions (pH 6...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927963/effects-of-orientation-and-differential-reinforcement-on-transitive-stimulus-control
#16
Micah Amd, João H de Almeida, Júlio C de Rose, Carolina C Silveira, Henrique M Pompermaier
The emergence of transitive relations between stimuli that had never appeared together is a key process underlying concept formation. An unresolved theoretical issue with respect to transitive relations has been to determine whether differential reinforcement of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) relations though matching-to-sample, or contiguous S-S correlations/pairings, is more critical for producing transitivity. The current study inquired whether simple environmental S-S pairings, versus differential reinforcement of S-S relations, versus environmental S-S pairings with an orientation requirement, produced the greatest instances of transitivity...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927933/azopolymer-photopatterning-for-directional-control-of-angiogenesis
#17
Chiara Fedele, Maria De Gregorio, Paolo A Netti, Silvia Cavalli, Chiara Attanasio
Understanding cellular behavior in response to microenvironmental stimuli is central to tissue engineering. An increasing number of reports emphasize the high sensitivity of cells to the physical characteristics of the surrounding milieu and in particular, topographical cues. In this work, we investigated the influence of dynamic topographic signal presentation on sprout formation and the possibility to obtain a space-time control over sprouting directionality without growth factors, in order to investigate the contribution of just topography in the angiogenic process...
September 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927902/characterisation-of-a-novel-coumarin-based-fluorescent-probe-for-monitoring-nitric-oxide-production-in-macrophages
#18
Maiada M Sadek, Mina Barzegar Amiri Olia, Cameron J Nowell, Νicholas Barlow, Carl H Schiesser, Sandra E Nicholson, Raymond S Norton
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule in host defence against bacterial pathogens. The development of fluorescence imaging to monitor NO production in vitro and in vivo will increase our understanding of its biological role. Recently, a novel 'trappable' fluorescent blue 'turn-on' Cu(II)-complexed coumarin-based probe (CB) has been developed to detect NO. In this study, CB was investigated to evaluate its ability to detect NO in macrophages. Using confocal microscopy, NO was successfully detected in macrophages in the presence of stimuli that induce nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the enzyme responsible for production of NO...
September 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927640/language-experience-dependent-advantage-in-pitch-representation-in-the-auditory-cortex-is-limited-to-favorable-signal-to-noise-ratios
#19
Chandan H Suresh, Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Jackson T Gandour
Long-term experience enhances neural representation of temporal attributes of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex in favorable listening conditions. Herein we examine whether cortical pitch mechanisms shaped by language experience are more resilient to degradation in background noise, and exhibit greater binaural release from masking (BRM). Cortical pitch responses (CPR) were recorded from Mandarin- and English-speaking natives using a Mandarin word exhibiting a high rising pitch (/yi(2)/). Stimuli were presented diotically in Quiet, and in noise at +5, and 0 dB SNR...
September 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927612/facile-fabrication-of-redox-ph-dual-stimuli-responsive-cellulose-hydrogel
#20
Hongchen Liu, Liduo Rong, Bijia Wang, Ruyi Xie, Xiaofeng Sui, Hong Xu, Linping Zhang, Yi Zhong, Zhiping Mao
A cellulose-based multi-responsive hydrogel was prepared by the facile incorporation of enamine and disulfide bonds in the same system at physiological pH. The cellulose hydrogel was obtained by simply mixing aqueous solutions of cellulose acetoacetate (CAA) and cystamine dihydrochloride (CYS) at room temperature. The internal morphology, structure, and mechanical properties of the cellulose hydrogel were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and water retention, porosity, and rheology measurements...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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