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Mitral Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092620/correlation-between-peripheral-blood-cell-transcriptomic-profile-and-clinical-parameters-of-chronic-mitral-valve-disease-in-dachshunds
#1
M Garncarz, M Hulanicka, H Maciejewski, M Parzeniecka-Jaworska, M Jank
Studies identifying specific pathologically expressed genes have been performed on diseased myocardial tissue samples, however less invasive studies on gene expression of peripheral blood mononucleated cells give promising results. This study assessed transcriptomic data that may be used to evaluate Dachshunds with chronic mitral valve disease. Dachshunds with different stages of heart disease were compared to a control, healthy group. Microarray data analysis revealed clusters of patients with similar expression profiles...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069701/loss-of-axin2-results-in-impaired-heart-valve-maturation-and-subsequent-myxomatous-valve-disease
#2
Alexia Hulin, Vicky Moore, Jeanne M James, Katherine E Yutzey
AIMS: Myxomatous valve disease (MVD) is the most common aetiology of primary mitral regurgitation. Recent studies suggest that defects in heart valve development can lead to heart valve disease in adults. Wnt/β-catenin signalling is active during heart valve development and has been reported in human MVD. The consequences of increased Wnt/β-catenin signalling due to Axin2 deficiency in postnatal valve remodelling and pathogenesis of MVD were determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling, we analysed heart valves from mice deficient in Axin2 (KO), a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signalling...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057268/control-of-neuronal-development-by-t-box-genes-in-the-brain
#3
A B Mihalas, R F Hevner
T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003347/olfactory-bulb-deep-short-axon-cells-mediate-widespread-inhibition-of-tufted-cell-apical-dendrites
#4
Shawn D Burton, Greg LaRocca, Annie Liu, Claire E J Cheetham, Nathaniel N Urban
: In the main olfactory bulb (MOB), the first station of sensory processing in the olfactory system, GABAergic interneuron signaling shapes principal neuron activity to regulate olfaction. Lack of known selective markers for MOB interneurons has strongly impeded cell type-selective investigation of interneuron function, however. Here, we identify the first selective marker of glomerular layer-projecting deep short-axon cells (GL-dSACs) and systematically investigate the structure, abundance, intrinsic physiology, feedforward sensory input, neuromodulation, synaptic output, and functional role of GL-dSACs in the mouse MOB circuit...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907007/exploring-regulatory-mechanisms-of-atrial-myocyte-hypertrophy-of-mitral-regurgitation-through-gene-expression-profiling-analysis-role-of-nfat-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#5
Tzu-Hao Chang, Mien-Cheng Chen, Jen-Ping Chang, Hsien-Da Huang, Wan-Chun Ho, Yu-Sheng Lin, Kuo-Li Pan, Yao-Kuang Huang, Wen-Hao Liu, Chia-Chen Wu
BACKGROUND: Left atrial enlargement in mitral regurgitation (MR) predicts a poor prognosis. The regulatory mechanisms of atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprised 14 patients with MR, 7 patients with aortic valve disease (AVD), and 6 purchased samples from normal subjects (NC). We used microarrays, enrichment analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to study the gene expression profiles in the left atria. Microarray results showed that 112 genes were differentially up-regulated and 132 genes were differentially down-regulated in the left atria between MR patients and NC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864926/synaptic-distribution-of-individually-labeled-mitral-cells-in-the-external-plexiform-layer-of-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#6
Takeshi Matsuno, Emi Kiyokage, Kazunori Toida
Mitral cells are the major projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. They receive olfactory inputs, regulate information, and project their axons to the olfactory cortex. To better understand output regulation of mitral cells, we established a method to visualize individual projection neurons and quantitatively examined their synaptic distribution. Individual mitral cells were labeled by viral injection, 3D-reconstructed with light microscopy, and serial-sectioned for electron microscopy. Synaptic distributions were analyzed in electron microscopically reconstructed cell bodies, two regions of secondary dendrites (near the somata and ≈ 200 µm from the somata), and primary dendrites...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818786/trpm7-is-down-regulated-in-both-left-atria-and-left-ventricle-of-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy-patients-and-highly-related-to-changes-in-ventricular-function
#7
Ana Ortega, Esther Roselló-Lletí, Estefanía Tarazón, Carolina Gil-Cayuela, Francisca Lago, Jose-Ramón González-Juanatey, Luis Martinez-Dolz, Manuel Portolés, Miguel Rivera
AIMS: The kinase ion channel transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is considered a modulator of cardiac fibrosis progression; nevertheless, we lack of studies analysing its role in human ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Our objective was to analyse the expression of genes encoding cardiac ion channels in human ICM, focusing on the alterations in mRNA levels of TRPM7 and its relationship with changes in the ventricular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: RNA-sequencing was carried out in 13 left ventricular (LV) samples of patients with ICM compared with a control group (n = 10)...
September 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603780/lgl1-is-required-for-olfaction-and-development-of-olfactory-bulb-in-mice
#8
Zhenzu Li, Tingting Zhang, Zhuchun Lin, Congzhe Hou, Jian Zhang, Yuqin Men, Huashun Li, Jiangang Gao
Lethal giant larvae 1 (Lgl1) was initially identified as a tumor suppressor in Drosophila and functioned as a key regulator of epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. In this study, we generated Lgl1 conditional knockout mice mediated by Pax2-Cre, which is expressed in olfactory bulb (OB). Next, we examined the effects of Lgl1 loss in the OB. First, we determined the expression patterns of Lgl1 in the neurogenic regions of the embryonic dorsal region of the LGE (dLGE) and postnatal OB. Furthermore, the Lgl1 conditional mutants exhibited abnormal morphological characteristics of the OB...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547548/computational-fluid-dynamics-modelling-of-left-valvular-heart-diseases-during-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Stefania Scarsoglio, Andrea Saglietto, Fiorenzo Gaita, Luca Ridolfi, Matteo Anselmino
BACKGROUND: Although atrial fibrillation (AF), a common arrhythmia, frequently presents in patients with underlying valvular disease, its hemodynamic contributions are not fully understood. The present work aimed to computationally study how physical conditions imposed by pathologic valvular anatomy act on AF hemodynamics. METHODS: We simulated AF with different severity grades of left-sided valvular diseases and compared the cardiovascular effects that they exert during AF, compared to lone AF...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511004/gabab-receptors-tune-cortical-feedback-to-the-olfactory-bulb
#10
Camille Mazo, Gabriel Lepousez, Antoine Nissant, Matthew T Valley, Pierre-Marie Lledo
UNLABELLED: Sensory perception emerges from the confluence of sensory inputs that encode the composition of external environment and top-down feedback that conveys information from higher brain centers. In olfaction, sensory input activity is initially processed in the olfactory bulb (OB), serving as the first central relay before being transferred to the olfactory cortex. In addition, the OB receives dense connectivity from feedback projections, so the OB has the capacity to implement a wide array of sensory neuronal computation...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505319/circulating-mir-148b-3p-and-mir-409-3p-as-biomarkers-for-heart-failure-in-patients-with-mitral-regurgitation
#11
Mien-Cheng Chen, Tzu-Hao Chang, Jen-Ping Chang, Hsien-Da Huang, Wan-Chun Ho, Yu-Sheng Lin, Kuo-Li Pan, Wen-Hao Liu, Yao-Kuang Huang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate gene expression in heart failure. Circulating miRs as biomarkers for heart failure in mitral regurgitation patients (MR) remain unexplored. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled 32 MR patients with heart failure, 16 asymptomatic MR patients, and 12 control subjects without heart failure. We used next generation sequencing to study the gene expression profiles in the sera, and quantitative RT-PCR to study serum and tissue miRs in the left atria...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488640/a-subtype-of-olfactory-bulb-interneurons-is-required-for-odor-detection-and-discrimination-behaviors
#12
Hiroo Takahashi, Yoichi Ogawa, Sei-Ichi Yoshihara, Ryo Asahina, Masahito Kinoshita, Tatsuro Kitano, Michiko Kitsuki, Kana Tatsumi, Mamiko Okuda, Kouko Tatsumi, Akio Wanaka, Hirokazu Hirai, Peter L Stern, Akio Tsuboi
UNLABELLED: Neural circuits that undergo reorganization by newborn interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) are necessary for odor detection and discrimination, olfactory memory, and innate olfactory responses, including predator avoidance and sexual behaviors. The OB possesses many interneurons, including various types of granule cells (GCs); however, the contribution that each type of interneuron makes to olfactory behavioral control remains unknown. Here, we investigated the in vivo functional role of oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein 5T4, a regulator for dendritic arborization of 5T4-expressing GCs (5T4 GCs), the level of which is reduced in the OB of 5T4 knock-out (KO) mice...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450324/normal-human-mitral-valve-proteome-a-preliminary-investigation-by-gel-based-and-gel-free-proteomic-approaches
#13
Maura Brioschi, Roberta Baetta, Stefania Ghilardi, Erica Gianazza, Anna Guarino, Alessandro Parolari, Gianluca Polvani, Elena Tremoli, Cristina Banfi
The mitral valve is a highly complex structure which regulates blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle (LV) avoiding a significant forward gradient during diastole or regurgitation during systole. The integrity of the mitral valve is also essential for the maintenance of normal LV size, geometry, and function. Significant advances in the comprehension of the biological, functional, and mechanical behavior of the mitral valve have recently been made. However, current knowledge of protein components in the normal human mitral valve is still limited and complicated by the low cellularity of this tissue and the presence of high abundant proteins from the extracellular matrix...
October 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411840/association-of-inflammatory-lipid-and-mineral-markers-with-cardiac-calcification-in-older-adults
#14
Anna E Bortnick, Traci M Bartz, Joachim H Ix, Michel Chonchol, Alexander Reiner, Mary Cushman, David Owens, Eddy Barasch, David S Siscovick, John S Gottdiener, Jorge R Kizer
OBJECTIVE: Calcification of the aortic valve and adjacent structures involves inflammatory, lipid and mineral metabolism pathways. We hypothesised that circulating biomarkers reflecting these pathways are associated with cardiac calcification in older adults. METHODS: We investigated the associations of various biomarkers with valvular and annular calcification in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Of the 5888 participants, up to 3585 were eligible after exclusions for missing biomarker, covariate or echocardiographic data...
July 13, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335411/cell-type-specific-modulation-of-sensory-responses-in-olfactory-bulb-circuits-by-serotonergic-projections-from-the-raphe-nuclei
#15
Daniela Brunert, Yusuke Tsuno, Markus Rothermel, Michael T Shipley, Matt Wachowiak
UNLABELLED: Serotonergic neurons in the brainstem raphe nuclei densely innervate the olfactory bulb (OB), where they can modulate the initial representation and processing of olfactory information. Serotonergic modulation of sensory responses among defined OB cell types is poorly characterized in vivo Here, we used cell-type-specific expression of optical reporters to visualize how raphe stimulation alters sensory responses in two classes of GABAergic neurons of the mouse OB glomerular layer, periglomerular (PG) and short axon (SA) cells, as well as mitral/tufted (MT) cells carrying OB output to piriform cortex...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283399/osteopontin-is-elevated-in-patients-with-mitral-annulus-calcification-independent-from-classic-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#16
Michael Sponder, Christian Reuter, Monika Fritzer-Szekeres, Brigitte Litschauer, Thomas Binder, Jeanette Strametz-Juranek
BACKGROUND: Osteopontin (OPN) regulates the Ca(++)-deposition in bone and coronary arteries. Elevated OPN were also associated with (aortic) valve calcification in healthy individuals. This study aimed to investigate the association between OPN levels and mitral annulus calcification (MAC) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study OPN-levels were measured in 223 non-or ex-smoking patients (160 male, mean age: 61,09 ± 11,02 years; 63 female: mean age: 67,49 ± 7,87 years) with CAD...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250500/deciphering-the-gene-expression-profile-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-signaling-pathway-in-the-left-atria-of-patients-with-mitral-regurgitation
#17
Mien-Cheng Chen, Jen-Ping Chang, Yu-Sheng Lin, Kuo-Li Pan, Wan-Chun Ho, Wen-Hao Liu, Tzu-Hao Chang, Yao-Kuang Huang, Chih-Yuan Fang, Chien-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Differentially expressed genes in the left atria of mitral regurgitation (MR) pigs have been linked to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway in the KEGG pathway. However, specific genes of the PPAR signaling pathway in the left atria of MR patients have never been explored. METHODS: This study enrolled 15 MR patients with heart failure, 7 patients with aortic valve disease and heart failure, and 6 normal controls. We used PCR assay (84 genes) for PPAR pathway and quantitative RT-PCR to study specific genes of the PPAR pathway in the left atria...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242550/mitochondrial-ultrastructure-and-glucose-signaling-pathways-attributed-to-the-kv1-3-ion-channel
#18
Christopher P Kovach, Dolly Al Koborssy, Zhenbo Huang, Brandon M Chelette, James M Fadool, Debra A Fadool
Gene-targeted deletion of the potassium channel Kv1.3 (Kv1.3(-∕-)) results in "Super-smeller" mice with a sensory phenotype that includes an increased olfactory ability linked to changes in olfactory circuitry, increased abundance of olfactory cilia, and increased expression of odorant receptors and the G-protein, Golf. Kv1.3(-∕-) mice also have a metabolic phenotype including lower body weight and decreased adiposity, increased total energy expenditure (TEE), increased locomotor activity, and resistance to both diet- and genetic-induced obesity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121676/mglur6b-egfp-transgenic-zebrafish-suggest-novel-functions-of-metabotropic-glutamate-signaling-in-retina-and-other-brain-regions
#19
Stella M K Glasauer, Robert Wäger, Matthias Gesemann, Stephan C F Neuhauss
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are mainly known for regulating excitability of neurons. However, mGluR6 at the photoreceptor-ON bipolar cell synapse mediates sign inversion through glutamatergic inhibition. Although this is currently the only confirmed function of mGluR6, other functions have been suggested. Here we present Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1, a new transgenic zebrafish line recapitulating endogenous expression of one of the two mglur6 paralogs in zebrafish. Investigating transgene as well as endogenous mglur6b expression within the zebrafish retina indicates that EGFP and mglur6b mRNA are not only expressed in bipolar cells, but also in a subset of ganglion and amacrine cells...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121582/granule-cell-excitability-regulates-gamma-and-beta-oscillations-in-a-model-of-the-olfactory-bulb-dendrodendritic-microcircuit
#20
Bolesław L Osinski, Leslie M Kay
Odors evoke gamma (40-100 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) oscillations in the local field potential (LFP) of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB). Gamma (and possibly beta) oscillations arise from interactions in the dendrodendritic microcircuit between excitatory mitral cells (MCs) and inhibitory granule cells (GCs). When cortical descending inputs to the OB are blocked, beta oscillations are extinguished whereas gamma oscillations become larger. Much of this centrifugal input targets inhibitory interneurons in the GC layer and regulates the excitability of GCs, which suggests a causal link between the emergence of beta oscillations and GC excitability...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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