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Mitral Regulation

Zhenzu Li, Tingting Zhang, Zhuchun Lin, Congzhe Hou, Jian Zhang, Yuqin Men, Huashun Li, Jiangang Gao
Lethal giant larvae 1 (Lgl1) was initially identified as a tumor suppressor in Drosophila and functioned as a key regulator of epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. In this study, we generated Lgl1 conditional knockout mice mediated by Pax2-Cre, which is expressed in olfactory bulb (OB). Next, we examined the effects of Lgl1 loss in the OB. First, we determined the expression patterns of Lgl1 in the neurogenic regions of the embryonic dorsal region of the LGE (dLGE) and postnatal OB. Furthermore, the Lgl1 conditional mutants exhibited abnormal morphological characteristics of the OB...
2016: PloS One
Stefania Scarsoglio, Andrea Saglietto, Fiorenzo Gaita, Luca Ridolfi, Matteo Anselmino
BACKGROUND: Although atrial fibrillation (AF), a common arrhythmia, frequently presents in patients with underlying valvular disease, its hemodynamic contributions are not fully understood. The present work aimed to computationally study how physical conditions imposed by pathologic valvular anatomy act on AF hemodynamics. METHODS: We simulated AF with different severity grades of left-sided valvular diseases and compared the cardiovascular effects that they exert during AF, compared to lone AF...
2016: PeerJ
Camille Mazo, Gabriel Lepousez, Antoine Nissant, Matthew T Valley, Pierre-Marie Lledo
UNLABELLED: Sensory perception emerges from the confluence of sensory inputs that encode the composition of external environment and top-down feedback that conveys information from higher brain centers. In olfaction, sensory input activity is initially processed in the olfactory bulb (OB), serving as the first central relay before being transferred to the olfactory cortex. In addition, the OB receives dense connectivity from feedback projections, so the OB has the capacity to implement a wide array of sensory neuronal computation...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mien-Cheng Chen, Tzu-Hao Chang, Jen-Ping Chang, Hsien-Da Huang, Wan-Chun Ho, Yu-Sheng Lin, Kuo-Li Pan, Wen-Hao Liu, Yao-Kuang Huang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate gene expression in heart failure. Circulating miRs as biomarkers for heart failure in mitral regurgitation patients (MR) remain unexplored. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled 32 MR patients with heart failure, 16 asymptomatic MR patients, and 12 control subjects without heart failure. We used next generation sequencing to study the gene expression profiles in the sera, and quantitative RT-PCR to study serum and tissue miRs in the left atria...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Hiroo Takahashi, Yoichi Ogawa, Sei-Ichi Yoshihara, Ryo Asahina, Masahito Kinoshita, Tatsuro Kitano, Michiko Kitsuki, Kana Tatsumi, Mamiko Okuda, Kouko Tatsumi, Akio Wanaka, Hirokazu Hirai, Peter L Stern, Akio Tsuboi
UNLABELLED: Neural circuits that undergo reorganization by newborn interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) are necessary for odor detection and discrimination, olfactory memory, and innate olfactory responses, including predator avoidance and sexual behaviors. The OB possesses many interneurons, including various types of granule cells (GCs); however, the contribution that each type of interneuron makes to olfactory behavioral control remains unknown. Here, we investigated the in vivo functional role of oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein 5T4, a regulator for dendritic arborization of 5T4-expressing GCs (5T4 GCs), the level of which is reduced in the OB of 5T4 knock-out (KO) mice...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Maura Brioschi, Roberta Baetta, Stefania Ghilardi, Erica Gianazza, Anna Guarino, Alessandro Parolari, Gianluca Polvani, Elena Tremoli, Cristina Banfi
The mitral valve is a highly complex structure which regulates blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle (LV) avoiding a significant forward gradient during diastole or regurgitation during systole. The integrity of the mitral valve is also essential for the maintenance of normal LV size, geometry, and function. Significant advances in the comprehension of the biological, functional, and mechanical behavior of the mitral valve have recently been made. However, current knowledge of protein components in the normal human mitral valve is still limited and complicated by the low cellularity of this tissue and the presence of high abundant proteins from the extracellular matrix...
October 2016: Electrophoresis
Anna E Bortnick, Traci M Bartz, Joachim H Ix, Michel Chonchol, Alexander Reiner, Mary Cushman, David Owens, Eddy Barasch, David S Siscovick, John S Gottdiener, Jorge R Kizer
OBJECTIVE: Calcification of the aortic valve and adjacent structures involves inflammatory, lipid and mineral metabolism pathways. We hypothesised that circulating biomarkers reflecting these pathways are associated with cardiac calcification in older adults. METHODS: We investigated the associations of various biomarkers with valvular and annular calcification in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Of the 5888 participants, up to 3585 were eligible after exclusions for missing biomarker, covariate or echocardiographic data...
July 13, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Daniela Brunert, Yusuke Tsuno, Markus Rothermel, Michael T Shipley, Matt Wachowiak
UNLABELLED: Serotonergic neurons in the brainstem raphe nuclei densely innervate the olfactory bulb (OB), where they can modulate the initial representation and processing of olfactory information. Serotonergic modulation of sensory responses among defined OB cell types is poorly characterized in vivo Here, we used cell-type-specific expression of optical reporters to visualize how raphe stimulation alters sensory responses in two classes of GABAergic neurons of the mouse OB glomerular layer, periglomerular (PG) and short axon (SA) cells, as well as mitral/tufted (MT) cells carrying OB output to piriform cortex...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Michael Sponder, Christian Reuter, Monika Fritzer-Szekeres, Brigitte Litschauer, Thomas Binder, Jeanette Strametz-Juranek
BACKGROUND: Osteopontin (OPN) regulates the Ca(++)-deposition in bone and coronary arteries. Elevated OPN were also associated with (aortic) valve calcification in healthy individuals. This study aimed to investigate the association between OPN levels and mitral annulus calcification (MAC) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study OPN-levels were measured in 223 non-or ex-smoking patients (160 male, mean age: 61,09 ± 11,02 years; 63 female: mean age: 67,49 ± 7,87 years) with CAD...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Mien-Cheng Chen, Jen-Ping Chang, Yu-Sheng Lin, Kuo-Li Pan, Wan-Chun Ho, Wen-Hao Liu, Tzu-Hao Chang, Yao-Kuang Huang, Chih-Yuan Fang, Chien-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Differentially expressed genes in the left atria of mitral regurgitation (MR) pigs have been linked to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway in the KEGG pathway. However, specific genes of the PPAR signaling pathway in the left atria of MR patients have never been explored. METHODS: This study enrolled 15 MR patients with heart failure, 7 patients with aortic valve disease and heart failure, and 6 normal controls. We used PCR assay (84 genes) for PPAR pathway and quantitative RT-PCR to study specific genes of the PPAR pathway in the left atria...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Christopher P Kovach, Dolly Al Koborssy, Zhenbo Huang, Brandon M Chelette, James M Fadool, Debra A Fadool
Gene-targeted deletion of the potassium channel Kv1.3 (Kv1.3(-∕-)) results in "Super-smeller" mice with a sensory phenotype that includes an increased olfactory ability linked to changes in olfactory circuitry, increased abundance of olfactory cilia, and increased expression of odorant receptors and the G-protein, Golf. Kv1.3(-∕-) mice also have a metabolic phenotype including lower body weight and decreased adiposity, increased total energy expenditure (TEE), increased locomotor activity, and resistance to both diet- and genetic-induced obesity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Stella M K Glasauer, Robert Wäger, Matthias Gesemann, Stephan C F Neuhauss
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are mainly known for regulating excitability of neurons. However, mGluR6 at the photoreceptor-ON bipolar cell synapse mediates sign inversion through glutamatergic inhibition. Although this is currently the only confirmed function of mGluR6, other functions have been suggested. Here we present Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1, a new transgenic zebrafish line recapitulating endogenous expression of one of the two mglur6 paralogs in zebrafish. Investigating transgene as well as endogenous mglur6b expression within the zebrafish retina indicates that EGFP and mglur6b mRNA are not only expressed in bipolar cells, but also in a subset of ganglion and amacrine cells...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Bolesław L Osinski, Leslie M Kay
Odors evoke gamma (40-100 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) oscillations in the local field potential (LFP) of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB). Gamma (and possibly beta) oscillations arise from interactions in the dendrodendritic microcircuit between excitatory mitral cells (MCs) and inhibitory granule cells (GCs). When cortical descending inputs to the OB are blocked, beta oscillations are extinguished whereas gamma oscillations become larger. Much of this centrifugal input targets inhibitory interneurons in the GC layer and regulates the excitability of GCs, which suggests a causal link between the emergence of beta oscillations and GC excitability...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Y I Zeng, Rongrong Sun, Xianchi Li, Min Liu, Shuang Chen, Peiying Zhang
Valvular heart disease (VHD) is caused by either damage or defect in one of the four heart valves, aortic, mitral, tricuspid or pulmonary. Defects in these valves can be congenital or acquired. Age, gender, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and type II diabetes contribute to the risk of disease. VHD is an escalating health issue with a prevalence of 2.5% in the United States alone. Considering the likely increase of the aging population worldwide, the incidence of acquired VHD is expected to increase...
April 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Anna C Salzberg, Mingfeng Li, Nenad Šestan, Charles A Greer, Fumiaki Imamura
Transmission of olfactory information to higher brain regions is mediated by olfactory bulb (OB) projection neurons, the mitral and tufted cells. Although mitral/tufted cells are often characterized as the OB counterpart of cortical projection neurons (also known as pyramidal neurons), they possess several unique morphological characteristics and project specifically to the olfactory cortices. Moreover, the molecular networks contributing to the generation of mitral/tufted cells during development are largely unknown...
July 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Rafael Pineda, Fabrice Plaisier, Robert P Millar, Mike Ludwig
Kisspeptins and their receptors are potent regulators of the gonadotropic axis. Kisspeptin neurons are found mainly in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. However, there is also a third population of kisspeptin neurons located in the amygdala. We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry to quantify and localize the amygdala kisspeptin neurons and to reveal close apposition and putative innervations by vasopressinergic and tyrosine hydroxylase positive dopaminergic neurons...
April 8, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Maria Shishikura, Fumio Nakamura, Naoya Yamashita, Noriko Uetani, Yoichiro Iwakura, Yoshio Goshima
Protein tyrosine phosphate δ (PTPδ), one of the receptor type IIa protein tyrosine phosphates, is known for its roles in axon guidance, synapse formation, cell adhesion, and tumor suppression. Alternative splicing of this gene generates at least four (A-D) isoforms; however, the major isoform in vivo is yet to be determined. The protein localization has neither been revealed. We have generated anti-mouse PTPδ-specific monoclonal antibody and analyzed the protein expression in wild-type and Ptpδ knockout mice...
March 26, 2016: Brain Research
Alexa B R McIntyre, Thomas A Cleland
The mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) constitute one of two populations of principal neurons (along with middle/deep tufted cells) that integrate afferent olfactory information with top-down inputs and intrinsic learning and deliver output to downstream olfactory areas. MC activity is regulated in part by inhibition from granule cells, which form reciprocal synapses with MCs along the extents of their lateral dendrites. However, with MC lateral dendrites reaching over 1.5 mm in length in rats, the roles of distal inhibitory synapses pose a quandary...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Nicolas Thiebaud, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Fiona Gribble, Frank Reimann, Stefan Trapp, Debra Ann Fadool
KEY POINTS: The gut hormone called glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a strong moderator of energy homeostasis and communication between the peripheral organs and the brain. GLP-1 signalling occurs in the brain; using a newly developed genetic reporter line of mice, we have discovered GLP-synthesizing cells in the olfactory bulb. GLP-1 increases the firing frequency of neurons (mitral cells) that encode olfactory information by decreasing activity of voltage-dependent K channels (Kv1...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Russell A Gould, Huseyin C Yalcin, Joanna L MacKay, Kimberly Sauls, Russell Norris, Sanjay Kumar, Jonathan T Butcher
During valvulogenesis, globular endocardial cushions elongate and remodel into highly organized thin fibrous leaflets. Proper regulation of this dynamic process is essential to maintain unidirectional blood flow as the embryonic heart matures. In this study, we tested how mechanosensitive small GTPases, RhoA and Rac1, coordinate atrioventricular valve (AV) differentiation and morphogenesis. RhoA activity and its regulated GTPase-activating protein FilGAP are elevated during early cushion formation but decreased considerably during valve remodeling...
January 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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