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Mitral Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911171/amygdala-corticofugal-input-shapes-mitral-cell-responses-in-the-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#1
Livio Oboti, Eleonora Russo, Tuyen Tran, Daniel Durstewitz, Joshua G Corbin
Interconnections between the olfactory bulb and the amygdala are a major pathway for triggering strong behavioral responses to a variety of odorants. However, while this broad mapping has been established, the patterns of amygdala feedback connectivity and the influence on olfactory circuitry remain unknown. Here, using a combination of neuronal tracing approaches, we dissect the connectivity of a cortical amygdala [posteromedial cortical nucleus (PmCo)] feedback circuit innervating the mouse accessory olfactory bulb...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847235/pharmacological-manipulation-of-the-olfactory-bulb-modulates-beta-oscillations-testing-model-predictions
#2
Boleslaw Leszek Osinski, Alex Kim, Wenxi Xiao, Nisarg M Mehta, Leslie M Kay
The mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) generates gamma (40 - 100 Hz) and beta (15 - 30 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations. Gamma oscillations arise at the peak of inhalation supported by dendrodendritic interactions between glutamatergic mitral cells (MCs) and GABAergic granule cells (GCs). Beta oscillations are induced by odorants in learning or odor sensitization paradigms, but their mechanism and function are still poorly understood. When centrifugal OB inputs are blocked, beta oscillations disappear, but gamma oscillations persist...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845448/ghrelin-containing-neurons-in-the-olfactory-bulb-send-collateralized-projections-into-medial-amygdaloid-and-arcuate-hypothalamic-nuclei-neuroanatomical-study
#3
Cristina Russo, Antonella Russo, Rosalia Pellitteri, Stefania Stanzani
Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal hormone, is a modulator of the sense of smell. The main source of ghrelin in the central nervous system has been mainly observed in specific populations of hypothalamic neurons. An increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and its effect on neurons outside the hypothalamus. Ghrelin and its receptors are expressed in the olfactory bulbs and in other centres of the brain, such as the amygdala, for processing olfactory signals, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex and the dorsal vagal complex of the medulla oblongata...
May 29, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724595/effect-of-tricuspid-annuloplasty-concomitant-with-left-heart-surgery-on-right-heart-geometry-and-function
#4
Tomoki Sakata, Kenji Mogi, Manabu Sakurai, Anan Nomura, Masahiko Fujii, Daisuke Kaneyuki, Goro Matsumiya, Yoshiharu Takahara
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the effect of tricuspid annuloplasty concomitant with left-sided valve surgery on the right heart in patients with mild or more tricuspid regurgitation (TR). METHODS: We enrolled 78 patients with mild or more TR who underwent left-sided valve surgery. Forty-three patients underwent only left-sided valve surgery (group non-T) and 35 underwent concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty (group T). Echocardiographic changes between the preoperative and 1-year follow-up periods were compared...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716946/cell-autonomous-role-of-gfr%C3%AE-1-in-the-development-of-olfactory-bulb-gabaergic-interneurons
#5
Sabrina Zechel, Diana Fernandez-Suarez, Carlos F Ibáñez
GFRα1, a receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), is critical for the development of the main olfactory system. The olfactory bulb (OB) of Gfra1 knock-out mice shows significant reductions in the number of olfactory sensory neurons, mitral and tufted cells, as well as all major classes of OB GABAergic interneurons. However, the latter do not express significant levels of GFRα1, leaving the mechanism of action of GFRα1 in OB interneuron development unexplained. Here we report that GFRα1 is highly expressed in the precursor cells that give rise to all major classes of OB interneurons, but is downregulated as these neurons mature...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694513/mir-27a-protects-human-mitral-valve-interstitial-cell-from-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-injury-via-up-regulation-of-nell-1
#6
Honglei Chen, Zhixu Zhang, Li Zhang, Junzhi Wang, Minghui Zhang, Bin Zhu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be associated with heart valve disease, which can be caused by inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the functional impacts of miR-27a on TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury in human mitral valve interstitial cells (hMVICs). hMVICs were subjected to 40 ng/mL TNF-α for 48 h, before which the expressions of miR-27a and NELL-1 in hMVICs were altered by stable transfection. Trypan blue staining, BrdU incorporation assay, flow cytometry detection, ELISA, and western blot assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663512/specific-biomarkers-of-myocardial-inflammation-and-remodeling-processes-as-predictors-of-mortality-in-high-risk-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-mitral-valve-repair-mitraclip
#7
Oliver Dörr, Claudia Walther, Christoph Liebetrau, Till Keller, Hannes Tabert, Niklas Boeder, Matthias Bayer, Pascal Bauer, Helge Möllmann, Luise Gaede, Christian Troidl, Sandra Voss, Timm Bauer, Christian W Hamm, Holger Nef
BACKGROUND: Specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and inflammatory biomarkers (hsCRP, IL-6) were found to be consistently up-regulated in severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR) and are associated with mortality in heart failure patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic value of biomarkers of cardiac inflammation and remodeling processes in predicting mortality in patients with MR undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR). HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that increased cardiac inflammation and extracellular matrix turnover is predictive for mortality in patients with severe mitral regurgitation undergoing MitraClip...
April 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616461/management-of-systolic-anterior-motion-of-the-mitral-valve-a-mechanism-based-approach
#8
REVIEW
Susumu Manabe, Hitoshi Kasegawa, Hirokuni Arai, Shuichiro Takanashi
Although the mechanism of systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve is unknown, it is known to have a multifactorial pathophysiology. Echocardiographic analysis of the mitral leaflet revealed the step-wise progression of SAM, and intraventricular flow analysis revealed the contribution of drag force generated by the misled flow below the posterior leaflet. Although several diverse clinical features of SAM are already known, some key features need to be abstracted from among them to understand the regulation of SAM establishment...
April 3, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574918/ginsenoside-rb1-inhibits-autophagy-through-regulation-of-rho-rock-and-pi3k-mtor-pathways-in-a-pressure-overload-heart-failure-rat-model
#9
Tianrui Yang, Yunbo Miao, Tong Zhang, Ninghui Mu, Libo Ruan, Jinlan Duan, Ying Zhu, Rongping Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to explore the relationship between ginsenoside Rb1 (Grb1) and high-load heart failure (HF) in rats. METHODS: The parameters of cardiac systolic function (left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (LVID), fraction shortening (FS) and mitral valves (MVs)) of rat hearts in each group were inspected by echocardiogram. The expressions of rat myocardial contractile proteins, autophagy-related proteins and the activation of Rho/ROCK and PI3K/mTOR pathways were detected by Western blot...
June 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551963/cannabinoid-receptors-modulate-excitation-of-an-olfactory-bulb-local-circuit-by-cortical-feedback
#10
Frederic Pouille, Nathan E Schoppa
Recent studies have provided evidence that corticofugal feedback (CFF) from the olfactory cortex to the olfactory bulb (OB) can significantly impact the state of excitation of output mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) and also modulate neural synchrony. Interpreting these effects however has been complicated by the large number of cell targets of CFF axons in the bulb. Within the granule cell layer (GCL) alone, CFF axons target both GABAergic granule cells (GCs) as well as GABAergic deep short-axon cells (dSACs) that inhibit GCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530068/deregulated-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-marfan-syndrome
#11
Masood Abu-Halima, Mustafa Kahraman, Dominic Henn, Tanja Rädle-Hurst, Andreas Keller, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq, Eckart Meese
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. While acquired changes of miRNA and mRNA profiles in cancer have been extensively studied, little is known about expression changes of circulating miRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNA) in monogenic constitutional anomalies affecting several organ systems, like Marfan syndrome (MFS). We performed integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiling in blood samples of Marfan patients in order to investigate deregulated miRNA and mRNA networks in these patients which could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools for MFS therapy...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529527/mechano-electric-finite-element-model-of-the-left-atrium
#12
Alessandro Satriano, Edward J Vigmond, David S Schwartzman, Elena S Di Martino
Mechanical stretch plays a major role in modulating atrial function, being responsible for beat-by-beat responses to changes in chamber preload, enabling a prompt regulation of cardiac function. Mechano-electric coupling (MEC) operates through many mechanisms and has many targets, making it experimentally difficult to isolate causes and effects especially under sinus conditions where effects are more transient and subtle. Therefore, modelling is a powerful tool to help understand the role of MEC with respect to the atrial electromechanical interaction...
May 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489453/opposite-regulation-of-inhibition-by-adult-born-granule-cells-during-implicit-versus-explicit-olfactory-learning
#13
Nathalie Mandairon, Nicola Kuczewski, Florence Kermen, Jérémy Forest, Maellie Midroit, Marion Richard, Marc Thevenet, Joelle Sacquet, Christiane Linster, Anne Didier
Both passive exposure and active learning through reinforcement enhance fine sensory discrimination abilities. In the olfactory system, this enhancement is thought to occur partially through the integration of adult-born inhibitory interneurons resulting in a refinement of the representation of overlapping odorants. Here, we identify in mice a novel and unexpected dissociation between passive and active learning at the level of adult-born granule cells. Specifically, while both passive and active learning processes augment neurogenesis, adult-born cells differ in their morphology, functional coupling and thus their impact on olfactory bulb output...
February 28, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282097/the-correlation-between-the-coaptation-height-of-mitral-valve-and-mitral-regurgitation-after-mitral-valve-repair
#14
Dan Wei, Jie Han, Haibo Zhang, Yan Li, Chunlei Xu, Xu Meng
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between the coaptation height of mitral valve and mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair. METHODS: From Sep 2014 to Jun 2015, 20 patients underwent mitral valve valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation were included. Ring annuloplasty was performed in all cases. Mitral valve short-axis dimension (MVd), coaptation height (CH), Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured by the transesophageal echocardiography before the operation in operation room and 3 months and 12 months after the operation by the transthoracic echocardiography...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251592/the-role-of-microglia-and-their-cx3cr1-signaling-in-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#15
Ronen Reshef, Elena Kudryavitskaya, Haran Shani-Narkiss, Batya Isaacson, Neta Rimmerman, Adi Mizrahi, Raz Yirmiya
Microglia play important roles in perinatal neuro- and synapto-genesis. To test the role of microglia in these processes during adulthood, we examined the effects of microglia depletion, via treatment of mice with the CSF-1 receptor antagonist PLX5622, and abrogated neuronal-microglial communication in CX3C receptor-1 deficient ( Cx3cr1-/- ) mice. Microglia depletion significantly lowered spine density in young (developing) but not mature adult-born-granule-cells (abGCs) in the olfactory bulb. Two-photon time-lapse imaging indicated that microglia depletion reduced spine formation and elimination...
December 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248417/altered-adamts5-expression-and-versican-proteolysis-a-possible-molecular-mechanism-in-barlow-s-disease
#16
Tarek S Absi, Cristi L Galindo, Richard J Gumina, James Atkinson, Yan Guo, Kelsey Tomasek, Douglas B Sawyer, John G Byrne, Clayton A Kaiser, Ashish S Shah, Yan Ru Su, Michael Petracek
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that gene expression profiles of mitral valve (MV) leaflets from patients with Barlow's disease (BD) are distinct from those with fibroelastic deficiency (FED). METHODS: MVs were obtained from patients with BD (7 men, 3 women; 61.4 ± 12.7 years old) or FED (6 men, 5 women; 54.5 ± 6.0 years old) undergoing operations for severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Normal MVs were obtained from 6 donor hearts unmatched for transplant (3 men, 3 women; 58...
April 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226549/fasting-induces-astroglial-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-glomeruli-of-rats
#17
Virginie Daumas-Meyer, Gaëlle Champeil-Potokar, Catherine Chaumontet, Patrice Dahirel, Catherine Papillon, Patrice Congar, Isabelle Denis
The detection of food odors by the olfactory system, which plays a key role in regulating food intake and elaborating the hedonic value of food, is reciprocally influenced by the metabolic state. Fasting increases olfactory performance, notably by increasing the activity of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons. The glutamatergic synapses between olfactory sensory neurons and mitral cells in the OB glomeruli are regulated by astrocytes, periglomerular neurons, and centrifugal afferents. We compared the expansion of astroglial processes by quantifying GFAP-labeled areas in fed and fasted rats to see whether OB glomerular astrocytes are involved in the metabolic sensing and adaptation of the olfactory system...
April 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098879/regulation-of-circulating-chromogranin-b-levels-in-heart-failure
#18
Felix M Heidrich, Carolin Melz, Mimi S Buechau, Christian Pfluecke, Silvio Quick, Uwe Speiser, David M Poitz, Antje Augstein, Tobias Ruf, Nadine K Wässnig, Akram Youssef, Ruth H Strasser, Stephan Wiedemann
BACKGROUND: Chromogranin B (CGB) regulates B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) production. Circulating CGB levels are elevated in heart failure (HF) animal models and HF patients, but also increase in healthy individuals in response to physical activity. Therefore, CGB seems to integrate information from myocardial stress and systemic neuro-endocrine activation. Substantial gaps remain in our understanding of CGB regulation in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective registry study including 372 patients...
February 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066553/stimulation-of-the-locus-ceruleus-modulates-signal-to-noise-ratio-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#19
Laura C Manella, Nicholas Petersen, Christiane Linster
Norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to influence sensory, and specifically olfactory processing at the behavioral and physiological levels, potentially by regulating signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The present study is the first to look at NE modulation of olfactory bulb (OB) in regards to S/N in vivo We show, in male rats, that locus ceruleus stimulation and pharmacological infusions of NE into the OB modulate both spontaneous and odor-evoked neural responses. NE in the OB generated a non-monotonic dose-response relationship, suppressing mitral cell activity at high and low, but not intermediate, NE levels...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046338/regulation-of-valve-interstitial-cell-homeostasis-by-mechanical-deformation-implications-for-heart-valve-disease-and-surgical-repair
#20
Salma Ayoub, Chung-Hao Lee, Kathryn H Driesbaugh, Wanda Anselmo, Connor T Hughes, Giovanni Ferrari, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Michael S Sacks
Mechanical stress is one of the major aetiological factors underlying soft-tissue remodelling, especially for the mitral valve (MV). It has been hypothesized that altered MV tissue stress states lead to deviations from cellular homeostasis, resulting in subsequent cellular activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. However, a quantitative link between alterations in the organ-level in vivo state and in vitro- based mechanobiology studies has yet to be made. We thus developed an integrated experimental-computational approach to elucidate MV tissue and interstitial cell responses to varying tissue strain levels...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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