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Mitral Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226549/fasting-induces-astroglial-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-glomeruli-of-rats
#1
Virginie Daumas-Meyer, Gaëlle Champeil-Potokar, Catherine Chaumontet, Patrice Dahirel, Catherine Papillon, Patrice Congar, Isabelle Denis
The detection of food odors by the olfactory system, which plays a key role in regulating food intake and elaborating the hedonic value of food, is reciprocally influenced by the metabolic state. Fasting increases olfactory performance, notably by increasing the activity of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons. The glutamatergic synapses between olfactory sensory neurons and mitral cells in the OB glomeruli are regulated by astrocytes, periglomerular neurons, and centrifugal afferents. We compared the expansion of astroglial processes by quantifying GFAP-labeled areas in fed and fasted rats to see whether OB glomerular astrocytes are involved in the metabolic sensing and adaptation of the olfactory system...
December 11, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098879/regulation-of-circulating-chromogranin-b-levels-in-heart-failure
#2
Felix M Heidrich, Carolin Melz, Mimi S Buechau, Christian Pfluecke, Silvio Quick, Uwe Speiser, David M Poitz, Antje Augstein, Tobias Ruf, Nadine K Wäßnig, Akram Youssef, Ruth H Strasser, Stephan Wiedemann
BACKGROUND: Chromogranin B (CGB) regulates B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) production. Circulating CGB levels are elevated in heart failure (HF) animal models and HF patients, but also increase in healthy individuals in response to physical activity. Therefore, CGB seems to integrate information from myocardial stress and systemic neuro-endocrine activation. Substantial gaps remain in our understanding of CGB regulation in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective registry study including 372 patients...
November 3, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066553/stimulation-of-the-locus-coeruleus-modulates-signal-to-noise-ratio-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#3
Laura C Manella, Nicholas Petersen, Christiane Linster
Norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to influence sensory, and specifically olfactory processing at the behavioral and physiological levels, potentially by regulating the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The present study is the first to look at NE modulation of olfactory bulb (OB) in regards to S/N in vivo We show, in male rats, that locus coeruleus (LC) stimulation and pharmacological infusions of NE into the OB modulate both spontaneous and odor evoked neural responses. NE in the OB generated a non-monotonic dose-response relationship, suppressing mitral cell activity at high and low, but not intermediate, NE levels...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046338/regulation-of-valve-interstitial-cell-homeostasis-by-mechanical-deformation-implications-for-heart-valve-disease-and-surgical-repair
#4
Salma Ayoub, Chung-Hao Lee, Kathryn H Driesbaugh, Wanda Anselmo, Connor T Hughes, Giovanni Ferrari, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Michael S Sacks
Mechanical stress is one of the major aetiological factors underlying soft-tissue remodelling, especially for the mitral valve (MV). It has been hypothesized that altered MV tissue stress states lead to deviations from cellular homeostasis, resulting in subsequent cellular activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. However, a quantitative link between alterations in the organ-level in vivo state and in vitro-based mechanobiology studies has yet to be made. We thus developed an integrated experimental-computational approach to elucidate MV tissue and interstitial cell responses to varying tissue strain levels...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969979/inverse-association-between-myocardial-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-release-and-functional-capacity-in-healthy-humans
#5
Micha T Maeder, Bruce R Thompson, David M Kaye
BACKGROUND: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been found to be inversely related to peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) in various patient populations. However, in these studies, circulating plasma BNP, i.e. the net effect of release and elimination, rather than cardiac BNP release has been measured. We assessed the relationship between the transcardiac BNP gradient [ΔBNPCS-A, i.e. the difference between BNP in coronary sinus (BNPCS) and arterial (BNPA) plasma] and peak VO2 in healthy subjects with a view to better understanding the regulation of cardiac BNP release in humans...
September 12, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860555/chloride-channels-are-involved-in-the-development-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-study
#6
Yi-Yao Jiang, Hai-Tao Hou, Qin Yang, Xiao-Cheng Liu, Guo-Wei He
Electrical and structural remodeling processes are contributors to the self-perpetuating nature of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, their correlation has not been clarified. In this study, human atrial tissues from the patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease in either sinus rhythm or persistent AF were analyzed using a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach. An up-regulation in chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) 1, 4, 5 and a rise in type IV collagen were revealed. Combined with the results from immunohistochemistry and electron microscope analysis, the distribution of type IV collagen and effects of fibrosis on myocyte membrane indicated the possible interaction between CLIC and type IV collagen, confirmed by protein structure prediction and co-immunoprecipitation...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859786/effect-of-losartan-on-mitral-valve-changes-after-myocardial-infarction
#7
Philipp E Bartko, Jacob P Dal-Bianco, J Luis Guerrero, Jonathan Beaudoin, Catherine Szymanski, Dae-Hee Kim, Margo M Seybolt, Mark D Handschumacher, Suzanne Sullivan, Michael L Garcia, James S Titus, Jill Wylie-Sears, Whitney S Irvin, Emmanuel Messas, Albert A Hagège, Alain Carpentier, Elena Aikawa, Joyce Bischoff, Robert A Levine
BACKGROUND: After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that profibrotic MV changes post-MI are therapeutically accessible, specifically by losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791713/distinct-temporal-filters-in-mitral-cells-and-external-tufted-cells-of-the-olfactory-bulb
#8
Christopher E Vaaga, Gary L Westbrook
KEY POINTS: The release probability of the odorant receptor neuron (ORN) is reportedly one of the highest in the brain and is predicted to impose a transient temporal filter on postsynaptic cells. Mitral cells responded to high frequency ORN stimulation with sustained transmission, whereas external tufted cells responded transiently. The release probability of ORNs (0.7) was equivalent across mitral and external tufted cells and could be explained by a single pool of slowly recycling vesicles...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731029/nrp2-is-sufficient-to-instruct-circuit-formation-of-mitral-cells-to-mediate-odour-induced-attractive-social-responses
#9
Kasumi Inokuchi, Fumiaki Imamura, Haruki Takeuchi, Ryang Kim, Hiroyuki Okuno, Hirofumi Nishizumi, Haruhiko Bito, Takefumi Kikusui, Hitoshi Sakano
Odour information induces various innate responses that are critical to the survival of the individual and for the species. An axon guidance molecule, Neuropilin 2 (Nrp2), is known to mediate targeting of olfactory sensory neurons (primary neurons), to the posteroventral main olfactory bulb (PV MOB) in mice. Here we report that Nrp2-positive (Nrp2(+)) mitral cells (MCs, second-order neurons) play crucial roles in transmitting attractive social signals from the PV MOB to the anterior part of medial amygdala (MeA)...
July 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724776/inhibitory-circuits-of-the-mammalian-main-olfactory-bulb
#10
REVIEW
Shawn D Burton
Synaptic inhibition critically influences sensory processing throughout the mammalian brain, including the main olfactory bulb (MOB), the first station of sensory processing in the olfactory system. Decades of research across numerous laboratories have established a central role for granule cells (GCs), the most abundant GABAergic interneuron type in the MOB, in the precise regulation of principal mitral and tufted cell (M/TC) firing rates and synchrony through lateral and recurrent inhibitory mechanisms. In addition to GCs, however, the MOB contains a vast diversity of other GABAergic interneuron types, and recent findings suggest that, while fewer in number, these oft-ignored interneurons are just as important as GCs in shaping odor-evoked M/TC activity...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714144/cerebellins-are-differentially-expressed-in-selective-subsets-of-neurons-throughout-the-brain
#11
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer', and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656980/neurovascular-egfl7-regulates-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-and-thereby-affects-olfactory-perception
#12
Frank Bicker, Verica Vasic, Guilherme Horta, Felipe Ortega, Hendrik Nolte, Atria Kavyanifar, Stefanie Keller, Nevenka Dudvarski Stankovic, Patrick N Harter, Rui Benedito, Beat Lutz, Tobias Bäuerle, Jens Hartwig, Jan Baumgart, Marcus Krüger, Konstantin Radyushkin, Lavinia Alberi, Benedikt Berninger, Mirko H H Schmidt
Adult neural stem cells reside in a specialized niche in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Throughout life they give rise to adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB), thus contributing to neural plasticity and pattern discrimination. Here, we show that the neurovascular protein EGFL7 is secreted by endothelial cells and neural stem cells (NSCs) of the SVZ to shape the vascular stem-cell niche. Loss of EGFL7 causes an accumulation of activated NSCs, which display enhanced activity and re-entry into the cell cycle...
June 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560501/relationship-of-bone-mineral-density-with-valvular-and-annular-calcification-in-community-dwelling-older-people-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#13
Daniele Massera, Shuo Xu, Traci M Bartz, Anna E Bortnick, Joachim H Ix, Michel Chonchol, David S Owens, Eddy Barasch, Julius M Gardin, John S Gottdiener, John R Robbins, David S Siscovick, Jorge R Kizer
Associations between bone mineral density and aortic valvular, aortic annular, and mitral annular calcification were investigated in a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort of 1497 older adults. Although there was no association between continuous bone mineral density and outcomes, a significant association between osteoporosis and aortic valvular calcification in men was found. INTRODUCTION: The process of cardiac calcification bears a resemblance to skeletal bone metabolism and its regulation...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525326/short-term-heart-rate-variability-in-dogs-with-sick-sinus-syndrome-or-chronic-mitral-valve-disease-as-compared-to-healthy-controls
#14
Sz Bogucki, A Noszczyk-Nowak
Heart rate variability is an established risk factor for mortality in both healthy dogs and animals with heart failure. The aim of this study was to compare short-term heart rate variability (ST-HRV) parameters from 60-min electrocardiograms in dogs with sick sinus syndrome (SSS, n=20) or chronic mitral valve disease (CMVD, n=20) and healthy controls (n=50), and to verify the clinical application of ST-HRV analysis. The study groups differed significantly in terms of both time - and frequency- domain ST-HRV parameters...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429161/on-the-in-vivo-function-of-the-mitral-heart-valve-leaflet-insights-into-tissue-interstitial-cell-biomechanical-coupling
#15
Chung-Hao Lee, Will Zhang, Kristen Feaver, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Michael S Sacks
There continues to be a critical need for developing data-informed computational modeling techniques that enable systematic evaluations of mitral valve (MV) function. This is important for a better understanding of MV organ-level biomechanical performance, in vivo functional tissue stresses, and the biosynthetic responses of MV interstitial cells (MVICs) in the normal, pathophysiological, and surgically repaired states. In the present study, we utilized extant ovine MV population-averaged 3D fiducial marker data to quantify the MV anterior leaflet (MVAL) deformations in various kinematic states...
April 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314761/hypoxia-mediated-regulation-of-the-secretory-properties-of-mitral-valve-interstitial-cells
#16
Kareem Salhiyyah, Padmini Sarathchandra, Najma Latif, Magdi H Yacoub, Adrian H Chester
The sophisticated function of the mitral valve depends to a large extent on its extracellular matrix (ECM) and specific cellular components. These are tightly regulated by a repertoire of mechanical stimuli and biological pathways. One potentially important stimulus is hypoxia. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effect of hypoxia on the regulation of mitral valve interstitial cells (MVICs) with respect to the synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Hypoxia resulted in reduced production of total collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) in cultured porcine MVICs...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285656/relationships-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-its-binding-proteins-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-hypertensive-perimenopausal-women
#17
Agnieszka Olszanecka, Aneta Dragan, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz, Danuta Fedak, Danuta Czarnecka
PURPOSE: During the transition from premenopause to postmenopause, many women experience weight gain and central fat deposition; therefore, we hypothesized that circulating growth factors can play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and subclinical organ damage in perimenopausal women. BASIC PROCEDURES: The study included 192 women aged 40 to 60years; 152 had newly diagnosed essential hypertension that had never been treated, and 40 were normotensive age-matched controls...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268514/mitral-valve-annulus-localization-in-3d-echocardiography
#18
Abhishek Tiwari, Kedar A Patwardhan
The Mitral Valve is a structure on the left side of the human heart that regulates the flow of oxygenated blood into the Left Ventricle and also helps maintain the pressure within the Left Ventricle when the blood gets pumped to the rest of the body from the Left Ventricle. Pathology of the Mitral Valve often manifests through structural changes in the anatomy. Assessment of Mitral Valve pathology as well as determination of specific interventions require quantification of various structures of the Mitral Valve and one of these structures of interest is the Mitral Valve annulus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238240/altered-plasma-microrna-expression-in-patients-with-mitral-chordae-tendineae-rupture
#19
Mehmet Bulent Vatan, Aysel Kalaycı Yigin, Ramazan Akdemir, Mustafa Tarik Agac, Mehmet Akif Cakar, Murat Aksoy, Ersan Tatli, Harun Kilic, Huseyin Gunduz, Derya Guzel, Keziban Karacan
BACKGROUND: Mitral chordae tendineae rupture (MCTR) is a progressive disorder which leads to severe mitral regurgitation. Despite its importance, the precise pathogenetic mechanism of MCTR remains unclear. The study aim was to investigate the expression profile of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as being potentially involved in the development of MCTR. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with 'primary' MCTR, and 30 age- and gender-matched controls, were enrolled in the study...
September 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226688/mitral-valve-annulus-localization-in-3d-echocardiography
#20
Abhishek Tiwari, Kedar A Patwardhan, Abhishek Tiwari, Kedar A Patwardhan, Kedar A Patwardhan, Abhishek Tiwari
The Mitral Valve is a structure on the left side of the human heart that regulates the flow of oxygenated blood into the Left Ventricle and also helps maintain the pressure within the Left Ventricle when the blood gets pumped to the rest of the body from the Left Ventricle. Pathology of the Mitral Valve often manifests through structural changes in the anatomy. Assessment of Mitral Valve pathology as well as determination of specific interventions require quantification of various structures of the Mitral Valve and one of these structures of interest is the Mitral Valve annulus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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