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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743551/early-childhood-trauma-and-hippocampal-volumes-in-patients-with-epileptic-and-psychogenic-seizures
#1
Benjamin Johnstone, Dennis Velakoulis, Cheng Yi Yuan, Anthony Ang, Chris Steward, Patricia Desmond, Terence J O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to early life childhood trauma has been implicated as resulting in a vulnerability to epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), hippocampal atrophy, and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to explore the relationships between childhood trauma, epilepsy, PNES, and hippocampal volume in patients admitted to a video-electroencephalogram monitoring (VEM) unit. METHODS: One hundred thirty-one patients were recruited from the Royal Melbourne Hospital VEM unit...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736661/postictal-alterations-induced-by-intrahippocampal-injection-of-pilocarpine-in-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Isabel Vieira de Assis Lima, Alline Cristina de Campos, Paula Maria Quaglio Bellozi, Juliana Guimaraes Doria, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Marcio Flavio Dutra Moraes, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of epilepsy in adults. The pilocarpine (PILO) experimental model of TLE portrays behavioral and pathophysiological changes in rodents that are very similar to those found in humans with TLE. However, this model is associated with an unfortunate high mortality rate. Studies have shown that intrahippocampal injection of PILO, while having a much smaller mortality rate, induces status epilepticus (SE) that secondarily leads to TLE. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to evaluate the cognitive and histological alterations 72h after intrahippocampal microinjection of PILO in C57BL/6 mice...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731507/remembrance-and-time-passed-memory-outcomes-4-11-years-after-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery
#3
Klajdi Puka, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the long-term cognitive outcomes following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although the evidence for change within the first 2 years is not compelling, the plasticity of the immature brain may allow for improvements in the long term. This study examined memory function in a cohort of surgical and nonsurgical patients at baseline and 4-11 years after. METHOD: Participants were 88 patients (mean age 20.05, standard deviation [SD] 4.21 years) with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 53 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707196/depressive-symptoms-contribute-to-executive-deficits-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Rachel Galioto, Geoffrey Tremont, Andrew S Blum, W Curt LaFrance, Cara L Crook, Jennifer D Davis
This study examined the contribution of depression to reduced executive functioning in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using three groups: TLE only (TLE; N=29), TLE+depression (TLE+DEP) (N=22), and nonneurologic participants with depression (DEP; N=31). Participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Individuals with TLE performed worse than the DEP group on many tests of executive functions. Among the TLE participants, those with depression demonstrated poorer executive functioning. These findings support the notion that depression may further contribute to executive difficulties in individuals with TLE...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628031/the-temporal-instability-of-resting-state-network-connectivity-in-intractable-epilepsy
#5
Lucy F Robinson, Xiaosong He, Paul Barnett, Gaёlle E Doucet, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
OBJECTIVE: Focal epilepsies, such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), are known to disrupt network activity in areas outside the epileptogenic zone [Tracy et al., 2015]. We devised a measure of temporal instability of resting state functional connectivity (FC), capturing temporal variations of BOLD correlations between brain regions that is less confounded than the "sliding window" approach common in the literature. METHODS: We investigated healthy controls and unilateral TLE patients (right and left seizure focus groups), utilizing group ICA to identify the default mode network (DMN), a network associated with episodic memory, a key cognitive deficit in TLE...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532817/neural-stem-cell-or-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-gaba-ergic-progenitor-cell-grafting-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Dinesh Upadhya, Bharathi Hattiangady, Geetha A Shetty, Gabriele Zanirati, Maheedhar Kodali, Ashok K Shetty
Grafting of neural stem cells (NSCs) or GABA-ergic progenitor cells (GPCs) into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in patients with drug-resistant chronic epilepsy, which afflicts >30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases. Multipotent, self-renewing NSCs could be expanded from multiple regions of the developing and adult brain, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). On the other hand, GPCs could be generated from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences of the embryonic brain and from hESCs and hiPSCs...
2016: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532489/mapping-the-neuropsychological-profile-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-using-cognitive-network-topology-and-graph-theory
#7
Tanja S Kellermann, Leonardo Bonilha, Ramin Eskandari, Camille Garcia-Ramos, Jack J Lin, Bruce P Hermann
OBJECTIVE: Normal cognitive function is defined by harmonious interaction among multiple neuropsychological domains. Epilepsy has a disruptive effect on cognition, but how diverse cognitive abilities differentially interact with one another compared with healthy controls (HC) is unclear. This study used graph theory to analyze the community structure of cognitive networks in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared with that in HC. METHODS: Neuropsychological assessment was performed in 100 patients with TLE and 82 HC...
October 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494355/interictal-epileptic-discharge-correlates-with-global-and-frontal-cognitive-dysfunction-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Vera Dinkelacker, Xu Xin, Michel Baulac, Séverine Samson, Sophie Dupont
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis has widespread effects on structural and functional connectivity and often entails cognitive dysfunction. EEG is mandatory to disentangle interactions in epileptic and physiological networks which underlie these cognitive comorbidities. Here, we examined how interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) affect cognitive performance. METHODS: Thirty-four patients (right TLE=17, left TLE=17) were examined with 24-hour video-EEG and a battery of neuropsychological tests to measure intelligence quotient and separate frontal and temporal lobe functions...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458343/dystrophin-distribution-and-expression-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Sandra Schipper, Govert Hoogland, Olaf E M G Schijns, Jim T A Dings, Marlien W Aalbers, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Dystrophin is part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In addition to its role in muscle tissue, it functions as an anchoring protein within the central nervous system such as in hippocampus and cerebellum. Its presence in the latter regions is illustrated by the cognitive problems seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Since epilepsy is also supposed to constitute a comorbidity of DMD, it is hypothesized that dystrophin plays a role in neuronal excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452151/altered-anterior-posterior-connectivity-through-the-arcuate-fasciculus-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Shigetoshi Takaya, Hesheng Liu, Douglas N Greve, Naoaki Tanaka, Catherine Leveroni, Andrew J Cole, Steven M Stufflebeam
How the interactions between cortices through a specific white matter pathway change during cognitive processing in patients with epilepsy remains unclear. Here, we used surface-based structural connectivity analysis to examine the change in structural connectivity with Broca's area/the right Broca's homologue in the lateral temporal and inferior parietal cortices through the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in 17 patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared with 17 healthy controls. Then, we investigated its functional relevance to the changes in task-related responses and task-modulated functional connectivity with Broca's area/the right Broca's homologue during a semantic classification task of a single word...
December 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444122/microrna-328a-regulates-water-maze-performance-in-ptz-kindled-rats
#11
Yuhan Liao, Yiqing Huang, Xixia Liu, Chun Luo, Donghua Zou, Xing Wei, Qi Huang, Yuan Wu
The down-regulation of microRNA-328a (miR-328a) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats with memory impairment was demonstrated in our previous study, while any contribution of miR-328a to cognitive dysfunction of PTZ-kindled rats remains unknown. In this study we have investigated the effect and the underlying mechanism of miR-328a on the cognitive function in PTZ-kindled rats. 48 SD male rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: a PTZ kindled group, a miR-328a antagomir group, an antagomir-control group, and a sham group (n=12 for each)...
July 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367173/preservation-of-cognitive-and-musical-abilities-of-a-musician-following-surgery-for-chronic-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-case-report
#12
Shantala Hegde, Rose Dawn Bharath, Malla Bhaskara Rao, Karthik Shiva, Arivazhagan Arimappamagan, Sanjib Sinha, Jamuna Rajeswaran, Parthasarathy Satishchandra
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects a range of cognitive functions and musical abilities. We report a 16-year-old boy diagnosed with drug-resistant right-medial TLE. He is a professional musician, trained in Carnatic classical music. Clinical, electrophysiological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography evaluation localized the seizure focus to the right medial temporal lobe. Patient underwent detailed neuropsychological evaluation and functional MRI (fMRI) for musical abilities prior to surgery...
July 1, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345386/chronic-treatment-with-levetiracetam-reverses-deficits-in-hippocampal-ltp-in-vivo-in-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-rats
#13
Yu-Xing Ge, Xiang-Zhu Tian, Ying-Ying Lin, Xue-Yuan Liu
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the common form of epilepsy in adults, often displays complex partial seizures and cognitive deficits. The underlying mechanisms of such deficits are not yet well understood. Many contributing factors, such as initial epileptogenic lesion, seizure type, age of onset, and treatment side effects have been proposed. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel anti-epileptic drug (AED) used to treat partial seizures and idiopathic generalized epilepsy. It has been suggested that LEV exerts antiepileptic properties by modulation of synaptic release of neurotransmitters...
August 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27332072/impaired-executive-functions-in-experimental-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Fabiane Ochai Ramos, Luiz Renato Rodrigues Carreiro, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Roberta Monterazzo Cysneiros
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate cognitive and behavioural changes consistent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD -like behavior in male Wistar rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHOD: Male Wistar rats at 25 day of age were submitted to animal model of TLE by pilocarpine injection (350 mg/kg, ip) and a control group received saline 0.9%. The animals were continuously video monitored up to the end of experiments. The behavioural tests (open field, elevated plus maze and operant conditioning box) started from 60 days postnatal...
June 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257629/abnormal-up-down-membrane-potential-dynamics-coupled-with-the-neocortical-slow-oscillation-in-dentate-granule-cells-during-the-latent-phase-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
David W Ouedraogo, Pierre-Pascal Lenck-Santini, Geoffrey Marti, David Robbe, Valérie Crépel, Jérôme Epsztein
The dentate gyrus, a major entry point to the hippocampus, gates (or filters) incoming information from the cortex. During sleep or anesthesia, the slow-wave oscillation (SWO) orchestrates hippocampus-neocortex communication, which is important for memory formation. The dentate gate is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) early during epileptogenesis, which favors the propagation of pathological activities. Yet, whether the gating of physiological SWO by dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered in TLE has remained unexplored...
May 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250575/verbal-dominant-memory-impairment-and-low-risk-for-post-operative-memory-worsening-in-both-left-and-right-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#16
Amr Farid Khalil, Masaki Iwasaki, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Kazutaka Jin, Nobukazu Nakasato, Teiji Tominaga
Post-operative memory changes after temporal lobe surgery have been established mainly by group analysis of cognitive outcome. This study investigated individual patient-based memory outcome in surgically-treated patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study included 84 consecutive patients with intractable TLE caused by unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent epilepsy surgery (47 females, 41 left [Lt] TLE). Memory functions were evaluated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised before and at 1 year after surgery...
November 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206236/decision-making-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-delay-gratification-ability-is-not-impaired-in-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#17
Patricia Rzezak, Ellen Marise Lima, Fabricio Pereira, Ana Carolina Gargaro, Erica Coimbra, Silvia de Vincentiis, Tonicarlo Rodrigues Velasco, João Pereira Leite, Geraldo F Busatto, Kette D Valente
BACKGROUND: Decision-making abilities have rarely been examined in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). We aimed to investigate the ability to delay gratification, a decision-making subdomain, in patients with intractable TLE-HS and to verify the association of delay gratification performance and cool executive function tests. METHODS: We evaluated 27 patients with TLE-HS (mean age: 35.46 [±13.31] years; 7 males) and their cognitive performance was compared with that of 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 35...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27171178/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-relationships-with-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-episodic-memory-performance
#18
Gaelle E Doucet, Xiaosong He, Michael Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects multiple brain regions through evidence from both structural (gray matter; GM) and functional connectivity (FC) studies. We tested whether these structural abnormalities were associated with FC abnormalities, and assessed the ability of these measures to explain episodic memory impairments in this population. A resting-state and T1 sequences were acquired on 94 (45 with mesial temporal pathology) TLE patients and 50 controls, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164312/optimizing-memory-function-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
P J Thompson, H Conn, S A Baxendale, E Donnachie, K McGrath, C Geraldi, J S Duncan
PURPOSE: The study aimed to assess whether engagement in a memory training programme and performing internet brain training exercises improve memory function in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Seventy-seven people with TLE, complaining of memory difficulties, completed the study. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 67 years and 40 had left TLE. Participants were randomised to one of four conditions; Group 1: traditional memory training, Group 2: Lumosity, an on-line cognitive training programme, Group 3: traditional memory training and Lumosity, and Group 4: no training...
May 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152461/interictal-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-level-reflects-white-matter-integrity-epilepsy-severity-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Nai-Ching Chen, Yao-Chung Chuang, Chi-Wei Huang, Chun-Chung Lui, Chen-Chang Lee, Shih-Wei Hsu, Pin-Hsuan Lin, Yan-Ting Lu, Ya-Ting Chang, Che-Wei Hsu, Chiung-Chih Chang
OBJECTIVE: Most patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have epileptic foci originating from the medial temporal lobe, particularly the hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin growth factor mainly expressed in the hippocampus, though it is not known whether the circulating level of BDNF reflects cognitive performance or white matter structural changes in chronic TLE. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with TLE and 22 healthy controls were enrolled for standardized cognitive tests, diffusion tensor imaging, and serum BDNF measurement...
June 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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