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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753886/cocaine-impairs-serial-feature-negative-learning-and-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#1
Terry Davidson, Sara Hargrave, David Kearns, Matthew Clasen, Sabrina Jones, Alison Wakeford, Camille Sample, Anthony Riley
Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745700/heavy-marijuana-use-but-not-deprivation-is-associated-with-increased-stressor-reactivity
#2
Kathryn R Hefner, Mark J Starr, John J Curtin
Although stressors appear to motivate marijuana use, and marijuana use, in turn, is believed to induce stress system neuroadaptations, relatively little empirical work has explicitly tested for stress neuroadaptations associated with heavy marijuana use. We examined stressor reactivity to threat of unpredictable electric shock via startle potentiation among heavy marijuana users and a control group that reported minimal history of marijuana use. Heavy marijuana users were randomly assigned to 3 days of marijuana deprivation or no deprivation...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743656/considerations-for-substance-use-disorder-language-cultivating-a-shift-from-addicts-in-recovery-to-people-who-thrive
#3
REVIEW
Justin Spiehs, Stacy Conner
As conceptualizations of substance-use disorders (SUDs) have changed, so too has the language used to describe these shifting views. Numerous words and phrases have fallen in and out of vogue as understandings of SUD etiology and treatment have emerged, then receded. In the United States, an historical language persists among health professionals and in society. We consider the role language plays in the SUD treatment field and how the language and concepts the words convey keep individuals from growing through and past the SUD...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712779/dopamine-triggers-ctcf-dependent-morphological-and-genomic-remodeling-of-astrocytes
#4
Ashley Galloway, Adewale Adeluyi, Bernadette O'Donovan, Miranda L Fisher, Chintada Nageswara Rao, Peyton Critchfield, Mathew Sajish, Jill R Turner, Pavel I Ortinski
Dopamine is critical for processing of reward and etiology of drug addiction. Astrocytes throughout the brain express dopamine receptors, but consequences of astrocytic dopamine receptor signaling are not well-established. We found that extracellular dopamine triggered rapid concentration-dependent stellation of astrocytic processes that was not a result of dopamine oxidation, but instead, relied on both cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent dopamine receptor signaling. This was accompanied by reduced duration and increased frequency of astrocytic Ca2+ transients, but little effect on astrocytic voltage-gated potassium channel currents...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698054/effects-of-equine-assisted-activities-and-therapies-on-the-affective-network-of-adolescents-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#5
Kyoung Doo Kang, Tae Woon Jung, In Hui Park, Doug Hyun Han
OBJECTIVES: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been suggested to be a mental health disorder. Attachment and emotional status in IGD patients are important for understanding the etiology and progression of IGD because both parameters are considered to be associated with the affective network. Equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) have been reported to improve emotional status and attachment in subjects. We hypothesized that EAAT would improve attachment in IGD adolescents with insecure attachment issues and increase functional connectivity (FC) within the affective network...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681454/chemistry-first-approach-for-nomination-of-personalized-treatment-in-lung-cancer
#6
Elizabeth A McMillan, Myung-Jeom Ryu, Caroline H Diep, Saurabh Mendiratta, Jean R Clemenceau, Rachel M Vaden, Ju-Hwa Kim, Takashi Motoyaji, Kyle R Covington, Michael Peyton, Kenneth Huffman, Xiaofeng Wu, Luc Girard, Yeojin Sung, Pei-Hsaun Chen, Prema L Mallipeddi, Joo Young Lee, Jordan Hanson, Sukesh Voruganti, Yunku Yu, Sunho Park, Jessica Sudderth, Christopher DeSevo, Donna M Muzny, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Adi Gazdar, Richard A Gibbs, Tae-Hyun Hwang, John V Heymach, Ignacio Wistuba, Kevin R Coombes, Noelle S Williams, David A Wheeler, John B MacMillan, Ralph J Deberardinis, Michael G Roth, Bruce A Posner, John D Minna, Hyun Seok Kim, Michael A White
Diversity in the genetic lesions that cause cancer is extreme. In consequence, a pressing challenge is the development of drugs that target patient-specific disease mechanisms. To address this challenge, we employed a chemistry-first discovery paradigm for de novo identification of druggable targets linked to robust patient selection hypotheses. In particular, a 200,000 compound diversity-oriented chemical library was profiled across a heavily annotated test-bed of >100 cellular models representative of the diverse and characteristic somatic lesions for lung cancer...
April 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680185/a-dual-process-perspective-on-advances-in-cognitive-science-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Kristen P Lindgren, Christian S Hendershot, Jason J Ramirez, Edward Bernat, Mauricio Rangel-Gomez, Kirsten P Peterson, James G Murphy
There is a tremendous global and national (US) burden associated with alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Further, of the mental health disorders, AUD has the widest treatment gap. Thus, there is a critical need for improved understanding of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of AUD. The application of cognitive science to the study of AUD has a longstanding history of attempting to meet this need. In this selective review, we identified and focused on four domains of recent (i.e., in the last decade) applications of cognitive science to the study of AUD: implicit cognitive biases, executive function, behavioral economic approaches to alcohol decision making, and functional connectivity neuroimaging...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661656/introduction-to-the-special-issue-utilizing-ambulatory-assessment-to-better-understand-the-etiology-maintenance-treatment-and-remission-of-addictive-disorders
#8
EDITORIAL
Rachel L Tomko, Erin A McClure
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595342/lifetime-alcohol-intake-and-pattern-of-alcohol-consumption-in-patients-with-alcohol-induced-pancreatitis-in-comparison-with-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Jon Juliusson Sigurdur, Jon Kristinn Nielsen, Valgerdur Runarsdottir, Ingunn Hansdottir, Ragna Sigurdardottir, Einar S Björnsson
OBJECTIVE: To examine lifetime drinking patterns in men and women with alcohol-induced pancreatitis (AIP) in comparison with patients with alcoholic use disorder (AUD) without pancreatic disease. METHODS: Alcohol consumption patterns were assessed using a validated questionnaire, the Lifetime Drinking History (LDH), during an outpatient visit. Patients diagnosed with AIP were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years) with patients with AUD in addiction treatment...
March 29, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557332/use-of-rapid-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assays-for-serological-screening-of-melioidosis-in-myanmar
#10
Zin Zayar Win, Phornpun Phokrai, Zarni Aung, Thein Zaw, Mary N Burtnick, Narisara Chantratita, Paul J Brett, Tin Maung Hlaing
Burkholderia pseudomallei , the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is an important but under-recognized cause of disease in the tropics. Although first described over a century ago as a septicemic illness associated with morphine addicts in Rangoon, Burma, there is little information regarding the incidence of melioidosis in present-day Myanmar. To address this issue, we used two recently developed and validated serological assays to detect B. pseudomallei -specific antibodies in 124 serum samples obtained from febrile patients in the delta region of Myanmar...
May 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535424/comprehensive-genomic-profiling-of-neuroendocrine-bladder-cancer-pinpoints-molecular-origin-and-potential-therapeutics
#11
Peiye Shen, Ying Jing, Ruiyun Zhang, Mei-Chun Cai, Pengfei Ma, Haige Chen, Guanglei Zhuang
Neuroendocrine bladder cancer is a relatively rare but often lethal malignancy, with cell of origin, oncogenomic architecture and standard treatment poorly defined. Here we performed comprehensive whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing on a unique cohort of genitourinary neuroendocrine neoplasms, mainly small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. The mutational landscape and signatures of neuroendocrine bladder cancer strikingly resembled those in conventional urothelial carcinoma, along with typically mixed histologies, supporting a common cellular origin...
March 14, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527591/intersection-of-stress-and-gender-in-association-with-transitions-in-past-year-dsm-5-substance-use-disorder-diagnoses-in-the-united-states
#12
Terril L Verplaetse, Kelly E Moore, Brian P Pittman, Walter Roberts, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Philip H Smith, Kelly P Cosgrove, Sherry A McKee
Background: Stress contributes to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders (SUD), with some research suggesting that the impact of stress on SUD is greater in women. However, this has yet to be evaluated in a national dataset, across major substances of abuse. Methods: Using data from the newly available U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Wave 3; n =36,309) we evaluated relationships among past year stressful life events (0 or 1 vs...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512022/small-intestine-strictures-in-opium-addicts-an-unrecognized-cause-of-intestinal-obstruction
#13
Ashish Joshi, Sushil Falodia, Naveen Kumar, R L Solanki
Strictures of the small intestine have been attributed many causes of Crohn's disease, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, neoplastic, post-surgical, and corrosive ingestion. Opium as a cause of small intestine strictures has not been described. Six cases of opium addicts diagnosed with small intestine strictures were selected after excluding the possible etiology of strictures. Investigations like upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy (in patients with small intestinal obstruction), barium meal follow-through, and histopathology of strictures were done in all patients...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502754/treatment-considerations-in-internet-and-video-game-addiction-a-qualitative-discussion
#14
REVIEW
David N Greenfield
Internet and video game addiction has been a steadily developing consequence of modern living. Behavioral and process addictions and particularly Internet and video game addiction require specialized treatment protocols and techniques. Recent advances in addiction medicine have improved our understanding of the neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions. Novel research has expanded the ways we understand and apply well-established addiction treatments as well as newer therapies specific to Internet and video game addiction...
April 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429049/implication-of-genes-for-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-in-substance-addictions
#15
REVIEW
Jiali Chen, Yunlong Ma, Rongli Fan, Zhongli Yang, Ming D Li
Drug dependence is a chronic brain disease with harmful consequences for both individual users and society. Glutamate is a primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and both in vivo and in vitro experiments have implicated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, as an element in various types of addiction. Recent findings from genetics-based approaches such as genome-wide linkage, candidate gene association, genome-wide association (GWA), and next-generation sequencing have demonstrated the significant association of NMDA receptor subunit genes such as GluN3A, GluN2B, and GluN2A with various addiction-related phenotypes...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409684/ongoing-strategies-and-updates-on-pain-management-in-gynecologic-oncology-patients
#16
REVIEW
Kari E Hacker, R Kevin Reynolds, Shitanshu Uppal
The opioid crisis in the United States has been declared a public health emergency. Various governmental agencies, cancer care organizations and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have issued guidelines in hopes of managing this crisis. Curbing over-prescription of opioids by medical professionals has been a central theme in many of these guidelines. Gynecologic oncologists encounter patients with a variety of pain sources, including acute pain secondary to the underlying malignancy or surgical procedures as well as chronic pain related to the malignancy and the sequelae of treatments rendered...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391279/gut-microbiota-modulates-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-in-mice
#17
Hui-Wen Xiao, Chang Ge, Guo-Xing Feng, Yuan Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Li Dong, Hang Li, Haichao Wang, Ming Cui, Sai-Jun Fan
Excessive alcohol consumption remains a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Accumulative experimental evidence has suggested an important involvement of gut microbiota in the modulation of host's immunological and neurological functions. However, it is previously unknown whether enteric microbiota is implicated in the formation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using a murine model of chronic alcoholism and withdrawal, we examined the impact of alcohol consumption on the possible alterations of gut microbiota as well as alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and behavior changes...
May 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383940/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-hungarian-version-of-the-yale-food-addiction-scale-for-children
#18
Éva Erzsébet Magyar, Dalma Tényi, Ashley Gearhardt, Sára Jeges, Gallusz Abaligeti, Ákos Levente Tóth, József Janszky, Dénes Molnár, Tamás Tényi, Györgyi Csábi
Background Childhood obesity proves to be an important public health issue, since it serves as a potential risk factor for multiple diseases. Food addiction could also serve as an important etiological factor. As childhood obesity plays a serious issue also in Hungary, we aimed to adapt and validate the Hungarian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children (H-YFAS-C). Methods A total of 191 children were assessed with the H-YFAS-C and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). The following psychometric properties were analyzed: internal consistency, construct validity, convergent, and discriminant validity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352358/daily-fantasy-sports-players-gambling-addiction-and-mental-health-problems
#19
Lia Nower, Kyle R Caler, Dylan Pickering, Alex Blaszczynski
Studies point to a relationship between fantasy sports/daily fantasy sports (DFS) play and gambling behavior. However, little is known about the nature of those relationships, particularly regarding the development of gambling problems. This study investigates the nature, frequency, and preferences of gambling behavior as well as problem gambling severity and comorbid conditions among DFS players. Data were collected from an epidemiologic survey of 3634 New Jersey residents on gambling and leisure activities...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280392/comorbidity-of-internet-use-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-two-adult-case-control-studies
#20
Martin Bielefeld, Marion Drews, Inken Putzig, Laura Bottel, Toni Steinbüchel, Jan Dieris-Hirche, Gregor R Szycik, Astrid Müller, Mandy Roy, Martin Ohlmeier, Bert Theodor Te Wildt
Objectives There is good scientific evidence that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is both a predictor and a comorbidity of addictive disorders in adulthood. These associations not only focus on substance-related addictions but also on behavioral addictions like gambling disorder and Internet use disorder (IUD). For IUD, systematic reviews have identified ADHD as one of the most prevalent comorbidities besides depressive and anxiety disorders. Yet, there is a need to further understand the connections between both disorders to derive implications for specific treatment and prevention...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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