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addiction etiology

Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Sara García-Sánchez, Josep Lluís Matalí, María Martín-Fernández, Marta Pardo, Maria Lleras, Carmina Castellano-Tejedor, Josep Maria Haro
Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced...
October 6, 2016: Adicciones
Xiao-Fei Wang, Elisabeth Barbier, Yi-Ting Chiu, Yi He, Jia Zhan, Guo-Hua Bi, Hai-Ying Zhang, Bo Feng, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Jia Bei Wang, Zheng-Xiong Xi
: The etiology and pathophysiology underlying opioid tolerance and dependence are still unknown. Because mu opioid receptor (MOR) plays an essential role in opioid action, many vulnerability-related studies have focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms of MOR, particularly on A118G. In this study, we found that a single-point mutation at the MOR T394 phosphorylation site could be another important susceptive factor in the development of opioid tolerance and dependence in mice. T394A mutation, in which a threonine at 394 was replaced by an alanine, did not alter agonist binding to MOR and opioid analgesia, but resulted in loss of etorphine-induced MOR internalization in spinal dorsal horn neurons and opioid analgesic tolerance induced by either morphine or etorphine...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Agnes Norbury, Vincent Valton, Geraint Rees, Jonathan P Roiser, Masud Husain
UNLABELLED: Why are some people strongly motivated by intense sensory experiences? Here we investigated how people encode the value of an intense sensory experience compared with economic reward, and how this varies according to stimulation-seeking preference. Specifically, we used a novel behavioral task in combination with computational modeling to derive the value individuals assigned to the opportunity to experience an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric shock). We then examined functional imaging data recorded during task performance to see how the opportunity to experience the sensory stimulus was encoded in stimulation-seekers versus stimulation-avoiders...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Seung-Yup Lee, Hae Kook Lee, Hyekyung Choo
Various perspectives exist regarding Internet gaming disorder. While the concept of behavioral addiction is gaining recognition, some view the phenomenon as merely excessive indulgence in online pastimes. Still, in recent years, complains from patients or their family members about problems related to Internet use, particularly Internet gaming, have become more common. However, the clinical picture of Internet gaming disorder could be obscured by its heterogeneous manifestations with other intertwined factors, such as psychiatric comorbidities, neurodevelopmental factors, socio-cultural factors and game-related factors, that may influence the pathogenesis as well as the clinical course...
September 20, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Rafael Tajra Evangelista Araújo, Alexander Tadeu Sverzut, Alexandre Elias Trivellato, Cássio Edvard Sverzut
PURPOSE: To report on the clinical outcome of 129 zygomatic implants placed in 37 patients with severely resorbed partially or completely edentulous maxillae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who received zygomatic implants between 2007 and 2014 were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients were treated using the same surgical protocol, the sinus slot technique. The following data were recorded: sex, age, race, medical history, etiology, addictions, degree of bone atrophy, type and size of zygomatic implants, number of implants placed, type of prosthesis, survival rate, and success of implants and complications...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Alena Ondrejkovicova, Gabriel Petrovics, Katarína Svitkova, Bibiana Bajtekova, Ondrej Bangha
Acupuncture is one of the branches of Chinese Traditional Medicine dating back almost 5 000 years. The expansion of China's trade and business relations with other Asian countries brought about the spreading of acupuncture in 7th Century. Nowadays, acupuncture is an interdisciplinary clinical field of Medicine dealing with treatment, diagnostics and prevention of mainly functional disorders, algic, allergic and addictive conditions of various etiology, localization and intensity. It draws from the millennia of experience of Oriental Medicine as well as contemporary knowledge of morphology, physiology and neurophysiology...
July 16, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths, Halley M Pontes
Background The umbrella term "Internet addiction" has been criticized for its lack of specificity given the heterogeneity of potentially problematic behaviors that can be engaged in online as well as different underlying etiological mechanisms. This has led to the naming of specific online addictions, the most notable being Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Methods Using the contemporary literature concerning IGD and cognate topics, issues and concerns relating to the concept of IGD are examined. Results Internet addiction and IGD are not the same, and distinguishing between the two is conceptually meaningful...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Launette Marie Rieb, Wendy V Norman, Ruth Elwood Martin, Jonathan Berkowitz, Evan Wood, Ryan McNeil, M-J Milloy
Withdrawal pain can be a barrier to opioid cessation. Yet, little is known about old injury site pain in this context. We conducted an exploratory mixed-methods descriptive case series using a web-based survey and in-person interviews with adults recruited from pain and addiction treatment and research settings. We included individuals who self-reported a past significant injury that was healed and pain-free prior to the initiation of opioids, which then became temporarily painful upon opioid cessation - a phenomenon we have named withdrawal-associated injury site pain (WISP)...
September 1, 2016: Pain
L M DePoy, A G Allen, S L Gourley
Adolescent cocaine use increases the likelihood of drug abuse and addiction in adulthood, and etiological factors may include a cocaine-induced bias towards so-called 'reward-seeking' habits. To determine whether adolescent cocaine exposure indeed impacts decision-making strategies in adulthood, we trained adolescent mice to orally self-administer cocaine. In adulthood, males with a history of escalating self-administration developed a bias towards habit-based behaviors. In contrast, escalating females did not develop habit biases; rather, low response rates were associated with later behavioral inflexibility, independent of cocaine dose...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Brian Y Park, Gary Wilson, Jonathan Berger, Matthew Christman, Bryn Reina, Frank Bishop, Warren P Klam, Andrew P Doan
Traditional factors that once explained men's sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under 40. This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., clinical, biological (addiction/urology), psychological (sexual conditioning), sociological; and (2) presents a series of clinical reports, all with the aim of proposing a possible direction for future research of this phenomenon...
August 5, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
Shaw-Ji Chen, Ding-Lieh Liao, Tsu-Wang Shen, Hsin-Chou Yang, Kuang-Chi Chen, Chia-Hsiang Chen
Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Louise Adermark, M Scott Bowers
Several laboratories recently identified that astrocytes are critical regulators of addiction machinery. It is now known that astrocyte pathology is a common feature of ethanol (EtOH) exposure in both humans and animal models, as even brief EtOH exposure is sufficient to elicit long-lasting perturbations in astrocyte gene expression, activity, and proliferation. Astrocytes were also recently shown to modulate the motivational properties of EtOH and other strongly reinforcing stimuli. Given the role of astrocytes in regulating glutamate homeostasis, a crucial component of alcohol use disorder (AUD), astrocytes might be an important target for the development of next-generation alcoholism treatments...
September 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Bernard P Roques
Very few discoveries in the neurosciences have triggered clinical speculation and experimentation regarding the etiology of psychiatric illness to the same extent as that following identification of the opiate receptor(s) and subsequent isolation of endogenous morphine-like peptides. There is overwhelming evidence in animals and in human that opioids are involved in behaviorally relevant issues such as the modulation of pain, the response to stress, motivation, addiction, sexuality, food intake, etc., but our knowledge on the possible relation between opioids and mental illness is still very limited...
July 15, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Sevgi Buyukbese Sarsu
BACKGROUND: The chronic use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) which has become an increasingly prevalent problem can rarely cause gastric and duodenal ulcer because of their effects on gastric secretion and emptying. Since peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a rarely seen entity in patients who consult to the emergency service with complaints of abdominal pain, most of the physicians do not suspect of this clinical diagnosis. Perforation is a mortal complication of PUD, and early diagnosis and emergency surgery are life-saving procedures...
December 2016: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ricardo de la Vega, Irini S Parastatidou, Roberto Ruíz-Barquín, Attila Szabo
Background and aims Recently, empirical research has linked obsessive passion to the etiology of exercise addiction, and the conceptual reason behind the fact that the latter is more prevalent in athletes than leisure exercisers has been challenged. The aim of this study was to determine the link between exercise addiction and harmonious passion, obsessive passion, and dedication to sports, in the context of athletic levels. Method A sample comprised of low- and high-level competitive athletes and non-competitive leisure exercisers (n = 313) was examined, in a cross-sectional design, in which participants completed the Spanish validated versions of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Sicilia, Alías-García, Ferriz, & Moreno-Murcia, 2013) and Passion Scale (Chamarro et al...
June 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Mary B Short, Chad T Wetterneck, Steven L Bistricky, Tim Shutter, Tannah E Chase
This study addressed how sex addiction and problematic IP use present to mental health professionals (MHPs), and how MHPs conceptualize and treat these issues. MHPs (N = 183) reported on beliefs about, experiences with, and treatment of problematic sexual behaviors (PBS). Most MHPs saw clients with PBS, but most do not feel competent to treat PBS. Specialized MHPs endorsed seeing more clients with PBS and feeling more effective than nonspecialists. Sexual addiction and problematic IP use share similarities, but differ in etiology and co-occurring problems...
June 27, 2016: Community Mental Health Journal
Lu Li, Xinshe Liu, Chuchu Qiao, Gang Chen, Tao Li
Addiction is a debilitating, chronic psychiatric disorder that is difficult to cure completely owing to the high rate of relapse. Behavioral sensitization is considered to may underlie behavioral changes, such as relapse, caused by chronic abuse of psychomotor stimulants. Thus, its animal models have been widely used to explore the etiology of addiction. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play an important role in addiction to psychomotor stimulants. However, the role of GluN2B-containing receptors and their downstream signaling pathway(s) in behavioral sensitization induced by methamphetamine (METH) have not been investigated yet...
June 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Ana Matošić, Srđan Marušić, Branka Vidrih, Ana Kovak-Mufić, Lipa Cicin-Šain
Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
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