keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

addiction etiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745447/commentary-perspectives-on-alcohol-related-gene-and-environment-interplay-in-diverse-populations
#1
Marcia S Scott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic groups comprise more than 20% of the U.S. population, but many experience disproportionately high risk for alcohol misuse, often resulting in higher rates of alcohol-associated consequences. Completion of mapping the human genome has launched rapidly evolving research methods aimed at improved understanding of genetic contribution to disease. Despite decades of research on the influence of genetic and environmental risks on alcohol use disorders and outcomes, few studies have included racial/ethnic subpopulations in sufficient numbers to allow for proper statistical analysis...
August 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714599/the-utility-of-empirically-assigning-ancestry-groups-in-cross-population-genetic-studies-of-addiction
#2
Roseann E Peterson, Alexis C Edwards, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Bradley T Webb
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Given moderate heritability and significant heterogeneity among addiction phenotypes, successful genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are expected to need very large samples. As sample sizes grow, so can genetic diversity leading to challenges in analyzing these data. Methods for empirically assigning individuals to genetically informed ancestry groups are needed. METHODS: We describe a strategy for empirically assigning ancestry groups in ethnically diverse GWAS data including extensions of principal component analysis (PCA) and population matching through minimum Mahalanobis distance...
July 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603756/cognitive-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets-of-addiction
#3
Marc L Copersino
Fundamental to cognitive models of addiction is the gradual strengthening of automatic, urge-related responding that develops in tandem with the diminution of self-control-related processes aimed at inhibiting impulses. Recent conceptualizations of addiction also include a third set of cognitive processes related to self-awareness and superordinate regulation of self-control and other higher brain function. This review describes new human research evidence and theoretical developments related to the multicausal strengthening of urge-related responding and failure of self-control in addiction, and the etiology of disrupted self-awareness and rational decision-making associated with continued substance use...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558131/an-association-between-genetic-variation-in-the-glutamatergic-system-and-suicide-attempts-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#4
Sylwia Fudalej, Anna Klimkiewicz, Anna Mach, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Marcin Fudalej, Krystyna Wasilewska, Anna Podgórska, Paweł Krajewski, Rafał Płoski, Marcin Wojnar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pathological alterations of glutamatergic systems were observed in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. There is some evidence that this system may be involved in the genetic vulnerability to suicide. The aim of the present study was to analyze possible relationship between the GRIN2B polymorphism and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that this genetic factor may be associated with suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients and with death by suicide...
May 30, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#5
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507526/behavioral-and-neural-manifestations-of-reward-memory-in-carriers-of-low-expressing-versus-high-expressing-genetic-variants-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor
#6
Anni Richter, Adriana Barman, Torsten Wüstenberg, Joram Soch, Denny Schanze, Anna Deibele, Gusalija Behnisch, Anne Assmann, Marieke Klein, Martin Zenker, Constanze Seidenbecher, Björn H Schott
Dopamine is critically important in the neural manifestation of motivated behavior, and alterations in the human dopaminergic system have been implicated in the etiology of motivation-related psychiatric disorders, most prominently addiction. Patients with chronic addiction exhibit reduced dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability in the striatum, and the DRD2 TaqIA (rs1800497) and C957T (rs6277) genetic polymorphisms have previously been linked to individual differences in striatal dopamine metabolism and clinical risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499100/probing-for-neuroadaptations-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-addiction-translational-methods-and-emerging-evidence
#7
Jesse T Kaye, Daniel E Bradford, Katherine P Magruder, John J Curtin
Stressors clearly contribute to addiction etiology and relapse in humans, but our understanding of specific mechanisms remains limited. Rodent models of addiction offer the power, flexibility, and precision necessary to delineate the causal role and specific mechanisms through which stressors influence alcohol and other drug use. This review describes a program of research using startle potentiation to unpredictable stressors that is well positioned to translate between animal models and clinical research with humans on stress neuroadaptations in addiction...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469558/intracellular-fibroblast-growth-factor-14-emerging-risk-factor-for-brain-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Jessica Di Re, Paul A Wadsworth, Fernanda Laezza
The finely tuned regulation of neuronal firing relies on the integrity of ion channel macromolecular complexes. Minimal disturbances of these tightly regulated networks can lead to persistent maladaptive plasticity of brain circuitry. The intracellular fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) belongs to the nexus of proteins interacting with voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels at the axonal initial segment. Through isoform-specific interactions with the intracellular C-terminal tail of neuronal Nav channels (Nav1.1, Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461868/the-mask-of-acute-bacterial-pneumonia-may-disguise-the-face-of-tuberculosis
#9
HamidReza Naderi, Fereshte Sheybani, Sedigheh Sadat Erfani, Bezat Amiri, Mehdi Jabbari Nooghabi
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can present as acute pneumonia. Differentiation of tuberculous from non-tuberculous community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important challenge in endemic areas. The purpose of this study was the comparison between characteristics of tuberculous and non-tuberculous CAP patients. METHODS: In this prospective and observational study, all adult patients (aged ≥16 years) who were admitted to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad (Iran) with the diagnosis of CAP, between February 2013 and January 2014, were enrolled...
March 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394145/increased-startle-potentiation-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-alcohol-dependence-possible-stress-neuroadaptation-in-humans
#10
Christine A Moberg, Daniel E Bradford, Jesse T Kaye, John J Curtin
Stress plays a key role in addiction etiology and relapse. Rodent models posit that following repeated periods of alcohol and other drug intoxication, compensatory allostatic changes occur in the central nervous system (CNS) circuits involved in behavioral and emotional response to stressors. We examine a predicted manifestation of this neuroadaptation in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent humans. Participants completed a translational laboratory task that uses startle potentiation to unpredictable (vs. predictable) stressors implicated in the putative CNS mechanisms that mediate this neuroadaptation...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363516/vascular-disease-in-cocaine-addiction
#11
REVIEW
Keren Bachi, Venkatesh Mani, Devi Jeyachandran, Zahi A Fayad, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best...
March 14, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361213/food-addiction-as-a-proxy-for-eating-disorder-and-obesity-severity-trauma-history-ptsd-symptoms-and-comorbidity
#12
REVIEW
Timothy D Brewerton
PURPOSE: Food addiction (FA) is a newly defined yet still controversial condition that has important etiological, developmental, treatment, prevention, and social policy implications. In this review, the case is made that FA (or high scores on the Yale Food Addiction Scale) may be used as a proxy measure for a matrix of interrelated clinical features, including greater eating disorder severity, greater obesity severity, more severe trauma histories, greater symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater psychiatric comorbidity, as well as greater medical morbidity and mortality...
March 30, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345528/genetic-and-psychosocial-factors-for-benzodiazepine-addiction-an-analysis-based-on-the-results-of-the-authors-own-research-conducted-in-a-group-of-benzodiazepine-addicted-and-non-addicted-individuals
#13
Anna Konopka, Monika Mak, Anna Grzywacz, Sławomir Murawiec, Jerzy Samochowiec
PURPOSE: In spite of the fact that the addictive potential of benzodiazepine (BDZ) drugs has been known for a long time, benzodiazepine addiction remains a common problem for psychiatry to deal with. The etiology of benzodiazepine addiction is very complex. Among the risk factors, the course of the treatment, demographic status and psychological features of a patient seem to play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate both psychological and genetic factors differentiating benzodiazepine addicts from non-addicted users...
March 13, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322978/delta-opioid-receptor-antagonism-leads-to-excessive-ethanol-consumption-in-mice-with-enhanced-activity-of-the-endogenous-opioid-system
#14
Piotr Poznanski, Anna Lesniak, Michal Korostynski, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Marzena Lazarczyk, Piotr Religa, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny, Bogdan Sadowski, Mariusz Sacharczuk
The opioid system modulates the central reinforcing effects of ethanol and participates in the etiology of addiction. However, the pharmacotherapy of ethanol dependence targeted on the opioid system is little effective and varies due to individual patients' sensitivity. In the present study, we used two mouse lines with high (HA) and low (LA) activity of the endogenous opioid system to analyze the effect of opioid receptor blockade on ethanol drinking behavior. We found that LA and HA lines characterized by divergent magnitudes of swim stress-induced analgesia also differ in ethanol intake and preference...
May 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315549/substance-abuse-and-addiction-implications-for-pain-management-in-patients-with-cancer%C3%A2
#15
Yu-Ping Chang
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are chronic diseases that may complicate the nursing care of patients with cancer, affecting their ability to adhere to treatment protocols, responses to cancer pain, and use of opioids for analgesia. OBJECTIVES: This article explores how the presence of an SUD may affect oncology nursing care and pain management. METHODS: The PubMed and CINAHL® databases were searched for articles from 1980-2016 using the keywords cancer, cancer pain, addiction, substance abuse, and alcoholism...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300615/heritability-of-brain-activity-related-to-response-inhibition-a-longitudinal-genetic-study-in-adolescent-twins
#16
Andrey P Anokhin, Simon Golosheykin, Julia D Grant, Andrew C Heath
The ability to inhibit prepotent but context- or goal-inappropriate responses is essential for adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Deficits in response inhibition, a key component of impulsivity, have been implicated as a core dysfunction in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD and addictions. Identification of genetically transmitted variation in the neural underpinnings of response inhibition can help to elucidate etiological pathways to these disorders and establish the links between genes, brain, and behavior...
May 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283392/addictions-neuroclinical-assessment-a-reverse-translational-approach
#17
REVIEW
Laura E Kwako, Reza Momenan, Erica N Grodin, Raye Z Litten, George F Koob, David Goldman
Incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function are functional domains that are etiologic in the initiation and progression of addictive disorders, having been implicated in humans with addictive disorders and in animal models of addictions. Measures of these three neuroscience-based functional domains can capture much of the effects of inheritance and early exposures that lead to trait vulnerability shared across different addictive disorders. For specific addictive disorders, these measures can be supplemented by agent specific measures such as those that access pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic variation attributable to agent-specific gatekeeper molecules including receptors and drug-metabolizing enzymes...
March 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264500/geneanalytics-pathway-analysis-and-genetic-overlap-among-autism-spectrum-disorder-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#18
Naveen S Khanzada, Merlin G Butler, Ann M Manzardo
Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCH) show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway analysis and genetic profiling to characterize common susceptibility genes obtained from published lists for ASD (792 genes), BPD (290 genes) and SCH (560 genes). Rank scores were derived from the number and nature of overlapping genes, gene-disease association, tissue specificity and gene functions subdivided into categories (e...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255755/epigenetics-a-link-between-addiction-and-social-environment
#19
REVIEW
Duyilemi C Ajonijebu, Oualid Abboussi, Vivienne A Russell, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels
The detrimental effects of drug abuse are apparently not limited to individuals but may also impact the vulnerability of their progenies to develop addictive behaviours. Epigenetic signatures, early life experience and environmental factors, converge to influence gene expression patterns in addiction phenotypes and consequently may serve as mediators of behavioural trait transmission between generations. The majority of studies investigating the role of epigenetics in addiction do not consider the influence of social interactions...
March 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251590/towards-precision-addiction-treatment-new-findings-in-co-morbid-substance-use-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Sean X Luo, Frances R Levin
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) may have common etiologies. ADHD is more prevalent in patients with substance use disorders, and this pattern is consistent across different substances of abuse. Individuals with SUDs and ADHD exhibit significant variations in their clinical presentations. The developmental trajectory of ADHD to SUDs is complex: ADHD symptoms appear first in some patients but not in others. Many patients present with a heterogeneous collection of psychiatric and substance use co-morbidities, and these symptoms change over time...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
keyword
keyword
41478
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"