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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191914/relative-contribution-of-genetic-individual-and-self-efficacy-factors-to-smoking-cessation-in-a-chinese-rural-population
#1
Qiang Wang, Suyun Li, Huijie Li, Xiaorong Yang, Fan Jiang, Nan Zhang, Mingkui Han, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nicotine dependence is influenced by genetic, individual, and psychological factors. We aimed to examine whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRN) were associated with smoking cessation (SC) using genetic risk score and compare the relative contribution of genetic, individual and self-efficacy factors to SC. METHODS: Eight hundred and nineteen male smokers (mean age: 59.62) were recruited from 17 villages of three counties in Shandong province, China...
February 13, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176155/genetic-counseling-for-alcohol-addiction-assessing-perceptions-and-potential-utility-in-individuals-with-lived-experience-and-their-family-members
#2
Fayth M Kalb, Victoria Vincent, Teresa Herzog, Jehannine Austin
Though addictions to substances including alcohol are highly heritable, there have been no studies regarding the possible applicability of genetic counseling to this set of conditions. Adults (≥18 years old) with a personal and/or family history of alcohol addiction were recruited to participate in an online survey-based study comprising 43 questions about beliefs/concern about recurrence risk and etiology of alcohol addiction and its impact on childbearing decisions, and perceptions of potential utility of genetic counseling for alcohol addiction...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127518/the-lack-of-association-between-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-gene-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-and-nicotine-dependence-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Sergej Nadalin, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović, Polona Lavtar, Nada Starčević Čizmarević, Alenka Hodžić, Juraj Sepčić, Miljenko Kapović, Borut Peterlin, Smiljana Ristić
OBJECTIVE: Blood-borne angiotensin II is generated from angiotensinogen via cleavage by renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzymatic cascade known as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Several lines of evidence indicate that ACE, beyond its classical role of mediating blood pressure regulation, might contribute to the etiology of substance addictions by influencing dopaminergic signaling. A functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was associated with risk for being a smoker among individuals with depression and with smoking severity in studies comprising patients with depression and healthy controls...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087369/multidimensional-assessment-of-impulsivity-in-relation-to-obesity-and-food-addiction
#4
Lauren VanderBroek-Stice, Monika K Stojek, Steven R H Beach, Michelle R vanDellen, James MacKillop
Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in "food addiction," a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction...
January 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044061/in-silico-identification-and-in-vivo-validation-of-mir-495-as-a-novel-regulator-of-motivation-for-cocaine-that-targets-multiple-addiction-related-networks-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#5
R M Bastle, R J Oliver, A S Gardiner, N S Pentkowski, F Bolognani, A M Allan, T Chaudhury, M St Peter, N Galles, C Smith, J L Neisewander, N I Perrone-Bizzozero
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and are implicated in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs). Using in silico genome-wide sequence analyses, we identified miR-495 as a miRNA whose predicted targets are significantly enriched in the Knowledgebase for Addiction Related Genes (ARG) database (KARG; http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn). This small non-coding RNA is also highly expressed within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a pivotal brain region underlying reward and motivation...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920734/role-of-stressful-life-events-avoidant-coping-styles-and-neuroticism-in-online-game-addiction-among-college-students-a-moderated-mediation-model
#6
Huanhuan Li, Yingmin Zou, Jiaqi Wang, Xuelin Yang
Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young's eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907082/gender-differences-in-compulsive-buying-disorder-assessment-of-demographic-and-psychiatric-co-morbidities
#7
Cristiana Nicoli de Mattos, Hyoun S Kim, Marinalva G Requião, Renata F Marasaldi, Tatiana Z Filomensky, David C Hodgins, Hermano Tavares
Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900824/mandibular-angle-fractures-a-comparative-study-between-one-and-two-plate-fixation
#8
Marcelo Silva Monnazzi, Marisa Ap Cabrini Gabrielli, Mário Francisco Real Gabrielli, Alexandre Elias Trivellato
BACKGROUND/AIM: The mandibular angle fracture is a challenging fracture to manage. Over time, the literature has shown many types of treatment modalities and different kinds of internal fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and complications of mandibular angle fractures managed by Champy's technique and two-plate fixation, over a period of 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The files of 149 patients with 155 angle fractures fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were chosen for this study...
November 7, 2016: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891376/smokeless-tobacco-and-stroke-a-clinico-epidemiological-follow-up-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#9
Subhransu Sekhar Jena, Shobhitendu Kabi, Baikuntha Nath Panda, B C Kameswari, Payal, Ishwar Chandra Behera, Subrat Kumar Tripathy, Seemanchana Mahanta
INTRODUCTION: Among the modifiable risk factors for stroke, tobacco smoking is well recognized. In some studies the use of Smokeless Tobacco (ST) has also been contributed as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Use of ST is very common in South-East Asia. The form of ST varies according to the geographical and cultural variation. AIM: To study the various clinical symptoms and radiological findings of stroke due to different types of ST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective hospital based study carried out over a period of 2 years...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890469/methamphetamine-addiction-vulnerability-the-glutamate-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#10
Karen K Szumlinski, Kevin D Lominac, Rianne R Campbell, Matan Cohen, Elissa K Fultz, Chelsea N Brown, Bailey W Miller, Sema G Quadir, Douglas Martin, Andrew B Thompson, Georg von Jonquieres, Matthias Klugmann, Tamara J Phillips, Tod E Kippin
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence and severity of methamphetamine (MA) abuse demands greater neurobiological understanding of its etiology. METHODS: We conducted immunoblotting and in vivo microdialysis procedures in MA high/low drinking mice, as well as in isogenic C57BL/6J mice that varied in their MA preference/taking, to examine the glutamate underpinnings of MA abuse vulnerability. Neuropharmacological and Homer2 knockdown approaches were also used in C57BL/6J mice to confirm the role for nucleus accumbens (NAC) glutamate/Homer2 expression in MA preference/aversion...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856558/human-polymorphisms-in-nicotinic-receptors-a-functional-analysis-in-ips-derived-dopaminergic-neurons
#11
Cristina Deflorio, Stéphane Blanchard, Maria Carla Carisì, Delphine Bohl, Uwe Maskos
Tobacco smoking is a public health problem, with ∼5 million deaths per year, representing a heavy burden for many countries. No effective therapeutic strategies are currently available for nicotine addiction, and it is therefore crucial to understand the etiological and pathophysiological factors contributing to this addiction. The neuronal α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is critically involved in nicotine dependence. In particular, the human polymorphism α5D398N corresponds to the strongest correlation with nicotine dependence risk found to date in occidental populations, according to meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies...
November 17, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816464/a-commentary-on-the-associations-among-food-addiction-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity-overlapping-conditions-with-idiosyncratic-clinical-features
#12
Caroline Davis
This commentary discusses the evidence linking patterns of compulsive overeating, such as binge eating and grazing, with a putative psychopathological condition known commonly as 'food addiction'. It also addresses their distinctiveness as independent - albeit overlapping - clinical entities. Discussions focus largely on their respective clinical features and neuropsychobiological associations. Despite semantic issues about the appropriateness of the food-addiction label, there is accumulating evidence that some vulnerable individuals display addictive symptoms in relation to their consumption of certain highly rewarding foods...
November 2, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816039/internet-addiction-and-its-facets-the-role-of-genetics-and-the-relation-to-self-directedness
#13
Elisabeth Hahn, Martin Reuter, Frank M Spinath, Christian Montag
A growing body of research focuses on problematic behavior patterns related to the use of the Internet to identify contextual as well as individual risk factors of this new phenomenon called Internet addiction (IA). IA can be described as a multidimensional syndrome comprising aspects such as craving, development of tolerance, loss of control and negative consequences. Given that previous research on other addictive behaviors showed substantial heritability, it can be expected that the vulnerability to IA may also be due to a person's genetic predisposition...
February 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800284/the-standard-for-clinicians-interview-in-psychiatry-scip-a-clinician-administered-tool-with-categorical-dimensional-and-numeric-output-conceptual-development-design-and-description-of-the-scip
#14
REVIEW
Ahmed Aboraya, Henry Nasrallah, Srinivas Muvvala, Ahmed El-Missiry, Hader Mansour, Cheryl Hill, Daniel Elswick, Elizabeth C Price
Existing standardized diagnostic interviews (SDIs) were designed for researchers and produce mainly categorical diagnoses. There is an urgent need for a clinician-administered tool that produces dimensional measures, in addition to categorical diagnoses. The Standard for Clinicians' Interview in Psychiatry (SCIP) is a method of assessment of psychopathology for adults. It is designed to be administered by clinicians and includes the SCIP manual and the SCIP interview. Clinicians use the SCIP questions and rate the responses according to the SCIP manual rules...
May 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773463/the-addicted-brain-imaging-neurological-complications-of-recreational-drug-abuse
#15
A Montoya-Filardi, M Mazón
Recreational drug abuse represents a serious public health problem. Neuroimaging traditionally played a secondary role in this scenario, where it was limited to detecting acute vascular events. However, thanks to advances in knowledge about disease and in morphological and functional imaging techniques, radiologists have now become very important in the diagnosis of acute and chronic neurological complications of recreational drug abuse. The main complications are neurovascular disease, infection, toxicometabolic disorders, and brain atrophy...
January 2017: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759944/a-review-of-the-prevalence-and-co-occurrence-of-addictions-in-us-ethnic-racial-groups-implications-for-genetic-research
#16
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749964/internalizing-and-externalizing-personality-and-subjective-effects-in-a-sample-of-adolescent-cannabis-users
#17
Sara García-Sánchez, Josep Lluís Matalí, María Martín-Fernández, Marta Pardo, Maria Lleras, Carmina Castellano-Tejedor, Josep Maria Haro
Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced...
October 6, 2016: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707973/t394a-mutation-at-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-blocks-opioid-tolerance-and-increases-vulnerability-to-heroin-self-administration-in-mice
#18
Xiao-Fei Wang, Elisabeth Barbier, Yi-Ting Chiu, Yi He, Jia Zhan, Guo-Hua Bi, Hai-Ying Zhang, Bo Feng, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Jia Bei Wang, Zheng-Xiong Xi
: The etiology and pathophysiology underlying opioid tolerance and dependence are still unknown. Because mu opioid receptor (MOR) plays an essential role in opioid action, many vulnerability-related studies have focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms of MOR, particularly on A118G. In this study, we found that a single-point mutation at the MOR T394 phosphorylation site could be another important susceptive factor in the development of opioid tolerance and dependence in mice. T394A mutation, in which a threonine at 394 was replaced by an alanine, did not alter agonist binding to MOR and opioid analgesia, but resulted in loss of etorphine-induced MOR internalization in spinal dorsal horn neurons and opioid analgesic tolerance induced by either morphine or etorphine...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683900/shared-neural-mechanisms-for-the-evaluation-of-intense-sensory-stimulation-and-economic-reward-dependent-on-stimulation-seeking-behavior
#19
Agnes Norbury, Vincent Valton, Geraint Rees, Jonathan P Roiser, Masud Husain
UNLABELLED: Why are some people strongly motivated by intense sensory experiences? Here we investigated how people encode the value of an intense sensory experience compared with economic reward, and how this varies according to stimulation-seeking preference. Specifically, we used a novel behavioral task in combination with computational modeling to derive the value individuals assigned to the opportunity to experience an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric shock). We then examined functional imaging data recorded during task performance to see how the opportunity to experience the sensory stimulus was encoded in stimulation-seekers versus stimulation-avoiders...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649380/the-typology-of-internet-gaming-disorder-and-its-clinical-implications
#20
Seung-Yup Lee, Hae Kook Lee, Hyekyung Choo
Various perspectives exist regarding Internet gaming disorder. While the concept of behavioral addiction is gaining recognition, some view the phenomenon as merely excessive indulgence in online pastimes. Still, in recent years, complains from patients or their family members about problems related to Internet use, particularly Internet gaming, have become more common. However, the clinical picture of Internet gaming disorder could be obscured by its heterogeneous manifestations with other intertwined factors, such as psychiatric comorbidities, neurodevelopmental factors, socio-cultural factors and game-related factors, that may influence the pathogenesis as well as the clinical course...
September 20, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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