keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

etiology of substance abuse

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092418/an-examination-of-the-etiologic-overlap-between-the-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-insomnia-and-common-psychopathology
#1
Mackenzie J Lind, Sage E Hawn, Christina M Sheerin, Steven H Aggen, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is comorbid with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. However, the extent to which the etiologic influences on insomnia and common psychopathology overlap is unclear. There are limited genetically informed studies of insomnia and internalizing disorders and few studies of overlap exist with externalizing disorders. METHODS: We utilized twin data from the Virginia Adult Twin Studies of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (total n = 7,500)...
January 16, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004602/posterior-hippocampal-stroke-presenting-with-transient-global-amnesia
#2
Federica Naldi, Simone Baiardi, Maria Guarino, Luca Spinardi, Fabio Cirignotta, Andrea Stracciari
The acute onset of isolated amnesia is an intriguing challenge for neurologist, because the lack of associated signs can be misleading for diagnosis. The most common cause is transient global amnesia (TGA), a benign condition, but rarely it results from abuse of substance/alcohol or cerebrovascular diseases. In the latter, the brain region involved is the hippocampus. We describe a patient with presenting symptoms of TGA, but affected by an ischemic hippocampal stroke. The computed tomography angiography helped the etiologic diagnosis showing an hemodynamic stenosis of the posterior P2P segment...
December 22, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987279/falsely-elevated-troponin-rare-occurrence-or-future-problem
#3
James Nguyen, Rosy Thachil, Neil Vyas, Thomas Marino
INTRODUCTION: Troponins are known to be released in response to cardiac damage and therefore are the biomarkers of choice for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), improving outcome in patients presenting with chest pain. However, false results can occur due to interference from other substances in the blood. CASE: A 52-year-old male with a past medical history of alcohol abuse, hypertension, and coronary artery bypass graft at age 34 with normal stress test 2 years before presented to the emergency department (ED) complaining of 1 day of non-exertional chest pain with radiation to the neck and left arm...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976973/elevated-rates-of-memory-impairment-in-military-service-members-and-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Nikki H Stricker, Sara M Lippa, Deborah L Green, Susan M McGlynn, Laura J Grande, William P Milberg, Regina E McGlinchey
INTRODUCTION: Studies investigating the neurocognitive effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) routinely find "deficits" in various cognitive domains. However, the rate of cognitive impairment in individuals with PTSD remains unclear, as studies have focused on null hypothesis testing (NHT) and inferring patterns of impairment rather than empirically determining the rate of cognitive impairment in this sample. METHOD: This study examined rates of cognitive impairment using a domain-specific approach in non-treatment-seeking Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn service members and veterans with (n = 92) and without (n = 79) PTSD and without substance abuse/dependence who passed a performance validity measure and were matched on age, education, estimated IQ, and ethnicity...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893581/the-effect-of-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-demographics-on-activation-of-department-of-child-and-family-services-in-pediatric-burn-injury
#5
Jessica K Campos, Yee M Wong, Brittany N Hasty, Kelly A McElligott, Michael J Mosier
Burns resulting from child maltreatment are tragic causes of significant morbidity and mortality, most commonly affecting children under 3 years of age. More than one third of nonaccidental burns occur in single-parent homes or have parents with history of mental illness, substance abuse, incarceration, or Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) involvement. The authors sought to profile pediatric burn injuries associated with DCFS investigations. They performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric burn patients, admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884623/relationship-between-toxoplasma-gondii-seropositivity-and-acoustic-startle-response-in-an-inner-city-population
#6
Nick M Massa, Erica Duncan, Tanja Jovanovic, Kimberly Kerley, Lei Weng, Lauren Gensler, Samuel S Lee, Seth Norrholm, Abigail Powers, Lynn M Almli, Charles F Gillespie, Kerry Ressler, Bradley D Pearce
Toxoplasma gondii (TOXO) is a neuroinvasive protozoan parasite that induces the formation of persistent cysts in mammalian brains. It infects approximately 1.1million people in the United States annually. Latent TOXO infection is implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia (SCZ), and has been correlated with modestly impaired cognition. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a reflex seen in all mammals. It is mediated by a simple subcortical circuit, and provides an indicator of neural function...
November 21, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860248/restructuring-of-basal-ganglia-circuitry-and-associated-behaviors-triggered-by-low-striatal-d2-receptor-expression-implications-for-substance-use-disorders
#7
REVIEW
L K Dobbs, J C Lemos, V A Alvarez
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) consistently emerge as a critical substrate for the etiology of some major psychiatric disorders. Indeed, a central theory of substance use disorders (SUDs) postulates that a reduction in D2R levels in the striatum is a determining factor that confers vulnerability to abuse substances. A large number of clinical and preclinical studies strongly support this link between SUDs and D2Rs; however, identifying the mechanism by which low D2Rs facilitate SUDs has been hindered by the complexity of circuit connectivity, the heterogeneity of D2R expression and the multifaceted constellation of phenotypes observed in SUD patient...
January 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723495/semiological-classification-of-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures
#8
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Jennifer Tinker, Elizabeth Fletman
PURPOSE: We classified patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) according to a newly proposed classification system. Then, we investigated the demographic and clinical differences between various classes of the patients. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNESs admitted to the Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2012 through 2016. We classified the patients into four distinct classes: patients with generalized motor seizures, patients with akinetic seizures, patients with focal motor seizures, and patients with seizures with subjective symptoms...
October 7, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338960/overview-on-prevalence-and-recent-trends-in-adolescent-substance-use-and-abuse
#9
REVIEW
Nicholas C Peiper, Ty A Ridenour, Bridget Hochwalt, Tamera Coyne-Beasley
Substance use and consequent disorders have burdened US health care, criminal justice, and society at large for centuries. Pathological substance use almost invariably begins before 25 years of age, demonstrating how critical adolescence is within the etiology, prevention, and treatment of substance use disorder. This article provides a high-level overview of the prevalence of substance use disorders to provide a context within which the remaining issue provides in-depth descriptions of the evidence on specific topics...
July 2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274792/evaluation-of-the-prevalence-of-drug-abuse-and-smoking-in-parents-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Nooshin Parvaresh, Shahrzad Mazhari, Neda Mohamadi, Najmeh Mohamadi
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. METHODS: In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 year-old children who referred to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics...
2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103862/evaluation-of-intoxicated-patients-hospitalized-in-a-newly-opened-level-two-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#11
Vildan Güngörer, Nurdan Kökten Yisldırım
AIM: The study aimed to retrospectively examine the demographic and etiological characteristics, prognosis and length of stay in intensive care unit of intoxicated patients hospitalized in Level two Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Samsun. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study retrospectively examined the records of patients hospitalized between 14(th) March 2014 and 14(th) March 2015 in Level two Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Samsun with respect to age, gender, cause of poisoning, time of emergency department admission, length of hospitalization and prognosis...
March 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27096932/local-spatial-clustering-in-youths-use-of-tobacco-alcohol-and-marijuana-in-boston
#12
Dustin T Duncan, Michael Rienti, Martin Kulldorff, Jared Aldstadt, Marcia C Castro, Rochelle Frounfelker, James H Williams, Glorian Sorensen, Renee M Johnson, David Hemenway, David R Williams
BACKGROUND: Understanding geographic variation in youth drug use is important for both identifying etiologic factors and planning prevention interventions. However, little research has examined spatial clustering of drug use among youths by using rigorous statistical methods. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine spatial clustering of youth use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. METHODS: Responses on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from 1,292 high school students ages 13-19 who provided complete residential addresses were drawn from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset...
July 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090229/social-change-and-access-to-a-palatable-diet-produces-differences-in-reward-neurochemistry-and-appetite-in-female-monkeys
#13
Vasiliki Michopoulos, Maylen Perez Diaz, Mark E Wilson
Understanding factors that contribute to the etiology of obesity is critical for minimizing the effects of obesity-related adverse physical health outcomes. Emotional eating or the inability to control intake of calorically dense diets (CDD) under conditions of psychosocial stress exposure is a potential risk factor for the development of obesity in people. Decreases in dopamine 2 receptors (D2R) availability have been documented in substance abuse and obesity in humans, as well as animal models of chronic stressor exposure...
August 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085758/rates-of-and-reasons-for-hospital-readmissions-in-patients-with%C3%A2-cirrhosis-a-multistate-population-based-cohort-study
#14
Elliot B Tapper, Brian Halbert, Jessica Mellinger
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There have been few population-based studies of the rates of and reasons for readmission to the hospital within 30 days among patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We identified all adult patients with cirrhosis who were admitted in 2011 to hospitals in California, Florida Massachusetts, Mississippi, New York, and Washington (119,722 unique index admissions with cirrhosis). We analyzed data from the State Inpatient Databases, which are longitudinal all-payer databases...
August 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012434/the-association-of-specific-traumatic-experiences-with-cannabis-initiation-and-transition-to-problem-use-differences-between-african-american-and-european-american-women
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
K B Werner, V V McCutcheon, A Agrawal, C E Sartor, E C Nelson, A C Heath, K K Bucholz
INTRODUCTION: To examine the contribution of trauma exposure to cannabis initiation and transition to first cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptom in African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) emerging adults. METHODS: Data are from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twins Study [(N=3787); 14.6% AA; mean age=21.7 (SD 3.8)]. Trauma exposures (e.g. sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessing another person being killed or injured, experiencing an accident, and experiencing a disaster) were modeled as time-varying predictors of cannabis initiation and transition to CUD symptom using Cox proportional hazards regression...
May 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957549/do-toxic-synergies-of-underlying-etiologies-predispose-the-positive-association-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-adhd
#16
Keith Fluegge
OBJECTIVE: In their meta-analysis, Adeyemo et al. reported a strong association between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and ADHD. However, less is understood about why such an association exists. METHOD: This commentary focuses on the underlying etiologies of both conditions to reveal potential toxic synergisms that could explain this association. RESULTS: Alcohol and substance abuse are recognized comorbidities in both conditions. The author of this commentary has recently been the first to propose that chronic exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O), an increasing environmental air pollutant and greenhouse gas, may contribute to the cognitive impairment seen in conditions such as ADHD and autism...
March 8, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934026/heterogeneity-in-10-year-course-trajectories-of-moderate-to-severe-major-depressive-disorder-a-danish-national-register-based-study
#17
Katherine L Musliner, Trine Munk-Olsen, Thomas M Laursen, William W Eaton, Peter P Zandi, Preben B Mortensen
IMPORTANCE: Evidence suggests that long-term trajectories of major depressive disorder (MDD) are heterogeneous. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) provides a rare opportunity to examine patterns and correlates of long-term trajectories in a large sample of patients with moderate to severe MDD. OBJECTIVE: To characterize patterns and correlates of 10-year course trajectories of MDD in the DPCRR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort containing 11 640 individuals born in Denmark in 1955 or later with their first recorded MDD diagnosis in the DPCRR between 1995 and 2002 was established...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913486/patterns-of-nonrandom-mating-within-and-across-11-major-psychiatric-disorders
#18
Ashley E Nordsletten, Henrik Larsson, James J Crowley, Catarina Almqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, David Mataix-Cols
IMPORTANCE: Psychiatric disorders are heritable, polygenic traits, which often share risk alleles and for which nonrandom mating has been suggested. However, despite the potential etiological implications, the scale of nonrandom mating within and across major psychiatric conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the nature and extent of nonrandom mating within and across a broad range of psychiatric conditions at the population level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort using Swedish population registers...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26882485/epidemiological-study-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injuries-experience-from-a-specialized-spine-center-in-iran
#19
N Derakhshanrad, M S Yekaninejad, F Vosoughi, F Sadeghi Fazel, H Saberi
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed for epidemiological assessment of Iranian Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries (TSCI), referred to a specialized spine center. SETTING: Patient recruitment and evaluations were conducted at the Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This study was performed from September 2011 to March 2015 on 1137 consecutive TSCIs. History, clinicoradiological findings as well as chronic complications and social integration were recorded...
October 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847479/-cathinones-use-in-paris
#20
A Batisse, M Grégoire, M Marillier, M Fortias, S Djezzar
BACKGROUND: The pattern of recreational drug use has changed over the last decade and now includes a multitude of substances sold as "research chemicals" or new psychoactive substances, "NPS". In France, synthetic cathinones emerged in 2008 (while first mentioned by the French police force in 2007 first alerts among users appeared in 2008) and have grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Under the Official Journal dated 11th June 2010, only mephedrone has been listed as narcotics but "designer drugs" have synthesized new substitute cathinones in order to avoid anti-drug laws...
August 2016: L'Encéphale
keyword
keyword
41477
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"