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etiology of substance abuse

Jessica K Campos, Yee M Wong, Brittany N Hasty, Kelly A McElligott, Michael J Mosier
Burns resulting from child maltreatment are tragic causes of significant morbidity and mortality, most commonly affecting children under 3 years of age. More than one third of nonaccidental burns occur in single-parent homes or have parents with history of mental illness, substance abuse, incarceration, or Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) involvement. The authors sought to profile pediatric burn injuries associated with DCFS investigations. They performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric burn patients, admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Nick M Massa, Erica Duncan, Tanja Jovanovic, Kimberly Kerley, Lei Weng, Lauren Gensler, Samuel S Lee, Seth Norrholm, Abigail Powers, Lynn M Almli, Charles F Gillespie, Kerry Ressler, Bradley D Pearce
Toxoplasma gondii (TOXO) is a neuroinvasive protozoan parasite that induces the formation of persistent cysts in mammalian brains. It infects approximately 1.1 million people in the United States annually. Latent TOXO infection is implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia (Scz), and has been correlated with modestly impaired cognition. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a reflex seen in all mammals. It is mediated by a simple subcortical circuit, and provides an indicator of neural function...
November 21, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Lauren Dobbs, Julia C Lemos, Veronica A Alvarez
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) consistently emerge as a critical substrate for the etiology of some major psychiatric disorders. Indeed, a central theory of substance use disorders (SUDs) postulates that a reduction in D2R levels in the striatum is a determining factor that confers vulnerability to abuse substances. A large number of clinical and preclinical studies strongly support this link between SUDs and D2Rs; however, identifying the mechanism by which low D2Rs facilitate SUDs has been hindered by the complexity of circuit connectivity, the heterogeneity of D2R expression and the multifaceted constellation of phenotypes observed in SUD patient...
November 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Jennifer Tinker, Elizabeth Fletman
PURPOSE: We classified patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) according to a newly proposed classification system. Then, we investigated the demographic and clinical differences between various classes of the patients. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNESs admitted to the Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2012 through 2016. We classified the patients into four distinct classes: patients with generalized motor seizures, patients with akinetic seizures, patients with focal motor seizures, and patients with seizures with subjective symptoms...
October 7, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nicholas C Peiper, Ty A Ridenour, Bridget Hochwalt, Tamera Coyne-Beasley
Substance use and consequent disorders have burdened US health care, criminal justice, and society at large for centuries. Pathological substance use almost invariably begins before 25 years of age, demonstrating how critical adolescence is within the etiology, prevention, and treatment of substance use disorder. This article provides a high-level overview of the prevalence of substance use disorders to provide a context within which the remaining issue provides in-depth descriptions of the evidence on specific topics...
July 2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Nooshin Parvaresh, Shahrzad Mazhari, Neda Mohamadi, Najmeh Mohamadi
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. METHODS: In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 year-old children who referred to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics...
2016: Addiction & Health
Vildan Güngörer, Nurdan Kökten Yisldırım
AIM: The study aimed to retrospectively examine the demographic and etiological characteristics, prognosis and length of stay in intensive care unit of intoxicated patients hospitalized in Level two Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Samsun. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study retrospectively examined the records of patients hospitalized between 14(th) March 2014 and 14(th) March 2015 in Level two Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Samsun with respect to age, gender, cause of poisoning, time of emergency department admission, length of hospitalization and prognosis...
March 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Dustin T Duncan, Michael Rienti, Martin Kulldorff, Jared Aldstadt, Marcia C Castro, Rochelle Frounfelker, James H Williams, Glorian Sorensen, Renee M Johnson, David Hemenway, David R Williams
BACKGROUND: Understanding geographic variation in youth drug use is important for both identifying etiologic factors and planning prevention interventions. However, little research has examined spatial clustering of drug use among youths by using rigorous statistical methods. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine spatial clustering of youth use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. METHODS: Responses on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from 1,292 high school students ages 13-19 who provided complete residential addresses were drawn from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset...
July 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Vasiliki Michopoulos, Maylen Perez Diaz, Mark E Wilson
Understanding factors that contribute to the etiology of obesity is critical for minimizing the effects of obesity-related adverse physical health outcomes. Emotional eating or the inability to control intake of calorically dense diets (CDD) under conditions of psychosocial stress exposure is a potential risk factor for the development of obesity in people. Decreases in dopamine 2 receptors (D2R) availability have been documented in substance abuse and obesity in humans, as well as animal models of chronic stressor exposure...
August 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Elliot B Tapper, Brian Halbert, Jessica Mellinger
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There have been few population-based studies of the rates of and reasons for readmission to the hospital within 30 days among patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We identified all adult patients with cirrhosis who were admitted in 2011 to hospitals in California, Florida Massachusetts, Mississippi, New York, and Washington (119,722 unique index admissions with cirrhosis). We analyzed data from the State Inpatient Databases, which are longitudinal all-payer databases...
August 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
K B Werner, V V McCutcheon, A Agrawal, C E Sartor, E C Nelson, A C Heath, K K Bucholz
INTRODUCTION: To examine the contribution of trauma exposure to cannabis initiation and transition to first cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptom in African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) emerging adults. METHODS: Data are from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twins Study [(N=3787); 14.6% AA; mean age=21.7 (SD 3.8)]. Trauma exposures (e.g. sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessing another person being killed or injured, experiencing an accident, and experiencing a disaster) were modeled as time-varying predictors of cannabis initiation and transition to CUD symptom using Cox proportional hazards regression...
May 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Keith Fluegge
OBJECTIVE: In their meta-analysis, Adeyemo et al. reported a strong association between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and ADHD. However, less is understood about why such an association exists. METHOD: This commentary focuses on the underlying etiologies of both conditions to reveal potential toxic synergisms that could explain this association. RESULTS: Alcohol and substance abuse are recognized comorbidities in both conditions. The author of this commentary has recently been the first to propose that chronic exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O), an increasing environmental air pollutant and greenhouse gas, may contribute to the cognitive impairment seen in conditions such as ADHD and autism...
March 8, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Katherine L Musliner, Trine Munk-Olsen, Thomas M Laursen, William W Eaton, Peter P Zandi, Preben B Mortensen
IMPORTANCE: Evidence suggests that long-term trajectories of major depressive disorder (MDD) are heterogeneous. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) provides a rare opportunity to examine patterns and correlates of long-term trajectories in a large sample of patients with moderate to severe MDD. OBJECTIVE: To characterize patterns and correlates of 10-year course trajectories of MDD in the DPCRR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort containing 11 640 individuals born in Denmark in 1955 or later with their first recorded MDD diagnosis in the DPCRR between 1995 and 2002 was established...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Ashley E Nordsletten, Henrik Larsson, James J Crowley, Catarina Almqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, David Mataix-Cols
IMPORTANCE: Psychiatric disorders are heritable, polygenic traits, which often share risk alleles and for which nonrandom mating has been suggested. However, despite the potential etiological implications, the scale of nonrandom mating within and across major psychiatric conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the nature and extent of nonrandom mating within and across a broad range of psychiatric conditions at the population level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort using Swedish population registers...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
N Derakhshanrad, M S Yekaninejad, F Vosoughi, F Sadeghi Fazel, H Saberi
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed for epidemiological assessment of Iranian Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries (TSCI), referred to a specialized spine center. SETTING: Patient recruitment and evaluations were conducted at the Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This study was performed from September 2011 to March 2015 on 1137 consecutive TSCIs. History, clinicoradiological findings as well as chronic complications and social integration were recorded...
February 16, 2016: Spinal Cord
A Batisse, M Grégoire, M Marillier, M Fortias, S Djezzar
BACKGROUND: The pattern of recreational drug use has changed over the last decade and now includes a multitude of substances sold as "research chemicals" or new psychoactive substances, "NPS". In France, synthetic cathinones emerged in 2008 (while first mentioned by the French police force in 2007 first alerts among users appeared in 2008) and have grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Under the Official Journal dated 11th June 2010, only mephedrone has been listed as narcotics but "designer drugs" have synthesized new substitute cathinones in order to avoid anti-drug laws...
August 2016: L'Encéphale
Mark R Keezer, Gail S Bell, Aidan Neligan, Jan Novy, Josemir W Sander
OBJECTIVE: The risk of premature mortality is increased in people with epilepsy. The reasons for this and how it may relate to epilepsy etiology remain unclear. METHODS: The National General Practice Study of Epilepsy is a prospective, community-based cohort that includes 558 people with recurrent unprovoked seizures of whom 34% died during almost 25 years of follow-up. We assessed the underlying and immediate causes of death and their relationship to epilepsy etiology...
February 23, 2016: Neurology
Sarah J Brislin, Noah C Venables, Laura E Drislane, Daniel M Blonigen, William G Iacono, Auke Tellegen, John F Edens, Christopher J Patrick
Psychopathy as conceptualized by the triarchic model encompasses three distinct dispositional constructs: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The current study sought to further validate triarchic (Tri) construct scales composed of items from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) as a foundation for advancing research on the etiology of psychopathy using existing large-scale longitudinal studies. MPQ-Tri scales were examined in three samples: mixed-gender undergraduate students (N = 346), male offenders from a residential substance abuse treatment facility (N = 190), and incarcerated female offenders (N = 216)...
December 18, 2015: Assessment
Henny M W Bos, Lynn Boschloo, Robert A Schoevers, Theo G M Sandfort
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety disorder. Little is known about this, even though it is now well documented that depression and anxiety are more prevalent among persons with same-sex attraction. METHOD: Data, derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), allowed us to compare patients with a same-sex (n = 122) and an exclusively opposite-sex (n = 1658) attraction...
September 2015: Brain and Behavior
Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Arif Demirdaş
Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPV1 cation channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, fear-associated responses, and depression modulate calcium ion influx...
2015: Current Neuropharmacology
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