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etiology of substance abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901645/minor-physical-anomalies-in-adolescents-at-risk-for-substance-use-and-early-sex
#1
Meng-Che Tsai, Chih-Ting Lee, I-Ning Tsai, Shu-Ting Gan, Yi-Lin Liang, Sheng-Hsiang Lin
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are associated with disruptions of fetal development. We propose that the same genetic compositions that contribute to the presence of MPAs, also predispose individuals to health-compromising behaviors, thus considering MPAs as particular endophenotypes.We developed a screening questionnaire for problematic conduct, substance abuse, and early sexual practice. A total of 108 adolescents (55 males, 50.9%) aged 11 to 19 years were recruited and further divided into case and control groups according to their answers to the questions of health behaviors mentioned above...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889330/the-initiation-of-cannabis-use-in-adolescence-is-predicted-by-sex-specific-psychosocial-and-neurobiological-features
#2
Philip A Spechler, Nicholas Allgaier, Bader Chaarani, Robert Whelan, Richard Watts, Catherine Orr, Matthew D Albaugh, Nicholas D'Alberto, Stephen T Higgins, Kelsey E Hudson, Scott Mackey, Alexandra Potter, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Robert R Althoff, Hugh Garavan
Cannabis use initiated during adolescence might precipitate negative consequences in adulthood. Thus, predicting adolescent cannabis use prior to any exposure will inform the etiology of substance abuse by disentangling predictors from consequences of use. In this prediction study, data were drawn from the IMAGEN sample, a longitudinal study of adolescence. All selected participants (n=1,581) were cannabis-naïve at age 14. Those reporting any cannabis use (out of 6 ordinal use levels) by age 16 were included in the outcome group (N=365, males n=207)...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756302/velopharyngeal-dysfunction-from-intranasal-substance-abuse-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#3
Peng You, Linda Chow, Anne Dworschak-Stokan, Murad Husein
OBJECTIVE: Intranasal substance abuse with cocaine or opioids can result in complications involving the midline nasal and oral structures. When the defect involves the velopharyngeal musculature, this leads to velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). This article aims to illustrate this clinical entity through a series of four patients and a review of the literature. METHODS: A series of four cases of VPD due to intranasal narcotic use and their management are discussed...
May 14, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753886/cocaine-impairs-serial-feature-negative-learning-and-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#4
Terry Davidson, Sara Hargrave, David Kearns, Matthew Clasen, Sabrina Jones, Alison Wakeford, Camille Sample, Anthony Riley
Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607791/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-risk-for-psychiatric-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-siblings
#5
Elina Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Petteri Joelsson, Auli Suominen, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Probands with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for several psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The risk of these disorders among the siblings of probands has not been thoroughly assessed in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Every child born in Finland in 1991-2005 and diagnosed with ADHD in 1995-2011 were identified from national registers. Each case was matched with four controls on sex, place, and date of birth...
April 2, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527591/intersection-of-stress-and-gender-in-association-with-transitions-in-past-year-dsm-5-substance-use-disorder-diagnoses-in-the-united-states
#6
Terril L Verplaetse, Kelly E Moore, Brian P Pittman, Walter Roberts, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Philip H Smith, Kelly P Cosgrove, Sherry A McKee
Background: Stress contributes to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders (SUD), with some research suggesting that the impact of stress on SUD is greater in women. However, this has yet to be evaluated in a national dataset, across major substances of abuse. Methods: Using data from the newly available U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Wave 3; n =36,309) we evaluated relationships among past year stressful life events (0 or 1 vs...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456938/deep-neck-space-infections-a-study-in-diabetic-population-in-a-tertiary-care-centre
#7
Kalpana Sharma, Devjani Das, Manish Joshi, Dipjyoti Barman, A J Sarma
This study is intended to analyze the clinical profile and outcomes of deep neck space infection in diabetic patients in our tertiary care centre. A prospective study of 1 year duration from 30th September 2015 to 30th September 2016 at department of Otorhinolaryngology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati. A total of 45 diabetic patients who presented with DNSI are included in this study. Their demographic profile, etiology, bacteriology, treatment, duration of hospital stay, complications and outcomes have been analyzed...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422735/successful-use-of-ketamine-for-burst-suppression-in-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-following-substance-abuse
#8
Dnyaneshwar P Mutkule, S Manimala Rao, Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri, Kunche Rajasri
Status epilepticus is frequently encountered in neuro Intensive Care Units. It is a medical emergency and if not treated promptly can lead to severe brain damage and even death. Here, we present the case of a 18-year-old male with uncontrolled and unrelenting seizures with a rare etiology requiring ketamine infusion for burst suppression as it was resistant to thiopentone and midazolam infusions. The management of this case is presented in detail.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404797/nasoseptal-perforation-from-etiology-to-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Carla Pereira, Alfonso Santamaría, Cristobal Langdon, Mauricio López-Chacón, José Hernández-Rodríguez, Isam Alobid
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nasal septum perforation (NSP) is a communication between the two nasal cavities. This review contributes to the better knowledge of NSP causes, diagnosis, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: NSP prevalence is about 1%. Clinical presentation may range from absence of symptoms to the presence of bothersome sinonasal symptoms. NSP is more frequently caused by trauma or post-surgery, inflammatory diseases, and abuse substances. Conservative management (nasal irrigation, topical use of antibiotic or lubricant ointments, or placement of prosthesis) is considered the first-line treatment...
February 5, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381219/spatial-epidemiology-of-alcohol-and-drug-related-health-problems-among-northern-plains-american-indians-nebraska-and-south-dakota-2007-to-2012
#10
William R Ponicki, Jeffrey A Henderson, Andrew Gaidus, Paul J Gruenewald, Juliet P Lee, Roland S Moore, Sharice Davids, Nick Tilsen
BACKGROUND: Despite high abstinence rates, American Indians experience elevated rates of many alcohol and other drug problems. American Indians also predominantly reside in poor and rural areas, which may explain some observed health disparities. We investigated whether geographic areas including reservations or large American Indian populations exhibited greater incidence of alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations. METHODS: We obtained inpatient hospitalization records for 2 Northern Plain states (Nebraska and South Dakota) for the years 2007 to 2012...
March 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375030/what-did-you-expect-substance-use-expectancies-mediate-the-relationships-between-dark-triad-traits-substance-use-and-substance-preference
#11
Adam Jordan Gott, Melanie D Hetzel-Riggin
This study explores the role of substance use expectancies as mediators between the Dark Triad of personality, substance use, and substance use preferences. A sample of college students ( M = 19.38, SD = 2.63, N = 207) completed an online questionnaire that assessed the Dark Triad traits, substance use history, substance preferences, and substance use expectancies. Three specific substance use expectancies-increased confidence, tension reduction, and cognitive enhancement-were shown to either partially or fully mediate the relationships between the Dark Triad and substance use behaviors and preference for certain substances of abuse...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313245/effect-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-cognitive-function-and-covert-hepatic-encephalopathy-diagnosis-in-cirrhotic-veterans
#12
Thomas K Burroughs, James B Wade, Michael S Ellwood, Andrew Fagan, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: In veterans, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with substance abuse, which in turn can lead to cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients are prone to cognitive impairment, which is typically due to covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE), but can also be affected by PTSD. The aim was to define the impact of PTSD on cognitive performance and the diagnosis of CHE in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Outpatient veterans with cirrhosis underwent two separate modalities for CHE cognitive testing [Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Scale (PHES) and Inhibitory Control Test (ICT)]...
February 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294857/structural-pathways-between-race-ethnicity-substance-use-military-service-and-male-perpetrated-intimate-partner-violence-in-pre-9-11-military-families
#13
Roberto Cancio
Along with service members, military families bear the brute consequences of global U.S. military intervention. Various studies have concluded that these deployments put military families at high risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Using structural equation modeling (SEM) as a novel approach to examine IPV among pre-9/11 military families, this study considers variations of self-reported IPV from the point of the abused partner to test the impact of several life events and demographic factors on the type of IPV most prevalent among perpetrators...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198090/-co-occurring-schizophrenia-and-substance-use-disorder-etiological-theories-and-challenges-in-israel
#14
REVIEW
Sharon Florentin, Sergey Raskin
A sizeable number of patients suffering from psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, are also diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). These dual diagnosis (DD) patients are considered very difficult to treat and differ in some of their characteristics from patients with schizophrenia or SUD exclusively. They have a worse prognosis and require more complex treatment which needs to be integrated for both of the disorders. In Israel there is a lack of training, professionals and institutions specializing in treatment for this population...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172598/biological-underpinnings-of-an-internalizing-pathway-to-alcohol-cigarette-and-marijuana-use
#15
Elisa M Trucco, Sandra Villafuerte, Andrea Hussong, Margit Burmeister, Robert A Zucker
There is a limited understanding as to how specific genes impact addiction risk. Applying a developmental framework and research domain criteria (RDoC) to identify etiological pathways from genetic markers to addiction may have utility. Prior research has largely focused on externalizing pathways to substance use. Although internalizing mechanisms have received less attention, there is strong support that addiction is a longer term consequence of using substances to cope with internalizing as well as externalizing problems...
January 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158252/food-addiction-high-glycemic-index-carbohydrates-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Belinda Lennerz, Jochen K Lennerz
BACKGROUND: Treatment success in obesity remains low, and recently food addiction has been delineated as an underlying etiologic factor with therapeutic relevance. Specifically, current treatment focuses on reduced food intake and increase of physical activity, whereas interventions for addiction encompass behavioral therapy, abstinence, and environmental interventions such as taxation, restrictions on advertising, and regulation of school menus. CONTENT: Here, we reviewed the pertinent literature on food addiction with a specific focus on the role of high-glycemic-index carbohydrates in triggering addictive symptoms...
January 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148866/drugs-of-abuse-and-novel-psychoactive-substances-at-outdoor-music-festivals-in-colorado
#17
Jacob Fox, Alexis Smith, Alexander Yale, Christopher Chow, Elsa Alaswad, Tracy Cushing, Andrew A Monte
BACKGROUND: Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA...
June 7, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072381/-sudden-cardiac-death-in-a-young-adult-with-diffuse-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Diab Ghanim, Erez Kachel, Jacob Lavie, Shemy Carasso, Amjad Shalabi, Fabio Kuzniec, Ehud Raanani, Nabih Salman, Offer Amir, Wadi Kinany
INTRODUCTION: We present a very unusual case in which a high-school student was admitted to our cardiac center unconscious and intubated after suffering from out of hospital SCD. There was no history of fever, substance abuse, family history of sudden cardiac death and/or coronary artery disease, arthralgia, hypercoagulable state or familial hyperlipidemia. An emergent coronary angiogram revealed diffuse obstructive coronary artery disease which was treated with several stents. The following days of his admission were characterized by hemodynamic instability, necessitating temporary support via extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), from which he was weaned off at a later stage...
October 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948451/a-diagnostic-approach-to-stroke-in-young-adults
#19
REVIEW
Christopher A Stack, John W Cole
Optimal diagnosis and management of stroke in young adults benefit from a multidisciplinary team, including a vascular neurology specialist. In addition to the "standard" vascular risk factors including smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, one needs to consider alternative etiologies including substance abuse, carotid/vertebral artery dissections, and rare genetic conditions among others. Once a young patient is determined to have had a stroke, the next question a clinician should ask is why did this patient have a stroke? A "heart to head" diagnostic approach is recommended...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938182/the-genetic-epidemiology-of-substance-use-disorder-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Jane Ebejer, Danielle M Dick, M Scott Bowers
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) remains a significant public health issue. A greater understanding of how genes and environment interact to regulate phenotypes comprising SUD will facilitate directed treatments and prevention. METHODS: The literature studying the neurobiological correlates of SUD with a focus on the genetic and environmental influences underlying these mechanisms was reviewed. Results from twin/family, human genetic association, gene-environment interaction, epigenetic literature, phenome-wide association studies are summarized for alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids...
November 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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