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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620250/influence-of-clinical-mastitis-and-its-treatment-outcome-on-reproductive-performance-in-crossbred-cows-a-retrospective-study
#1
Narender Kumar, A Manimaran, M Sivaram, A Kumaresan, S Jeyakumar, L Sreela, P Mooventhan, D Rajendran
AIM: Evaluation of the effect of clinical mastitis (CM) and its treatment outcome on the reproductive performance in crossbred cows retrospectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Datasets of 835 lactating cows affected with CM during a period of 12 years (2001-2012) were considered for this study. Mastitis treatment related data and reproductive parameters such as days to first detected heat (DTFDH), days to first insemination (DTFI), days open (DO), and number of services per conception (SC) were collected from mastitis treatment and artificial insemination registers, respectively...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619151/effects-of-vitamin-d-and-its-metabolites-on-cell-viability-and-staphylococcus-aureus-invasion-into-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#2
Yuan Yue, Lone Hymøller, Søren K Jensen, Charlotte Lauridsen, Stig Purup
Vitamin D has been found have various biological effects that may be potent in preventing bovine mastitis. Two forms of vitamin D, vitamin D2 (D2) and vitamin D3 (D3), can be hydroxylated to functional metabolites in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of vitamin D compounds for controlling bovine mastitis using in vitro cell models, and to compare the differences between D2 and D3 compounds. Results showed that D2 compounds have comparable effects to their D3 analogues on inhibiting MAC-T cell viability in vitro...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615128/17%C3%AE-estradiol-and-progesterone-decrease-mdp-induced-nod2-expression-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#3
Dan-Dan Xu, Gang Wang, Xian-Jing He, Jian-Fa Wang, Bin Yang, Zhi-Peng Sun, Dong-Bo Sun, Qian-Yu He, Xu Zhang, Rui Wu
During the periparturient period, many neuroendocrine changes develop in cows. Periparturient hormone fluxes may adversely affect mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility. 17β-Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) have been reported to function on immune regulation, and their concentration fluctuates dramatically during the perinatal period. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) mediate numerous aspects of innate immunity in humans and experimental animals. This study aimed to explore the effects of E2 and P4 on NOD2 expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs)...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615028/experimentally-induced-subclinical-mastitis-are-lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-eliciting-similar-pain-responses
#4
Annalisa Elena Jolanda Giovannini, Bart Henricus Philippus van den Borne, Samantha Kay Wall, Olga Wellnitz, Rupert Max Bruckmaier, Claudia Spadavecchia
BACKGROUND: Pain accompanying mastitis has gained attention recently as a relevant welfare compromising aspect of disease. Adequate pain recognition and therapy are necessary in the context of a modern and ethically acceptable dairy care. For research purposes mastitis is often induced by intramammary infusion of immunogenic bacterial cell wall components. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus are commonly administered to this end...
June 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606365/estimate-of-the-economic-impact-of-mastitis-a-case-study-in-a-holstein-dairy-herd-under-tropical-conditions
#5
Juliana L B Guimarães, Maria A V P Brito, Carla C Lange, Márcio R Silva, João B Ribeiro, Letícia C Mendonça, Juliana F M Mendonça, Guilherme N Souza
The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of mastitis at the herd level and the weight (percent) of the components of this impact in a Holstein dairy herd under tropical conditions. Three estimates of the economic impact of mastitis were performed. In estimates 1 and 2 the real production and economic indices from February 2011 to January 2012 were considered. In the estimate 1, indices for mastitis classified as ideal were considered, whereas in the estimate 2, the mastitis indices used were those recorded at the farm and at Holstein Cattle Association of Minas Gerais State database (real indices)...
July 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601453/efficacy-and-clinical-safety-of-pegbovigrastim-for-preventing-naturally-occurring-clinical-mastitis-in-periparturient-primiparous-and-multiparous-cows-on-us-commercial-dairies
#6
Peter Canning, Renee Hassfurther, Terry TerHune, Karen Rogers, Scott Abbott, David Kolb
Periparturient dairy cows experience impaired immune function, exhibited as a transient decrease in neutrophil function and neutropenia. This decrease in immune competence is associated with an increase in susceptibility to bacterial infections, including mastitis and metritis. Bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (bG-CSF) is an endogenous protein that enhances neutrophil bactericidal functions and increases the production of neutrophils from bone marrow precursors. Administration of pegbovigrastim (recombinant bG-CSF covalently bound to polyethylene glycol) around the time of calving has been shown to reduce the incidence of new clinical mastitis cases in a natural disease model system...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600854/impact-of-intramammary-tilmicosin-infusion-as-a-dry-cow-therapy
#7
M Mohammadsadegh
Three hundred subclinically infected quarters of 259 Holstein cows infected with gram-positive bacteria were selected via quota sampling based on the California Mastitis Test (CMT) result and were divided randomly and equally into treatment and test groups. Quarters of test group (n = 150 in 128 cows) were treated with an intramammary infusion of tilmicosin, and quarters of the control group (n = 150 in 131 cows) were treated with cloxacillin as a traditional intramammary infusion of dry cow (DC) ointment...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580069/granulomatous-mastitis-in-a-transgender-patient
#8
Kenny Q Sam, Frederick J Severs, Lilian O Ebuoma, Nagi S Chandandeep, Emily L Sedgwick
Granulomatous mastitis is a rare and benign inflammatory condition of the breast most commonly affecting women of child-bearing age as well as patients on oral contraceptives. This condition is important to identify due to its diagnostic mimicry of malicious entities such as breast carcinoma. Clinical and radiological findings are nonspecific and may overlap with breast carcinomas, thus pathologic confirmation is often necessary for definitive diagnosis. Although cases of granulomatous mastitis have been described in cisgender females, there have been no reported cases in the transgender patient, a growing patient population with few imaging guidelines...
February 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574304/quantitative-risk-assessment-of-antimicrobial-resistant-foodborne-infections-in-humans-due-to-recombinant-bovine-somatotropin-usage-in-dairy-cows
#9
Randall S Singer, Pamela L Ruegg, Dale E Bauman
Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a production-enhancing technology that allows the dairy industry to produce milk more efficiently. Concern has been raised that cows supplemented with rbST are at an increased risk of developing clinical mastitis, which would potentially increase the use of antimicrobial agents and increase human illnesses associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens delivered through the dairy beef supply. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative risk assessment to estimate the potential increased risk of human infection with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and subsequent adverse health outcomes as a result of rbST usage in dairy cattle...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551191/a-commercial-immune-modulating-feed-additive-restores-l-selectin-and-ccl5-expression-following-dexamethasone-treatment-of-murine-immune-cells-in-a-myd88-dependent-manner
#10
R J Ortiz-Marty, A Lewandowski, J D Chapman, I Kanevsky-Mullarky
Bovine mastitis costs the dairy industry billions of dollars every year and presents a health challenge in dairy facilities. Immunosuppressive effects of the periparturient period increase the incidence of mastitis. During this time, cattle experience an elevation in circulating cortisol, which reduces polymorphonuclear cell function and ability to clear infection. OmniGen-AF (OMN; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) is an immunomodulatory feed additive that alters gene expression and is used to reduce rates of mastitis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545485/bacteriological-etiology-and-treatment-of-mastitis-in-finnish-dairy-herds
#11
Johanna Vakkamäki, Suvi Taponen, Anna-Maija Heikkilä, Satu Pyörälä
BACKGROUND: The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012...
May 25, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545453/genome-wide-methylation-analysis-reveals-differentially-methylated-loci-that-are-associated-with-an-age-dependent-increase-in-bovine-fibroblast-response-to-lps
#12
Filiz T Korkmaz, David E Kerr
BACKGROUND: Differences in DNA methylation are known to contribute to the development of immune-related disorders in humans but relatively little is known about how methylation regulates immune function in cattle. Utilizing whole-transcriptome analyses of bovine dermal fibroblasts, we have previously identified an age and breed-dependent up-regulation of genes within the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway that correlates with enhanced fibroblast production of IL-8 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525984/study-protocol-evaluation-of-the-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-cect5716-for-the-prevention-of-mastitis-in-breastfeeding-women-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Diana M Bond, Jonathan M Morris, Natasha Nassar
BACKGROUND: Mastitis and accompanying pain have been associated with the cessation of breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast and may be a result of decreased immunity and a lowered resistance to infection. Mastitis affects up to one in five breastfeeding women with most episodes occurring in the first 6-8 weeks postpartum. Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of mastitis, but have not been popular or proven effective as a preventative agent. The WHO has highlighted significant concerns relating to adverse harms of antibiotic use with the production of antibiotic-resistant strains of disease organisms...
May 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525325/epidemiology-of-intramammary-infections-with-staphylococcus-aureus-and-mastitis-streptococci-in-a-dairy-cattle-herd-with-a-history-of-recurrent-clinical-mastitis
#14
H Vlkova, V Babak, I Vrtkova, D Cervinkova, D Marosevic, M Moravkova, Z Jaglic
The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524019/in-vitro-ability-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-to-form-biofilms
#15
Sarah Schönborn, Nicole Wente, Jan-Hendrik Paduch, Volker Krömker
This Research Communication describes the study of in vitro biofilm formation of mastitis causing pathogens. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that are attached to a surface and to each other and are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defences. In the present study 252 bacterial isolates from milk samples from bovine udder quarters with intramammary infections were examined with Congo Red agar (CRA) method and tube method (TM) for their ability to form biofilms...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513553/antibacterial-activity-of-7-epiclusianone-and-its-novel-copper-metal-complex-on-streptococcus-spp-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-and-their-cytotoxicity-in-mac-t-cells
#16
Mariana de Barros, Pedro Griffo Perciano, Marcelo Henrique Dos Santos, Leandro Licursi De Oliveira, Éderson D'Martin Costa, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo Moreira
Mastitis is an inflammation of mammary gland parenchyma that adversely affects bovine health and dairy production worldwide despite significant efforts to eradicate it. The aim of this work was to characterize the antimicrobial activity of 7-epiclusianone (7-epi), a compound extracted from the Rheedia brasiliensis fruit, its complex with copper against Streptococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis, and to assess their cytotoxicity to bovine mammary alveolar cells (MAC-T). The complex 7-epiclusianone-Cu (7-epi-Cu) was an amorphous green solid with optical activity...
May 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511395/clinical-and-cytological-spectrum-of-granulomatous-mastitis-and-utility-of-fnac-in-picking-up-tubercular-mastitis-an-eight-year-study
#17
Divya Achutha Ail, Pallavi Bhayekar, Avinash Joshi, Nidhi Pandya, Anuja Nasare, Pranoti Lengare, Ketan Ashok Narkhede
INTRODUCTION: Granulomatous Mastitis (GM) is a rare, benign, inflammatory disease of the breast. It is a well known mimicker of malignancy, clinically and radiologically. Patients are often subjected to number of tests for the right diagnosis. Non-specific Granulomatous Mastitis (NGM) and Tubercular Mastitis (TBM) are chief among the various causes of GM. They are important to be diagnosed early as their treatment varies significantly. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is simple, patient friendly and primary investigation modality in cases of lump in breast...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507412/the-effects-of-quercetin-on-microrna-and-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-bovine-neutrophils
#18
Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Suphakit Srikok, Duanghathai Saipinta, Sukolrat Boonyayatra
AIM: To investigate gene expression of microRNA (miRNA) milieus (MIRLET7E, MIR17, MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C), inflammatory cytokine genes (interleukin 1β [IL1B], IL6, CXCL8, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]), and the pathogen receptor toll-like receptor (TLR4) in bovine neutrophils under quercetin supplementation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated bovine neutrophils were incubated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide under quercetin treatment or left untreated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of the miRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts in neutrophils...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505549/intramammary-inoculation-of-panax-ginseng-plays-an-immunoprotective-role-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-a-murine-model
#19
P Silvestrini, C Beccaria, E A L Pereyra, M S Renna, H H Ortega, L F Calvinho, B E Dallard, C Baravalle
The immunoprotective effect of Panax ginseng (Pg) extract was investigated in a mouse mastitis model. Lactating female mice were intramammarily inoculated with Pg or placebo, and then were challenged with S. aureus, while other group was inoculated with S. aureus alone. The number of bacteria recovered from mammary glands was significantly lower in Pg-treated S. aureus-infected mice (group I) compared with placebo-treated S. aureus-infected mice (group II) and S. aureus-infected mice (group III). The mRNA expression of TLR2, TLR4, IL-1α and TNF-α was influenced by treatment; being the transcript levels for all genes higher in group I compared with group II and III...
May 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497118/novel-%C3%AE-lactamase-blaarl-in-staphylococcus-arlettae
#20
Sabrina N Andreis, Vincent Perreten, Sybille Schwendener
Whole-genome sequencing of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae strain SAN1670 from bovine mastitis milk revealed a novel β-lactamase operon consisting of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaARL, the antirepressor-encoding gene blaR1ARL, and the repressor-encoding gene blaIARL. The functionality of blaARL was demonstrated by gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The blaARL operon was chromosomally located in SAN1670 and present in 10 additional unrelated strains, suggesting intrinsic penicillin resistance in S...
May 2017: MSphere
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