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mastitis treatment

Myassar O Alekish, Z Bani Ismail, H M Hammouri, M H Daradka, S Al Taha, I Olymat
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a commercially-available polyvalent mastitis vaccine on the bacteriological cure rate of existing subclinical mastitis in Awassi sheep. Materials and Methods: A total of 164 lactating ewes were divided into two main groups according to udder health and milk somatic cell count (SCC): Group 1=normal (N; n=80) and Group 2=subclinical mastitis (SC; n=84). Each group was then subdivided randomly into two treatment groups: N vaccinated (Nvax ; n=38), N non-vaccinated (Nnvax ; n=42), SC vaccinated (SCvax ; n=42), and SC non-vaccinated (SCnvax ; n=42)...
February 2018: Veterinary World
S Leimbach, V Krömker
Because clinical mastitis, one of the most common diseases in dairy cows, is routinely treated with antimicrobial substances, it offers a high potential for future reduction of antimicrobial usage. In fact, intramammary antibiotic administration is not advisable in cases of clinical mastitis caused by coliform bacteria, yeasts, or protothecae or in cases with no detectable mastitis pathogen. To avoid unnecessary treatments with antimicrobials for the benefit of animal health and public welfare, the rapid identification of the mastitis-causing pathogens becomes necessary...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ulrike Kusebauch, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Stine L Bislev, Robert L Moritz, Christine M Røntved, Emøke Bendixen
Mastitis is a major challenge to bovine health. The detection of sensitive markers for mastitis in dairy herds is of great demand. Suitable biomarkers should be measurable in milk and should report pathogen-specific changes at an early stage to support earlier diagnosis and more efficient treatment. However, the identification of sensitive biomarkers in milk has remained a challenge, in part due to their relatively low concentration in milk. In the present study, we used a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry approach, which allowed the absolute quantitation of 13 host response proteins in milk for the first time...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ulf Emanuelson, Karin Sjöström, Nils Fall
BACKGROUND: Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds...
April 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Hong-Bo Xiao, Guo-Guang Sui, Xiang-Yang Lu, Zhi-Liang Sun
BACKGROUND: Mastitis is inflammation of a breast (or udder). Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) has been found as a key inflammatory mediator in mastitis. Purpose of this research was to investigate the mechanisms about repressing effect of kaempferol on mastitis. METHODS: Forty mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10): C57BL/6J control mice, untreated murine mastitis, 10 mg/kg kaempferol treated murine mastitis (ip), and 30 mg/kg kaempferol treated murine mastitis (ip)...
November 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Zhanna Polova, Lyudmyla Almakayeva, Tetiana Nehoda
The goal of the present study was to develop a new intramammary combination preparation for veterinary use based on silver citrate, arginine and dexpanthenol for the treatment and prophylaxis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. When creating combined medicines for veterinary use, attention must be paid to the factors that influence their stability in a combined presence, and the composition of drugs, as well as the technology for their preparation should be determined. In the current study, a qualitative and quantitative control of model mixtures of active ingredients, as well as of a silver citrate-based combined preparation was carried out...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
A K Vasquez, D V Nydam, C Foditsch, M Wieland, R Lynch, S Eicker, P D Virkler
An algorithm using only computer-based records to guide selective dry-cow therapy was evaluated at a New York State dairy farm via a randomized field trial. DairyComp 305 (Valley Ag Software, Tulare, CA) and Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day data were used to identify cows as low risk (cows that might not benefit from dry-cow antibiotics) or high risk (cows that will likely benefit). Low-risk cows were those that had all of the following: somatic cell count (SCC) ≤200,000 cells/mL at last test, an average SCC ≤200,000 cells/mL over the last 3 tests, no signs of clinical mastitis at dry-off, and no more than 1 clinical mastitis event in the current lactation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Marisa Haenni, Agnese Lupo, Jean-Yves Madec
The genus Streptococcus includes Gram-positive organisms shaped in cocci and organized in chains. They are commensals, pathogens, and opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Most Streptococcus species of veterinary relevance have a specific ecological niche, such as S. uberis , which is almost exclusively an environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis. In contrast, S. suis can be considered as a true zoonotic pathogen, causing specific diseases in humans after contact with infected animals or derived food products...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Melissa M Ledet, Amy K Vasquez, Gat Rauner, Allison A Bichoupan, Paolo Moroni, Daryl V Nydam, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Treatment of bovine mastitis with intramammary antibiotics is common, yet several concerns exist including failed efficacy for individual hosts or pathogens and the inability of approved drugs to revert mastitis-induced tissue damage to healthy tissue capable of returning to full milk production. These issues, in addition to aspects of public health such as accidental antibiotic residues in saleable milk and the potential for antimicrobial resistance, support the need to find alternative therapies for this costly disease...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhi Chen, Hailei Xia, Hongliang Shen, Xin Xu, Abdelaziz Adam Idriss Arbab, Mingxun Li, Huimin Zhang, Yongjiang Mao, Zhangping Yang
Due in part to production of an enterotoxin, S. aureus is a highly infectious pathogen and is a considerable threat to food hygiene and safety. The clinical mastitis models were established by S. aureus nipple tube perfusion. The influence of mastitis on the mammary gland tissue proteomic profile was investigated using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. In this study, healthy and mastitis tissues from different mammary gland areas of the same dairy cows were screened, and differentially expressed proteins were identified...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
M J Calcutt, I Lysnyansky, K Sachse, L K Fox, R A J Nicholas, R D Ayling
There is a worldwide problem of disease caused by Mycoplasma (M.) bovis in cattle; it has a significant detrimental economic and animal welfare impact on cattle rearing. Infection can manifest as a plethora of clinical signs including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis media and genital disorders that may result in infertility and abortion. Current diagnosis and control information are reviewed and analysed to identify gaps in knowledge of the causative organism in respect of the disease pathology, diagnosis and control methods...
March 27, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
A McLaren, K Kaseja, J Yates, S Mucha, N R Lambe, J Conington
Mastitis can prove expensive in sheep reared for meat production due to costs associated with treatment methods, poor lamb growth and premature culling of ewes. The most commonly used method to detect mastitis, in dairy systems, is somatic cell counts. However, in many meat-producing sheep flocks ewes are not routinely handled, thus regular milk sampling is not always possible. It is, therefore, worthwhile to investigate alternative phenotypes, such as those associated with udder conformation and methods of evaluating somatic cell counts in the milk, such as the California Mastitis Test...
March 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
F Zandkarimi, J Vanegas, X Fern, C S Maier, G Bobe
Clinical mastitis (CM), the most prevalent and costly disease in dairy cows, is diagnosed most commonly shortly after calving. Current indicators do not satisfactorily predict CM. This study aimed to develop a robust and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based metabolomic and lipidomic workflow using untargeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry for predictive biomarker detection. Using a nested case-control design, we measured weekly during the prepartal transition period differences in serum metabolites, lipids, inflammation markers, and minerals between clinically healthy Holstein dairy cows diagnosed with mastitis postcalving (CMP; n = 8; CM diagnosis d 1 = 3 cows, d 2 = 2 cows, d 4 = 1 cow; d 25 = 1 cow, and d 43 = 1 cow that had subclinical mastitis since d 3) or not (control; n = 9)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
María L Breser, Verónica Felipe, Luciana P Bohl, María S Orellano, Paula Isaac, Agustín Conesa, Virginia E Rivero, Silvia G Correa, Ismael D Bianco, Carina Porporatto
Bovine mastitis affects the health of dairy cows and the profitability of herds worldwide. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens in bovine intramammary infection. Based on the wide range of antimicrobial, mucoadhesive and immunostimulant properties demonstrated by chitosan, we have evaluated therapy efficiency of chitosan incorporation to cloxacillin antibiotic as well as its effect against different bacterial lifestyles of seven CNS isolates from chronic intramammary infections...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Denise Seok Fun Fok, Janna Joethy
Central venous stenosis is a rare cause of unilateral breast edema occurring in hemodialysis patients that needs to be differentiated from other differential diagnoses, including, but not limited to, inflammatory breast carcinoma, mastitis, lymphedema, and congestive heart failure. All reports of similar cases in the available literature have described improvement or resolution of the edema after treatment. Herein, we report and discuss the pathophysiology of breast edema formation in a patient who presented with massive left-sided breast edema 7 years after being diagnosed with central venous stenosis...
March 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Samantha K Wall, Olga Wellnitz, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Daniel Schwarz
Intramammary infections induce the initiation of the inflammatory response, resulting in an increase in somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. The SCC includes several different types of cells but does not differentiate between them. On the contrary, the new differential somatic cell count (DSCC) parameter allows for the differentiation between 2 groups of cells: polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and lymphocytes versus macrophages. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to describe the changes of both DSCC and SCC during mastitis induced by cell wall components from typical mastitis-causing pathogens [lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Escherichia coli; lipoteichoic acid (LTA), Staphylococcus aureus] known to trigger different severities of mastitis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S Ali Naqvi, Diego B Nobrega, Paul E Ronksley, Herman W Barkema
Clinical mastitis affects 3% of primiparous dairy cattle (heifers) in the first month after calving. Additionally, the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in the months before first calving is high, resulting in a high prevalence of heifers calving with IMI. Precalving therapy is an accepted recommendation for reducing mastitis in multiparous cows, but prophylactic treatment for heifers is uncommon in North America. Objectives of this study were to (1) quantify changes in postcalving udder health in heifers following application of a precalving treatment; (2) compare effectiveness among various types of treatments; and (3) compare effectiveness of various types of treatments against specific pathogens...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Gilly Regev, James Martins, Michael P Sheridan, Jonathan Leemhuis, James Thompson, Christopher Miller
Nitric oxide-releasing solution (NORS) is a liquid formulation that releases nitric oxide, a broad spectrum antimicrobial, single electron nitroxide radical. This solution was investigated as a potential antimicrobial treatment for bovine mastitis (BM). Three experiments were performed: a) NORS' effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro model; b) NORS' effect on milk obtained from dairy cows showing symptoms of clinical mastitis; and c) the consequences of administering NORS to healthy milking cattle using a dose-escalating in vivo study...
February 22, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Yujie Qiao, Jessica H Hayward, Ronald Balassanian, Kimberly M Ray, Bonnie N Joe, Amie Y Lee
Tuberculosis mastitis can be a challenging diagnosis, often presenting with clinical and imaging findings that are suspicious for malignancy. We present a case of a 49-year-old female with a breast mass initially diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Failure to respond to standard treatments, development of new breast masses, and discovery of a concurrent ulcerating thigh rash with similar histologic findings as the breast masses prompted further investigation, which ultimately lead to the diagnosis of tuberculosis mastitis...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Jianfeng Wang, Hongen Li, Juan Pan, Jing Dong, Xuan Zhou, Xiaodi Niu, Xuming Deng
Sortase A (SrtA)-catalyzed anchorage of surface proteins in most Gram-positive bacteria is indispensable for their virulence, suggesting that this transpeptidase is a promising target for antivirulence therapy. Here, an oligopeptide, LPRDA, was identified as an effective inhibitor of SrtA via virtual screening based on the LPXTG substrate sequence, and it was found to inhibit SrtA activity in vitro and in vivo (IC50 = 10.61 μM) by competitively occupying the active site of SrtA. Further, the oligopeptide treatment had no anti- Staphylococcus aureus activity, but it provided protection against S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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