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variations of normal anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030800/endoscopic-treatment-of-subepithelial-lesions-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
REVIEW
Vivien Wai Yin Wong, Osamu Goto, Hans Gregersen, Philip Wai Yan Chiu
Purpose of Review The study aimed to discuss novel endoscopic approaches to resection of submucosal lesions. Recent Findings Endoscopic resection by excavation, full-thickness resection, and submucosal tunneling are by now well-documented techniques for submucosal tumor resection. Combined approaches with laparoscopy such as several variations of laparoscopic endoscopic cooperation surgery (LECS) and non-exposed wall-inversion surgery (NEWS) are also possible now. Reports of these approaches show good results...
October 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024099/intrathyroidal-carotid-artery-and-nonrecurring-right-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-a-case-report
#2
Aaron Baker, Elizabeth E Cottrill, Olivia Munizza, Kathryn McGillen, Tyler McKinnon, David Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: When performing thyroidectomy, knowledge of normal anatomy and variants is vital to avoid injuring nearby structures. Typically, the bilateral carotids course posterolateral to the thyroid gland. We describe a rare variant of an intrathyroidal carotid artery, not previously described in the literature. METHODS: A 23-year-old woman with a strong family history of thyroid cancer presented with a left thyroid nodule, and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealing papillary thyroid carcinoma...
October 11, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023694/adaptive-self-organization-in-the-embryo-its-importance-to-adult-anatomy-and-to-tissue-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Jamie A Davies
The anatomy of healthy humans shows much minor variation, and twin-studies reveal at least some of this variation cannot be explained genetically. A plausible explanation is that fine-scale anatomy is not specified directly in a genetic programme, but emerges from self-organizing behaviours of cells that, for example, place a new capillary where it happens to be needed to prevent local hypoxia. Self-organizing behaviour can be identified by manipulating growing tissues (e.g. putting them under a spatial constraint) and observing an adaptive change that conserves the character of the normal tissue while altering its precise anatomy...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017734/anatomy-of-the-vasculature-of-the-lower-leg-and-harvest-of-a-fibular-flap-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
A K Abou-Foul, A Fasanmade, S Prabhu, F Borumandi
The fibular free flap (FFF) is based on the peroneal artery, which has a consistent anatomy and makes a minimal contribution to the pedal circulation. However, certain anatomical variations in the vasculature of the leg might leave the peroneal artery with a major role in the perfusion of the foot, and to raise a FFF could lead to ischaemic complications. Our aim was to review the implications of anatomical variants on planning and harvest of a FFF. We systematically reviewed all relevant publications, and included 28 cases that described a dominant peroneal artery and FFF...
October 7, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993563/mri-findings-consistent-with-peripatellar-fat-pad-impingement-how-much-related-to-patellofemoral-maltracking
#5
Mohamed Jarraya, Luis E Diaz, Frank W Roemer, William F Arndt, Ajay R Goud, Ali Guermazi
Peripatellar fat pads are intracapsular extrasynovial adipose cushions that accommodate the changing shape and volume of articular spaces during movement. Variations in bone geometry, passive and active stabilization mechanisms and/or functional demands may lead to peripatellar fat pad abnormalities. While peripatellar fat pads may be affected a variety of conditions such as synovial inflammation, tumor and fibrosis, a mechanical origin should also be considered. Commonly, the clinical term "impingement" is used synonymously in the radiological literature to refer to three distinct entities of structural peripatellar fat pad abnormalities: superolateral the infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa fat pad) edema, suprapatellar fat pad edema, and prepatellar fat pad edema, implying a mechanical origin of these conditions...
October 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970078/evaluation-of-cerebral-arterial-and-venous-system-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#6
Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh K Singh, Usha K Misra, Sunil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system infection especially pyogenic results in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) although associated with infarctions but there is no comprehensive study evaluating the role of CVST contributing in infarction. PURPOSE: To evaluate cerebral arterial and venous system using MR angiography (MRA) and MR venography (MRV) in TBM, and correlate with clinical and MRI findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with TBM were evaluated clinically and their consciousness was assessed by using Glasgow Coma scale...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966430/subject-specific-longitudinal-shape-analysis-by-coupling-spatiotemporal-shape-modeling-with-medial-analysis
#7
Sungmin Hong, James Fishbaugh, Morteza Rezanejad, Kaleem Siddiqi, Hans Johnson, Jane Paulsen, Eun Young Kim, Guido Gerig
Modeling subject-specific shape change is one of the most important challenges in longitudinal shape analysis of disease progression. Whereas anatomical change over time can be a function of normal aging; anatomy can also be impacted by disease related degeneration. Shape changes to anatomy may also be affected by external structural changes from neighboring structures, which may cause non-linear pose variations. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze disease related shape changes by coupling extrinsic modeling of the ambient anatomical space via spatiotemporal deformations with intrinsic shape properties from medial surface analysis...
April 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966305/functional-vascular-anatomy-of-the-brain
#8
Michihiro Tanaka
Functional vascular anatomy is the study of anatomy in its relation to the function that figures out the normal and pathological vascularization of the brain and spinal cord. The mechanism of anatomical variations (e.g. fenestration of the basilar artery, persistent primitive trigeminal artery, and aberrant subclavian artery) can be explained according to the embryological development of the cardiovascular system. The most developmental process is common among the species of the vertebrates from the fish to the mammalian in the early phase of embryo...
October 2, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959442/the-calendar-of-cytokines-seasonal-variation-of-circulating-cytokines-in-chronic-venous-insufficiency
#9
Paolo Spath, Veronica Tisato, Sergio Gianesini, Mirko Tessari, Erica Menegatti, Roberto Manfredini, Savino Occhionorelli, Paola Secchiero, Paolo Zamboni
OBJECTIVES: To assess if in chronic venous insufficiency, there is a seasonal variation of cytokines levels which could explain the typical worsening of symptoms during Spring and Summer. PARTICIPANTS: From 193 chronic venous insufficiency patients, we selected 32 patients in clinical stage C2-C3 of the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology classification. DESIGN: A prospective, comparative and blinded cytokines assessment in two different seasons...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953651/rare-anatomic-variation-of-the-right-hepatic-artery-and-accessory-right-hepatic-artery-supplying-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Yiming Liang, Enliang Li, Jiaqi Min, Chengwu Gong, Linquan Wu
INTRODUCTION: Each hepatic artery is functionally essential for providing blood supply to the liver, and so are variant arteries. Variant arteries, including the accessory right hepatic artery (ARHA) and replaced right hepatic artery (RRHA) are commonly described in the literature. However, they usually occur independently. Here, we report an extremely rare case that involved both an ARHA and an RRHA arising from the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), respectively...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948540/diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-transient-ischemic-dilation-tid-in-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Mohamed Alama, Christopher Labos, Handel Emery, Robert M Iwanochko, Michael Freeman, Mansoor Husain, Douglas S Lee
BACKGROUND: Transient ischemic dilatation (TID) of the left ventricle is a potential marker of high risk obstructive coronary artery disease on stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). There is, however, interstudy variation in the diagnostic performance of TID for identification of severe and extensive coronary disease anatomy, and varied prognostic implications in the published literature. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases for studies where TID was compared with invasive or CT coronary angiography for evaluation of coronary artery stenosis...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945289/anomalies-and-normal-variants-of-the-cerebral-arterial-supply-a-comprehensive-pictorial-review-with-a-proposed-workflow-for-classification-and-significance
#12
REVIEW
Arsany Hakim, Jan Gralla, Christoph Rozeik, Pasquale Mordasini, Lars Leidolt, Eike Piechowiak, Christoph Ozdoba, Marwan El-Koussy
Cerebral arteries may exhibit a wide range of variation from normal anatomy, which can be incidentally discovered during imaging. Knowledge of such variants is crucial to differentiate them from pathologies, to understand the etiology of certain pathologies directly related to a vascular variant, and to depict the changes in collateral circulation in patients with certain variants. Detection of particular variants may lead to the discovery of other nonvascular or vascular anomalies, especially aneurysms, and may also affect planning of endovascular or neurosurgical interventions...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878577/echocardiographic-classification-and-surgical-approaches-to-double-outlet-right-ventricle-for-great-arteries-arising-almost-exclusively-from-the-right-ventricle
#13
Kun-Jing Pang, Hong Meng, Sheng-Shou Hu, Hao Wang, David Hsi, Zhong-Dong Hua, Xiang-Bin Pan, Shou-Jun Li
Selecting an appropriate surgical approach for double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), a complex congenital cardiac malformation with many anatomic variations, is difficult. Therefore, we determined the feasibility of using an echocardiographic classification system, which describes the anatomic variations in more precise terms than the current system does, to determine whether it could help direct surgical plans. Our system includes 8 DORV subtypes, categorized according to 3 factors: the relative positions of the great arteries (normal or abnormal), the relationship between the great arteries and the ventricular septal defect (committed or noncommitted), and the presence or absence of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO)...
August 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874626/anatomical-variations-of-cervical-vein-drainage-in-candidates-for-neck-surgery
#14
Raoul Borioni, Federico Maspes, Virgilio Baldassarre, Mariano Garofalo
The knowledge of both normal and abnormal anatomy of the veins of the neck may be important for surgeons performing neck surgery, to avoid inadvertent injury to vascular structures. In a 75-year-old man candidated to carotid endarterectomy preoperative CT-scan showed a rare anomaly of the venous drainage in the area of the anterior jugular vein (AJV), that usually begins in the suprahyoid region via the confluence of several superficial veins, to open into the ipsilateral external jugular vein. A large left sided venous trunk, originating from an anomalous proximal confluence with the internal jugular vein, descended in the AJV anatomical position, to cross over the sternum draining into the right subclavian vein...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872096/clinical-reappraisal-of-vasculobiliary-anatomy-relevant-to-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#15
Kuldip Singh, Ranbir Singh, Manjot Kaur
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has many advantages as compared to open cholecystectomy. However, vasculobiliary injuries still continue to be a matter of concern despite advances in laparoscopic techniques. Misidentification and misperception of vasculobiliary structures is considered to be a pivotal factor leading to injuries. Although many studies since time immemorial have stressed on the importance of anatomy, an insight into laparoscopic anatomy is what essentially constitutes the need of the hour...
October 2017: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859645/effects-of-acupoint-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-primary-dysmenorrhoea-compared-with-nsaids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-19-rcts
#16
REVIEW
Yang Xu, Wenli Zhao, Te Li, Huaien Bu, Zhimei Zhao, Ye Zhao, Shilin Song
BACKGROUND: Primary dysmenorrhoea (PD), defined as painful menses in women with normal pelvic anatomy, is one of the most common gynaecological syndromes. Acupoint-stimulation could potentially be an effective intervention for PD. Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of acupoint-stimulation compared with Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NASIDs) in the treatment of PD. METHODS: Six databases were searched to December 2014. Sixteen studies involving 1679 PD patients were included...
August 31, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837460/normal-palmar-anatomy-and-variations-that-impact-median-nerve-decompression
#17
John G Seiler, Jimmy H Daruwalla, Samuel H Payne, Gregory K Faucher
Annually, carpal tunnel release is one of the most commonly executed orthopaedic procedures. Despite the frequency of the procedure, complications may occur as a result of anatomic variations. Understanding both normal and variant anatomy, including anomalies in neural, vascular, tendinous, and muscular structures about the carpal tunnel, is fundamental to achieving both safe and efficacious surgery. Reviewing and aggregating this information reveals certain principles that may lead to the safest possible surgical approach...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831274/biomechanical-paradigm-and-interpretation-of-female-pelvic-floor-conditions-before-a-treatment
#18
Vincent Lucente, Heather van Raalte, Miles Murphy, Vladimir Egorov
BACKGROUND: Further progress in restoring a woman's health may be possible if a patient with a damaged pelvic floor could undergo medical imaging and biomechanical diagnostic tests. The results of such tests could contribute to the analysis of multiple treatment options and suggest the optimal one for that patient. AIM: To develop a new approach for the biomechanical characterization of vaginal conditions, muscles, and connective tissues in the female pelvic floor...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828058/arthroscopic-knee-anatomy-in-young-achondroplasia-patients
#19
M Del Pilar Duque Orozco, N C Record, K J Rogers, M B Bober, W G Mackenzie, A Atanda
PURPOSE: Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. METHODS: Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820653/fibrous-skeleton-of-the-heart-anatomic-overview-and-evaluation-of-pathologic-conditions-with-ct-and-mr-imaging
#20
Farhood Saremi, Damián Sánchez-Quintana, Shumpei Mori, Horia Muresian, Diane E Spicer, Cameron Hassani, Robert H Anderson
The fibrous skeleton is concentrated at the base of the ventricular mass. It provides electrical insulation at the atrioventricular level and fibrous continuity for the leaflets of the mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves. Its components include the fibrous trigones, the fibrous area of aortic-mitral continuity, the subvalvar collar of the mitral valve, the membranous septum, the interleaflet triangles, the tendon of Todaro, and likely the conus ligament. The majority of the mitral annulus is fibrous, but the only true fibrous part of the tricuspid annulus is where the valvar leaflets are attached to the central fibrous body...
September 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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