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variations of normal anatomy

Surbhi Wadhwa, Vandana Tomar
Radial artery is an important consistent vessel of the upper limb. It is a useful vascular access site for coronary procedures and its reliable anatomy has resulted in an elevation of radial forearm flaps for reconstructive surgeries of head and neck. Technical failures, in both the procedures, are mainly due to anatomical variations, such as radial loops, ectopic radial arteries or tortuosity in the vessel. We present a rare and a unique anomalous medial branch of the radial artery spiraling around the flexor carpi radialis muscle in the forearm with a high rising superficial palmar branch of radial artery...
2016: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
David G Reuter, Yuk Law, Wayne C Levy, Stephen P Seslar, R Eugene Zierler, Mark Ferguson, James Chattra, Tim McQuinn, Lenna L Liu, Mark Terry, Patricia S Coffey, Jane A Dimer, Coral Hanevold, Joseph T Flynn, F Bruder Stapleton
The morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia is staggering. The physiology of the Page kidney, a condition in which increased intrarenal pressure causes hypertension, appears to provide a unifying framework to explain the complex pathophysiology. Page kidney hypertension is renin-mediated acutely and ischemia-mediated chronically. Renal venous outflow obstruction also causes a Page kidney phenomenon, providing a hypothesis for the increased vulnerability of a subset of women who have what we are hypothesizing is a "renal compartment syndrome" due to inadequate ipsilateral collateral renal venous circulation consistent with well-known variation in normal venous anatomy...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Heather A Richbourg, Matthew J Martin, Emma R Schachner, Margaret A McNulty
Rodent models are used for a variety of orthopedic research applications; however, anatomy references include mostly artistic representations. Advanced imaging techniques, including micro-computed tomography (microCT), can provide more accurate representations of subtle anatomical characteristics. A recent microCT atlas of laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) anatomy depicts the central and tarsal bone III (T3) as a single bone, differing from previous references. Fusion of tarsal bones is generally characterized as pathological secondary to mutations associated with growth factors, and normal variation has not been documented in the mouse tarsus...
October 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Mustafa Özbayrak, Servet Tatlı
Knowing the normal anatomy, variations, congenital and acquired pathologies of the portal venous system are important, especially when planning liver surgery and percutaneous interventional procedures. The portal venous system pathologies can be congenital such as agenesis of portal vein (PV) or can be involved by other hepatic disorders such as cirrhosis and malignancies. In this article, we present normal anatomy, variations, and acquired pathologies involving the portal venous system as showed on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 12, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Udit Rawat, Jennifer L Pierce, Scott Evans, A Bobby Chhabra, Nicholas C Nacey
Despite having many unique anatomic features relative to the other digits, the thumb has received little attention in the radiology literature. The thumb, with its opposable and prehensile abilities, enables fine manual dexterity. However, most radiologists have little familiarity with the structures that allow these dynamic movements, other than their recognition of the role of the ulnar collateral ligament in the setting of gamekeeper injury. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows optimal assessment of the intricate soft-tissue anatomy of the thumb, which enables thumb flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Z-Hye Lee, J T Stranix, Lavinia Anzai, Sheel Sharma
PURPOSE: De Quervain syndrome or tenosynovitis is a common wrist pathology caused by stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant anatomic variation within the first extensor compartment. METHODS: The terms "De Quervain's tenosynovitis" and "first extensor compartment anatomy" were comprehensively searched using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane database. The presence of a septum within the first dorsal compartment, the number of APL (abductor pollicis longus), and EPB (extensor pollicis brevis) tendon slips were identified...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Modesta Makungu, Wencke M du Plessis, Michelle Barrows, Hermanus B Groenewald, Katja N Koeppel
The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Vibhor Wadhwa, Aws S Hamid, Yogesh Kumar, Kelly M Scott, Avneesh Chhabra
Pudendal neuralgia is being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic pelvic pain, which may be related to nerve injury or entrapment. Due to its complex anatomy and branching patterns, the pudendal nerve abnormalities are challenging to illustrate. High resolution 3 T magnetic resonance neurography is a promising technique for the evaluation of peripheral neuropathies. In this article, the authors discuss the normal pudendal nerve anatomy and its variations, technical considerations of pudendal nerve imaging, and highlight the normal and abnormal appearances of the pudendal nerve and its branches with illustrative case examples...
September 23, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Carla Stecco, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs, Raffaele De Caro
Forensic Clinical Anatomy is a new practical application of the discipline of Clinical Anatomy for ascertaining and evaluating medico-legal questions. In particular, individual anatomy (normal anatomy, anatomical variations, age-, disease- or surgery-related modifications) can acquire significant relevance in various fields of legal medicine such as child abuse, sudden death, medical responsibility and/or liability, personal injury and damage. Anatomical data of forensic interest frequently arise from the correct application of methods of ascertainment; anatomical methods may then be required for further comprehensive analysis...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Pau Medrano-Gracia, John Ormiston, Mark Webster, Susann Beier, Alistair Young, Chris Ellis, Chunliang Wang, Örjan Smedby, Brett Cowan
AIMS: The aim of this study was to define the shape variations, including diameters and angles, of the major coronary artery bifurcations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Computed tomographic angiograms from 300 adults with a zero calcium score and no stenoses were segmented for centreline and luminal models. A computational atlas was constructed enabling automatic quantification of 3D angles, diameters and lengths of the coronary tree. The diameter (mean±SD) of the left main coronary was 3...
September 18, 2016: EuroIntervention
Nigel Pereira, Isaac Kligman
Several variations in fallopian tube anatomy may be noted during the evaluation of infertility. Some anatomical variants such as accessory tubal ostia are rare. A 31-year-old woman presented to our center with a 2-year history of primary infertility. Given her history of dysmenorrhea, a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. Laparoscopy revealed a left utero-sacral endometriosis implant, which was resected. Although the left fallopian tube was normal, the right fallopian tube was noted to have two prongs with individual ostia...
July 2016: Women's Health
Charlotta Kämpfe Nordström, Göran Laurell, Helge Rask-Andersen
HYPOTHESIS: The human vestibular aqueduct (VA) shows great anatomical variations, and imaging can be difficult, so we need more data on the normal anatomy of the VA for better radiologic evaluation of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). BACKGROUND: The normal anatomy of the human VA was analyzed in micro-dissected human temporal bones. METHODS: The study is based on two sets of human temporal bones. One set of 32 human temporal bones was selected from a collection of 50 micro-dissected specimens...
September 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Tulika Gupta, Daisy Sahni, R Shane Tubbs, Sunil K Gupta
BACKGROUND: The fornix is the main efferent tract from the hippocampus and is an important component of the memory pathways. Variations in the anatomy of the fornix are not commonly encountered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anatomy of the fornix was studied in 30 cadavers of normal adult healthy males who had died in road accidents. The full extent of the hippocampus was prosected up to the tail under the magnoscope. RESULTS: In 10 of the 30 brains, the crura and the body of fornix were bilaterally broad and flat like a sheet, rather than the usual compact bundle, forming a cobra-like hood over the roof of the third ventricle...
September 2016: Neurology India
Marie-Lyne Nault, Laurence Gascon, Jonah Hébert-Davies, Stéphane Leduc, G Yves Laflamme, Dennis Kramer
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of this study is that a sprain or tear of 1 or more of the 3 syndesmotic ligaments will result in a significant change in the osseous anatomy relationship when comparing injured to uninjured syndesmosis. Our secondary objective was to determine whether injuries to the syndesmosis as diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be found using static imaging. METHODS: This is a descriptive radiological study of ankle MRI reports over a 12-year period, from 2 different institutions, and divided in two groups: normal and injured syndesmotic ligaments...
September 13, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
P Vaněk, Ondřej Bradáč, P de Lacy, R Konopková, J Lacman, V Beneš
There are numerous indications for stabilization using instrumentation of the upper cervical spine. This area is comprised of sophisticated anatomy. There is no study describing bony and vascular anomalies of this area in the middle European population. The main aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of any vertebral artery (VA) variations and osseous anomalies in the region of the craniocervical junction in a large sample of Czech patients based on three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D CTA)...
September 13, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Gourav Goyal, Rambir Singh, Nikhil Bansal, Vimal Kumar Paliwal
PURPOSE: Knowledge of variations in the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy seen on magnetic resonance (MR) venography is essential to avoid over-diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Very limited data is available on gender difference of the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy variations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to study the normal anatomy of the intracranial venous system and its normal variation, as depicted by 3D MR venography, in normal adults and any gender-related differences...
September 2016: Neurointervention
Vishwajit Deshmukh, Seema Singh, Neerja Sirohi, Divya Baruhee
The obturator artery normally originates from the internal iliac artery while the obturator vein drains into the internal iliac vein. During a routine gross anatomy dissection class for undergraduate students at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, a rare unilateral variation in the obturator vasculature was found in a female cadaver of approximately 55 years of age. In this case, the left obturator artery originated from the superior gluteal artery and the left obturator vein drained into the external iliac vein...
August 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Ronald G Ray
There are a number of variations in the intra-articular anatomy of the ankle which should not be considered pathological under all circumstances. The anteromedial corner of the tibial plafond (between the anterior edge of the tibial plafond and the medial malleolus) can have a notch, void of cartilage and bone. This area can appear degenerative arthroscopically; it is actually a normal variant of the articular surface. The anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITF) can possess a lower, accessory band which can impinge on the anterolateral edge of the talar dome...
October 2016: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
David J Goldberg, Benjamin French, Anita L Szwast, Michael G McBride, Stephen M Paridon, Jack Rychik, Laura Mercer-Rosa
OBJECTIVE: Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) is a reproducible measure of right ventricular systolic function. We sought to determine the reliability of TAPSE measurements, to evaluate TAPSE in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) relative to normal values, and to correlate values of TAPSE with measures of exercise performance. DESIGN: Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measurements were performed off-line in the cohort of patients with single right ventricle anatomy who had been enrolled in the Sildenafil After Fontan Operation clinical trial...
September 5, 2016: Echocardiography
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