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variations of normal anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474516/nasal-structural-and-aerodynamic-features-that-may-benefit-normal-olfactory-sensitivity
#1
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Kanghyun Kim, Bradley A Otto, Alexander A Farag, Beverly J Cowart, Edmund A Pribitkin, Pamela Dalton, Kai Zhao
Nasal airflow that effectively transports ambient odors to the olfactory receptors is important for human olfaction. Yet, the impact of nasal anatomical variations on airflow pattern and olfactory function are not fully understood. In this study, 22 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent CT scans for computational simulations of nasal airflow patterns. Unilateral odor detection thresholds (ODT) to l-Carvone, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and d-Limonene were also obtained for all participants. Significant normative variations in both nasal anatomy and aerodynamics were found...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404409/the-influence-of-dat1-comt-and-bdnf-genetic-polymorphisms-on-total-and-subregional-hippocampal-volumes-in-early-onset-heavy-cannabis-users
#2
Albert Batalla, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yann Chye, Murat Yücel, Carles Soriano-Mas, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Marta Torrens, José A S Crippa, Rocío Martín-Santos
Introduction: Hippocampal neuroanatomy is affected by genetic variations in dopaminergic candidate genes and environmental insults, such as early onset of chronic cannabis exposure. Here, we examine how hippocampal total and subregional volumes are affected by cannabis use and functional polymorphisms of dopamine-relevant genes, including the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine transporter (DAT1), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes. Material and Methods: We manually traced total hippocampal volumes and automatically segmented hippocampal subregions using high-resolution MRI images, and performed COMT, DAT1, and BDNF genotyping in 59 male Caucasian young adults aged 18-30 years...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383419/extensor-indicis-proprius-muscle-and-its-variants-together-with-the-extensor-digitorum-brevis-manus-muscle-a-common-classification-clinical-significance-in-hand-and-reconstructive-surgery
#3
Georgi P Georgiev, R Shane Tubbs, Alexandar Iliev, Georgi Kotov, Boycho Landzhov
PURPOSE: The extensor indicis proprius (EIP) is a muscle of the forearm that originates from the posterior surface of the ulna and the adjacent interosseous membrane and attaches to the index finger. Many anatomical variations of this muscle have been reported in the literature. The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) is a variant muscle found on the back of the wrist and hand. These muscle variants should be considered in the context of clinical syndromes and reconstructive hand surgery...
January 30, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368322/variation-and-anomalies-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery-review-and-pilot-study
#4
Karen Cilliers, Benedict Page
Variations and anomalies of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) have several clinical implications, including assisting in understanding the clinical signs of a stroke. Anomalies have been described previously; however, few reports mention the origins, absence, duplication and triplication of the cortical branches. Furthermore, the PCA branching pattern has not been adequately described. The aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and anomalies of the PCA. Results of a pilot study were additionally included...
December 14, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356620/variations-in-velopharyngeal-structure-in-adults-with-repaired-cleft-palate
#5
Jamie L Perry, Katelyn J Kotlarek, Bradley P Sutton, David P Kuehn, Michael S Jaskolka, Xiangming Fang, Stuart W Point, Frank Rauccio
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in velopharyngeal structures between adults with repaired cleft palate and normal resonance and adults without cleft palate. DESIGN: Thirty-six English-speaking adults, including 6 adults (2 males and 4 females) with repaired cleft palate (M = 32.5 years of age, SD = 17.4 years) and 30 adults (15 males and 15 females) without cleft palate (M = 23.3 years of age, SD = 4.1 years), participated in the study...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338790/morphometric-characterisation-of-human-tracheas-focus-on-cartilaginous-ring-variation
#6
Y Premakumar, M F Griffin, M Szarko
PURPOSE: Details regarding tracheal anatomy are currently lacking, with existing literature focussing mainly on the cricoid-tracheal region or the carina. External gross anatomy and internal morphology throughout the entire trachea is important for normal physiological functioning and various clinical applications such as designs for tracheal implants or endotracheal devices. OBJECTIVE: To determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of gross tracheal and individual tracheal ring anatomy...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334421/a-survey-of-tooth-morphology-teaching-methods-employed-in-the-united-kingdom-and-ireland
#7
M Lone, J P McKenna, J F Cryan, E J Downer, A Toulouse
BACKGROUND: Tooth morphology is a central component of the dental curriculum and is applicable to all dental specialities. Traditional teaching methods are being supplemented with innovative strategies to tailor teaching and accommodate the learning styles of the recent generation of students. METHODS: An online survey was compiled and distributed to the staff involved in teaching tooth morphology in the United Kingdom and Ireland to assess the importance of tooth morphology in the dentistry curriculum and the methodologies employed in teaching...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325356/-the-role-and-significance-of-digital-reconstruction-technique-in-liver-segments-based-on-portal-vein-structure
#8
X J Zhou, Q Dong, C Z Zhu, X Chen, B Wei, Y H Duan, J Zhao, X W Hao, H Zhang, P Nie, B Hu, W J Xu, R W Shen, Z H Chen, K R Dong, Y Z Bai, Q Shu, W J Luo, F Gao, N Xia, Q Y Yu
Objective: To study the segment of liver according to the large amount of three-dimensional(3D) reconstructive images of normal human livers and the vascular system, and to recognize the basic functional liver unit based on the anatomic features of the intrahepatic portal veins. Methods: The enhanced CT primitive DICOM files of 1 260 normal human livers from different age groups who treated from October 2013 to February 2017 provided by 16 hospitals were analyzed using the computer-aided surgery system.The 3D liver and liver vascular system were reconstructed, and the digital liver 3D model was established...
January 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275904/the-achilles-tendon-in-healthy-subjects-an-anthropometric-and-ultrasound-mapping-study
#9
Nick N Patel, Sameh A Labib
Ultrasonography is an inexpensive, fast, and reliable imaging technique widely used to assess the Achilles tendon. Although significant data exists regarding pathologic tendon changes, ultrasound data from healthy individuals are more limited. We aimed to better characterize ultrasound Achilles tendon measurements in healthy individuals and identify important correlating factors. The information collected included patient demographics, body habitus, activity level, foot dominance, and resting ankle angle. Ultrasound analysis was performed bilaterally on the Achilles tendons of 50 subjects using a high-frequency transducer to measure tendon width, thickness, cross-sectional area, and length...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223303/influence-of-body-habitus-on-dose-parameters-of-nodal-levels-iii-to-iv-irradiation-for-breast-cancer-comparison-of-3-techniques
#10
Sebastia Sabater, Marina Gascon, Manuel Gutierrez-Perez, Roberto Berenguer, Ellen M Donovan, Emma J Harris, Meritxell Arenas
This study aimed to investigate the effect of body habitus on supraclavicular (SC) dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters among breast cancer patients according to 3 different techniques. Three SC irradiation plans were generated for 24 postoperative breast cancer patients: (1) direct antero-posterior field only (1fieldP), with dose prescribed to a 3-cm depth; (2) 3-cm depth plan (3cmP) using an antero-posterior field plus a posterior boost with the dose prescription defined to 3 cm; and (3) optimized plan (OptP) similar to 3cmP, with dose prescribed depending on the anatomy...
December 6, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207690/morphological-and-morphometric-study-of-coronary-sinus-in-north-indian-population
#11
Beegum Zabina, Rajan Kumar Singla, Ravi Kant Sharma, Neelam Bala
Introduction: Coronary sinus (CS) is the largest vein draining the blood from heart. It is a muscular tube of about 2 cm to 3 cm length and 1 cm in caliber. It has become a clinically important structure through its role in providing access for different cardiac procedures viz., biventricular pacing, arrhythmia ablation and for deployment of an array of cardiac devices. Aim: To study the location, shape, length and width of CS including its left atrial muscular coverage in 50 cadaveric hearts...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146623/variations-in-rotation-of-the-aortic-root-and-membranous-septum-with-implications-for-transcatheter-valve-implantation
#12
Justin T Tretter, Shumpei Mori, Farhood Saremi, Sathish Chikkabyrappa, Kristen Thomas, Fang Bu, Rohit S Loomba, Tarek Alsaied, Diane E Spicer, Robert H Anderson
OBJECTIVE: It is intuitive to suggest that knowledge of the variation in the anatomy of the aortic root may influence the outcomes of transcatheter implantation of the aortic valve (TAVI). We have now assessed such variation. METHODS: We used 26 specimens of normal hearts and 78 CT data sets of adults with a mean age of 64±15 years to measure the dimensions of the membranous septum and to assess any influence played by rotation of the aortic root, inferring the relationship to the atrioventricular conduction axis...
November 16, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138875/variant-course-of-extensor-pollicis-brevis-tendon-in-the-third-extensor-compartment
#13
Shiro Sugiura, Yusuke Matsuura, Takane Suzuki, Satoru Nishikawa, Chisato Mori, Kazuki Kuniyoshi
INTRODUCTION: According to the anatomical literature, the extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tendon passes through the first compartment and enters the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. There have been a few reports on the different types of supernumerary EPB tendons; however, an unusual course of the EPB tendon is extremely rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Gross Anatomy, we detected an variant EPB muscle in a 96-year-old fresh female cadaver...
November 14, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131235/anatomical-variations-of-brachial-plexus-in-fetal-cadavers
#14
Alparslan Kirik, Senem Ertuğrul Mut, Mehmet Kadri Daneyemez, Halil İbrahim Seçer
AIM: The plexus brachialis is a complex structure with anatomical variations and connections with neighboring tissues. These variations may cause disparity in the motor and sensorial innervations of the upper extremity. The knowledge of anatomy and probable variations are important for performing surgical procedures in the neck, shoulder and axilla. This study was planned to demonstrate the anatomical variations of infantile brachial plexus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 20 plexus brachialis from 11 fetal cadavers were dissected and examined microscopically...
October 18, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103559/the-equine-fundus
#15
REVIEW
Gil Ben-Shlomo
Fundus is an anatomic term referring to the portion of an organ opposite from its opening, and the fundus of the eye is the back portion of the posterior segment of the globe, including the optic nerve, retina, and choroid. Clinically, the fundus can be visualized by direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. Understanding the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus is crucial for differentiating normal variations from abnormalities. This article reviews the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus and discusses basic and advanced examination techniques...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101462/the-validity-of-arterial-measurements-in-a-south-african-embalmed-body-population
#16
Marelize Schoeman, Albert van Schoor, Farhana Suleman, Liebie Louw, Peet du Toit
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the normal arterial diameter at a given anatomical point is the first step toward quantifying the severity of cardiovascular diseases. According to several studies, parameters such as weight, height, age and sex can explain morphometric variations in arterial anatomy that are observed in a population. Before the development of a reference database against which to compare the diameters of arteries in a variety of pathological conditions, the compatibility between embalmed body measurements and computed tomography (CT) measurements must first be established...
November 3, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089685/use-of-multidetector-computed-tomography-angiography-of-upper-limb-circulation-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery
#17
Hasan B Altinsoy, Ozkan Alatas, Hidayet Kayancicek, Erhan Hafiz, Omer F Dogan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the bilateral forehand circulation using a 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as a noninvasive method to define criteria for an upper extremity arterial anatomy and pathology prior to the use of arterial conduits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients with coronary artery disease who underwent total arterial coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomly selected for this prospective study. MDCT angiography was performed for 110 examinations of forearm and hand arterial anatomy...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076681/anatomical-variants-of-celiac-trunk-hepatic-and-renal-arteries-in-a-population-of-developing-country-using-multidetector-computed-tomography-angiography
#18
Muhammad Arifuzzaman, Syeda Sawaira Nasim Naqvi, Hatem Adel, Syed Omair Adil, Mahreen Rasool, Munawar Hussain
BACKGROUND: Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)s has become a major part in evaluation of hepatic and renal tumours. With improvements in MDCT, CT angiography has also improved and normal anatomy and its variants in patients undergoing operative or interventional procedures can be effectively studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anatomical variation of celiac trunk, hepatic and renal arterial systems in patients undergoing multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075424/the-use-of-spiral-ct-in-the-detection-and-management-of-a-permanent-maxillary-first-molar-with-single-root-and-single-canal-a-rare-occurrence
#19
Neil De Souza, Krishna Shetty, Rohit P Kolipaka, Paul Chalakkal
A sound knowledge of the normal tooth morphology and its numerous variations is essential to the success of endodontic therapy. While extra canals and lateral canals are routinely encountered and documented, there also exists the rare possibility of a fewer number of canals than normal. Early detection of such an occurrence is critical to the prevention of iatrogenic errors during endodontic treatment. The advent of spiral CT as a diagnostic tool serves as a much needed confirmation to understand the complex three dimensional anatomy of teeth...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063595/pulmonary-anatomy-and-a-case-of-unilateral-aplasia-in-a-common-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina-developmental-perspectives-on-cryptodiran-lungs
#20
E R Schachner, J C Sedlmayr, R Schott, T R Lyson, R K Sanders, M Lambertz
The common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is a well studied and broadly distributed member of Testudines; however, very little is known concerning developmental anomalies and soft tissue pathologies of turtles and other reptiles. Here, we present an unusual case of unilateral pulmonary aplasia, asymmetrical carapacial kyphosis, and mild scoliosis in a live adult C. serpentina. The detailed three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the respiratory system in both the pathological and normal adult C. serpentina, and a hatchling are visualized using computed tomography (CT), microCT, and 3D digital anatomical models...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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