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variations of normal anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223303/influence-of-body-habitus-on-dose-parameters-of-nodal-levels-iii-to-iv-irradiation-for-breast-cancer-comparison-of-3-techniques
#1
Sebastia Sabater, Marina Gascon, Manuel Gutierrez-Perez, Roberto Berenguer, Ellen M Donovan, Emma J Harris, Meritxell Arenas
This study aimed to investigate the effect of body habitus on supraclavicular (SC) dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters among breast cancer patients according to 3 different techniques. Three SC irradiation plans were generated for 24 postoperative breast cancer patients: (1) direct antero-posterior field only (1fieldP), with dose prescribed to a 3-cm depth; (2) 3-cm depth plan (3cmP) using an antero-posterior field plus a posterior boost with the dose prescription defined to 3 cm; and (3) optimized plan (OptP) similar to 3cmP, with dose prescribed depending on the anatomy...
December 6, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207690/morphological-and-morphometric-study-of-coronary-sinus-in-north-indian-population
#2
Beegum Zabina, Rajan Kumar Singla, Ravi Kant Sharma, Neelam Bala
Introduction: Coronary sinus (CS) is the largest vein draining the blood from heart. It is a muscular tube of about 2 cm to 3 cm length and 1 cm in caliber. It has become a clinically important structure through its role in providing access for different cardiac procedures viz., biventricular pacing, arrhythmia ablation and for deployment of an array of cardiac devices. Aim: To study the location, shape, length and width of CS including its left atrial muscular coverage in 50 cadaveric hearts...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146623/variations-in-rotation-of-the-aortic-root-and-membranous-septum-with-implications-for-transcatheter-valve-implantation
#3
Justin T Tretter, Shumpei Mori, Farhood Saremi, Sathish Chikkabyrappa, Kristen Thomas, Fang Bu, Rohit S Loomba, Tarek Alsaied, Diane E Spicer, Robert H Anderson
OBJECTIVE: It is intuitive to suggest that knowledge of the variation in the anatomy of the aortic root may influence the outcomes of transcatheter implantation of the aortic valve (TAVI). We have now assessed such variation. METHODS: We used 26 specimens of normal hearts and 78 CT data sets of adults with a mean age of 64±15 years to measure the dimensions of the membranous septum and to assess any influence played by rotation of the aortic root, inferring the relationship to the atrioventricular conduction axis...
November 16, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138875/variant-course-of-extensor-pollicis-brevis-tendon-in-the-third-extensor-compartment
#4
Shiro Sugiura, Yusuke Matsuura, Takane Suzuki, Satoru Nishikawa, Chisato Mori, Kazuki Kuniyoshi
INTRODUCTION: According to the anatomical literature, the extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tendon passes through the first compartment and enters the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. There have been a few reports on the different types of supernumerary EPB tendons; however, an unusual course of the EPB tendon is extremely rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Gross Anatomy, we detected an variant EPB muscle in a 96-year-old fresh female cadaver...
November 14, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131235/anatomical-variations-of-brachial-plexus-in-fetal-cadavers
#5
Alparslan Kirik, Senem Ertuğrul Mut, Mehmet Kadri Daneyemez, Halil İbrahim Seçer
AIM: The plexus brachialis is a complex structure with anatomical variations and connections with neighboring tissues. These variations may cause disparity in the motor and sensorial innervations of the upper extremity. The knowledge of anatomy and probable variations are important for performing surgical procedures in the neck, shoulder and axilla. This study was planned to demonstrate the anatomical variations of infantile brachial plexus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 20 plexus brachialis from 11 fetal cadavers were dissected and examined microscopically...
October 18, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103559/the-equine-fundus
#6
REVIEW
Gil Ben-Shlomo
Fundus is an anatomic term referring to the portion of an organ opposite from its opening, and the fundus of the eye is the back portion of the posterior segment of the globe, including the optic nerve, retina, and choroid. Clinically, the fundus can be visualized by direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. Understanding the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus is crucial for differentiating normal variations from abnormalities. This article reviews the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus and discusses basic and advanced examination techniques...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101462/the-validity-of-arterial-measurements-in-a-south-african-embalmed-body-population
#7
Marelize Schoeman, Albert van Schoor, Farhana Suleman, Liebie Louw, Peet du Toit
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the normal arterial diameter at a given anatomical point is the first step toward quantifying the severity of cardiovascular diseases. According to several studies, parameters such as weight, height, age and sex can explain morphometric variations in arterial anatomy that are observed in a population. Before the development of a reference database against which to compare the diameters of arteries in a variety of pathological conditions, the compatibility between embalmed body measurements and computed tomography (CT) measurements must first be established...
November 3, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089685/use-of-multidetector-computed-tomography-angiography-of-upper-limb-circulation-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery
#8
Hasan B Altinsoy, Ozkan Alatas, Hidayet Kayancicek, Erhan Hafiz, Omer F Dogan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the bilateral forehand circulation using a 64-channel multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as a noninvasive method to define criteria for an upper extremity arterial anatomy and pathology prior to the use of arterial conduits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients with coronary artery disease who underwent total arterial coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomly selected for this prospective study. MDCT angiography was performed for 110 examinations of forearm and hand arterial anatomy...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076681/anatomical-variants-of-celiac-trunk-hepatic-and-renal-arteries-in-a-population-of-developing-country-using-multidetector-computed-tomography-angiography
#9
Muhammad Arifuzzaman, Syeda Sawaira Nasim Naqvi, Hatem Adel, Syed Omair Adil, Mahreen Rasool, Munawar Hussain
BACKGROUND: Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)s has become a major part in evaluation of hepatic and renal tumours. With improvements in MDCT, CT angiography has also improved and normal anatomy and its variants in patients undergoing operative or interventional procedures can be effectively studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anatomical variation of celiac trunk, hepatic and renal arterial systems in patients undergoing multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075424/the-use-of-spiral-ct-in-the-detection-and-management-of-a-permanent-maxillary-first-molar-with-single-root-and-single-canal-a-rare-occurrence
#10
Neil De Souza, Krishna Shetty, Rohit P Kolipaka, Paul Chalakkal
A sound knowledge of the normal tooth morphology and its numerous variations is essential to the success of endodontic therapy. While extra canals and lateral canals are routinely encountered and documented, there also exists the rare possibility of a fewer number of canals than normal. Early detection of such an occurrence is critical to the prevention of iatrogenic errors during endodontic treatment. The advent of spiral CT as a diagnostic tool serves as a much needed confirmation to understand the complex three dimensional anatomy of teeth...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063595/pulmonary-anatomy-and-a-case-of-unilateral-aplasia-in-a-common-snapping-turtle-chelydra-serpentina-developmental-perspectives-on-cryptodiran-lungs
#11
E R Schachner, J C Sedlmayr, R Schott, T R Lyson, R K Sanders, M Lambertz
The common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is a well studied and broadly distributed member of Testudines; however, very little is known concerning developmental anomalies and soft tissue pathologies of turtles and other reptiles. Here, we present an unusual case of unilateral pulmonary aplasia, asymmetrical carapacial kyphosis, and mild scoliosis in a live adult C. serpentina. The detailed three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the respiratory system in both the pathological and normal adult C. serpentina, and a hatchling are visualized using computed tomography (CT), microCT, and 3D digital anatomical models...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030800/endoscopic-treatment-of-subepithelial-lesions-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#12
REVIEW
Vivien Wai Yin Wong, Osamu Goto, Hans Gregersen, Philip Wai Yan Chiu
Purpose of Review The study aimed to discuss novel endoscopic approaches to resection of submucosal lesions. Recent Findings Endoscopic resection by excavation, full-thickness resection, and submucosal tunneling are by now well-documented techniques for submucosal tumor resection. Combined approaches with laparoscopy such as several variations of laparoscopic endoscopic cooperation surgery (LECS) and non-exposed wall-inversion surgery (NEWS) are also possible now. Reports of these approaches show good results...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024099/intrathyroidal-carotid-artery-and-nonrecurring-right-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-a-case-report
#13
Aaron Baker, Elizabeth E Cottrill, Olivia Munizza, Kathryn McGillen, Tyler McKinnon, David Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: When performing thyroidectomy, knowledge of normal anatomy and variants is vital to avoid injuring nearby structures. Typically, the bilateral carotids course posterolateral to the thyroid gland. We describe a rare variant of an intrathyroidal carotid artery, not previously described in the literature. METHODS: A 23-year-old woman with a strong family history of thyroid cancer presented with a left thyroid nodule, and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealing papillary thyroid carcinoma...
October 11, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023694/adaptive-self-organization-in-the-embryo-its-importance-to-adult-anatomy-and-to-tissue-engineering
#14
REVIEW
Jamie A Davies
The anatomy of healthy humans shows much minor variation, and twin-studies reveal at least some of this variation cannot be explained genetically. A plausible explanation is that fine-scale anatomy is not specified directly in a genetic programme, but emerges from self-organizing behaviours of cells that, for example, place a new capillary where it happens to be needed to prevent local hypoxia. Self-organizing behaviour can be identified by manipulating growing tissues (e.g. putting them under a spatial constraint) and observing an adaptive change that conserves the character of the normal tissue while altering its precise anatomy...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017734/anatomy-of-the-vasculature-of-the-lower-leg-and-harvest-of-a-fibular-flap-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
A K Abou-Foul, A Fasanmade, S Prabhu, F Borumandi
The fibular free flap (FFF) is based on the peroneal artery, which has a consistent anatomy and makes a minimal contribution to the pedal circulation. However, certain anatomical variations in the vasculature of the leg might leave the peroneal artery with a major role in the perfusion of the foot, and to raise a FFF could lead to ischaemic complications. Our aim was to review the implications of anatomical variants on planning and harvest of a FFF. We systematically reviewed all relevant publications, and included 28 cases that described a dominant peroneal artery and FFF...
November 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993563/mri-findings-consistent-with-peripatellar-fat-pad-impingement-how-much-related-to-patellofemoral-maltracking
#16
Mohamed Jarraya, Luis E Diaz, Frank W Roemer, William F Arndt, Ajay R Goud, Ali Guermazi
Peripatellar fat pads are intracapsular extrasynovial adipose cushions that accommodate the changing shape and volume of articular spaces during movement. Variations in bone geometry, passive and active stabilization mechanisms and/or functional demands may lead to peripatellar fat pad abnormalities. While peripatellar fat pads may be affected a variety of conditions such as synovial inflammation, tumor and fibrosis, a mechanical origin should also be considered. Commonly, the clinical term "impingement" is used synonymously in the radiological literature to refer to three distinct entities of structural peripatellar fat pad abnormalities: superolateral the infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa fat pad) edema, suprapatellar fat pad edema, and prepatellar fat pad edema, implying a mechanical origin of these conditions...
October 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970078/evaluation-of-cerebral-arterial-and-venous-system-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#17
Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh K Singh, Usha K Misra, Sunil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system infection especially pyogenic results in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) although associated with infarctions but there is no comprehensive study evaluating the role of CVST contributing in infarction. PURPOSE: To evaluate cerebral arterial and venous system using MR angiography (MRA) and MR venography (MRV) in TBM, and correlate with clinical and MRI findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with TBM were evaluated clinically and their consciousness was assessed by using Glasgow Coma scale...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966430/subject-specific-longitudinal-shape-analysis-by-coupling-spatiotemporal-shape-modeling-with-medial-analysis
#18
Sungmin Hong, James Fishbaugh, Morteza Rezanejad, Kaleem Siddiqi, Hans Johnson, Jane Paulsen, Eun Young Kim, Guido Gerig
Modeling subject-specific shape change is one of the most important challenges in longitudinal shape analysis of disease progression. Whereas anatomical change over time can be a function of normal aging; anatomy can also be impacted by disease related degeneration. Shape changes to anatomy may also be affected by external structural changes from neighboring structures, which may cause non-linear pose variations. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze disease related shape changes by coupling extrinsic modeling of the ambient anatomical space via spatiotemporal deformations with intrinsic shape properties from medial surface analysis...
April 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966305/functional-vascular-anatomy-of-the-brain
#19
Michihiro Tanaka
Functional vascular anatomy is the study of anatomy in its relation to the function that figures out the normal and pathological vascularization of the brain and spinal cord. The mechanism of anatomical variations (e.g. fenestration of the basilar artery, persistent primitive trigeminal artery, and aberrant subclavian artery) can be explained according to the embryological development of the cardiovascular system. The most developmental process is common among the species of the vertebrates from the fish to the mammalian in the early phase of embryo...
November 15, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959442/the-calendar-of-cytokines-seasonal-variation-of-circulating-cytokines-in-chronic-venous-insufficiency
#20
Paolo Spath, Veronica Tisato, Sergio Gianesini, Mirko Tessari, Erica Menegatti, Roberto Manfredini, Savino Occhionorelli, Paola Secchiero, Paolo Zamboni
OBJECTIVES: To assess if in chronic venous insufficiency, there is a seasonal variation of cytokines levels which could explain the typical worsening of symptoms during Spring and Summer. PARTICIPANTS: From 193 chronic venous insufficiency patients, we selected 32 patients in clinical stage C2-C3 of the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology classification. DESIGN: A prospective, comparative and blinded cytokines assessment in two different seasons...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
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