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variations of normal anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820653/fibrous-skeleton-of-the-heart-anatomic-overview-and-evaluation-of-pathologic-conditions-with-ct-and-mr-imaging
#1
Farhood Saremi, Damián Sánchez-Quintana, Shumpei Mori, Horia Muresian, Diane E Spicer, Cameron Hassani, Robert H Anderson
The fibrous skeleton is concentrated at the base of the ventricular mass. It provides electrical insulation at the atrioventricular level and fibrous continuity for the leaflets of the mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves. Its components include the fibrous trigones, the fibrous area of aortic-mitral continuity, the subvalvar collar of the mitral valve, the membranous septum, the interleaflet triangles, the tendon of Todaro, and likely the conus ligament. The majority of the mitral annulus is fibrous, but the only true fibrous part of the tricuspid annulus is where the valvar leaflets are attached to the central fibrous body...
August 18, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804730/breast-dose-reduction-with-organ-based-wide-angle-tube-current-modulated-ct
#2
Wanyi Fu, Gregory M Sturgeon, Greeshma Agasthya, William Paul Segars, Anuj J Kapadia, Ehsan Samei
This study aimed to estimate the organ dose reduction potential for organ-dose-based tube current modulated (ODM) thoracic computed tomography (CT) with a wide dose reduction arc. Twenty-one computational anthropomorphic phantoms (XCAT) were used to create a virtual patient population with clinical anatomic variations. The phantoms were created based on patient images with normal anatomy (age range: 27 to 66 years, weight range: 52.0 to 105.8 kg). For each phantom, two breast tissue compositions were simulated: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (glandular-to-adipose ratio)...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800987/dynamic-three-dimensional-geometry-of-the-aortic-valve-apparatus-a-feasibility-study
#3
Arash Khamooshian, Yannis Amador, Ting Hai, Jelliffe Jeganathan, Maria Saraf, Eitezaz Mahmood, Robina Matyal, Kamal R Khabbaz, Massimo Mariani, Feroze Mahmood
OBJECTIVE: To provide (1) an overview of the aortic valve (AV) apparatus anatomy and nomenclature, and (2) data regarding the normal AV apparatus geometry and dynamism during the cardiac cycle obtained from three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE). DESIGN: Retrospective feasibility study. SETTING: A single-center university teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study was performed on data of 10 patients with a nonregurgitant, nonstenotic aortic valve undergoing cardiac surgery...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770443/how-to-proceed-with-examination-of-a-child
#4
REVIEW
Sonia Makhija, Poornima Tiwari
The assessment of a child is quite different from that of adults and requires knowledge of normal variations in anatomy and physiology with growth and development. An important part of initial assessment includes triage and recognizing children with emergency signs so that they can be managed at the earliest to prevent death and referred timely to the specialist. After ruling out emergency signs, the children with priority signs require prompt assessment, management and referral to the specialist. In addition to normal history as in adults, prenatal and birth history, developmental history, immunization history, feeding history and social history are important for complete assessment of the child...
August 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764141/morphological-study-of-human-liver-and-its-surgical-importance
#5
Heena J Chaudhari, Minal K Ravat, Vasant H Vaniya, Amul N Bhedi
INTRODUCTION: Liver is the largest abdominal organ located in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and left hypochondrium in upper abdominal cavity. Although the segmental anatomy of the liver has been extensively researched, very few studies have dealt with surface variations of the liver. The major fissures are important landmarks for interpreting the lobar anatomy and locating the liver lesions. AIM: To determine gross anatomical variations of liver and their clinical and surgical implications...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751538/coronary-anatomy-in-children-with-bicuspid-aortic-valves-and-associated-congenital-heart-disease
#6
Wilke M C Koenraadt, Margot M Bartelings, Regina Bökenkamp, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Marco C DeRuiter, Martin J Schalij, Monique Rm Jongbloed
OBJECTIVE: In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), coronary anatomy is variable. High take-off coronary arteries have been described, but data are scarce, especially when associated with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to describe coronary patterns in these patients. METHODS: In 84 postmortem heart specimens with BAV and associated CHD, position and height of the coronary ostia were studied and related to BAV morphology...
July 27, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744227/trauma-of-the-frontal-region-is-influenced-by-the-volume-of-frontal-sinuses-a-finite-element-study
#7
Srbislav S Pajic, Svetlana Antic, Arso M Vukicevic, Nenad Djordjevic, Gordana Jovicic, Zivorad Savic, Igor Saveljic, Aleksa Janović, Zoran Pesic, Marija Djuric, Nenad Filipovic
Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725918/a-comprehensive-review-of-motor-innervation-of-the-hand-variations-and-clinical-significance
#8
REVIEW
Sacha Wynter, Lakal Dissabandara
PURPOSE: The objective of the present review is to assemble the recognized anatomical variations, classifications, and clinical evidence with regard to innervation of the hand and discuss the clinical significance of these variations. METHODS: The material for this review was obtained by exploring PubMed and Google Scholar (search terms: hand innervation, variations of ulnar nerve, variations of median nerve, variations of radial nerve) as well as from standard anatomy texts...
July 19, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681754/microsurgical-anatomy-of-the-superior-sagittal-sinus-and-draining-veins
#9
Mariano Anto Bruno-Mascarenhas, Vengalathur G Ramesh, Sundar Venkatraman, Jolarpettai V Mahendran, S Sundaram
BACKGROUND: The superior sagittal sinus and the draining cerebral veins are often encountered during the surgery for parasagittal and falx meningiomas and during the interhemisperic transcallosal approaches. A knowledge about the variations from the normally described anatomy helps in anticipating and avoiding problems related to these structures during surgery. AIM: The normal variations in the disposition of the superior sagittal sinus and the number and direction of the draining veins in the Indian population have been studied...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670713/sonography-of-the-pronator-teres-normal-and-pathologic-appearances
#10
Viviane Créteur, Afarine Madani, Azadeh Sattari, Stefano Bianchi
The pronator teres muscle is rarely examined during a routine sonographic examination of the elbow joint. Nevertheless, it can be affected by a variety of conditions, including trauma and tumors, and can be implicated in compression of the median nerve. This pictorial essay first illustrates the anatomy and biomechanics of the pronator teres. Then we present the sonographic technique for examination, normal sonographic appearance, and anatomic variations of the pronator teres and adjacent structures as well as sonography of their main disorders...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631052/anatomic-variations-of-the-spleen-current-state-of-terminology-classification-and-embryological-background
#11
REVIEW
Ivan Varga, Jozef Babala, David Kachlik
A thorough understanding of the anatomy, physiology, and development of the spleen is essential for determining the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning splenic diseases and congenital variations. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize current knowledge regarding the normal development of the spleen, and to provide an overview of clinically relevant congenital splenic variations. These include such variations as asplenia, polysplenia, hyposplenia, lobulation of spleen, accessory spleens, accessory splenic nodules, wandering spleen, splenogonadal and splenopancreatic fusion, splenic cysts, and cavernous haemangioma of the spleen...
June 19, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624053/radiologic-evaluation-of-vasculobiliary-anatomy-in-the-umbilical-fissure
#12
Gu-Wei Ji, Fei-Peng Zhu, Ke Wang, Yong-Xiang Xia, Chen-Yu Jiao, Zi-Cheng Shao, Xiang-Cheng Li
BACKGROUND: Preoperative evaluation of vasculobiliary anatomy in the umbilical fissure (U-point) is pivotal for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PCCA) applied to right-sided hepatectomy. The purpose of our study was to review the vasculobiliary anatomy in the U-point using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique, to investigate the diagnostic ability of 2D scans to evaluate anatomic variations, and to discuss its surgical implications. METHODS: A retrospective study of 159 patients with Bismuth type I, II, and IIIa PCCA, who received surgery at our institution from November 2012 to September 2016, was conducted...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589055/lingual-foramina-and-canals-of-the-mandible-anatomic-variations-in-a-lebanese-population
#13
Georges Aoun, Ibrahim Nasseh, Sayde Sokhn, Mohamad Rifai
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular lingual foramina (LF) and canals and their anatomic variations using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology in a Lebanese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we analyzed CBCT images of 90 adult Lebanese patients (41 males and 49 females). We assessed the number and location of the LF. In additional, we measured: (a) The distance from both the alveolar crest and the inferior border of the mandible to the LF and (b) the length of the lingual canals (LCs)...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495652/acute-efficacy-safety-and-long-term-clinical-outcomes-using-the-second-generation-cryoballoon-for-pulmonary-vein-isolation-in-patients-with-a-left-common-pulmonary-vein-a-multicenter-study
#14
Christian-Hendrik Heeger, Verena Tscholl, Erik Wissner, Thomas Fink, Laura Rottner, Peter Wohlmuth, Barbara Bellmann, Mattias Roser, Shibu Mathew, Christian Sohns, Bruno Reißmann, Christine Lemeš, Tilman Maurer, Francesco Santoro, Johannes Riedl, Britta Goldmann, Ulf Landmesser, Feifan Ouyang, Karl-Heinz Kuck, Andreas Rillig, Andreas Metzner
BACKGROUND: Second-generation cryoballoon (CB2)-based pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has demonstrated encouraging clinical results in the treatment of paroxysmal (PAF) and persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF). However, the CB2 features a maximal diameter of 28 mm, and its adaptability to anatomic variations of the pulmonary veins (PVs) might be challenging. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the acute efficacy, safety, and long-term clinical results of CB2-based PVI in patients with a left common pulmonary vein (LCPV)...
May 8, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494642/normal-anatomy-and-variations-in-the-confluence-of-sinuses-using-digital-subtraction-angiography
#15
Yaqin Cheng, William A Li, Xingjuan Fan, Xiaohua Li, Jian Chen, Yan Wu, Ran Meng, Xunming Ji
OBJECTIVES: The configuration of the confluence of sinuses differs not only between individuals, but also between the two brain hemispheres, making the anatomical classification of this region difficult. In this study, we evaluated the anatomy of the confluence of sinuses and ascertained the accuracy and usefulness of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of cerebral veins. METHODS: Bilateral carotid and vertebral artery angiographies were performed in 500 adult patients to evaluate the anatomy of the confluence of sinuses and contributory venous sinuses...
June 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489166/anatomic-variations-of-hepatic-artery-a-study-in-479-liver-transplantations
#16
Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto, Heloise Caroline de Souza Lima, Priscylla Rabelo, Paulo Sérgio Vieira de Melo, Américo Gusmão Amorim, Cláudio Moura Lacerda
Background: The incidence of anatomic variations of hepatic artery ranges from 20-50% in different series. Variations are especially important in the context of liver orthotopic transplantation, since, besides being an ideal opportunity for surgical anatomical study, their precise identification is crucial to the success of the procedure. Aim: To identify the anatomical variations in the hepatic arterial system in hepatic transplantation. Methods: 479 medical records of transplanted adult patients in the 13-year period were retrospectively analyzed, and collected data on hepatic arterial anatomy of the deceased donor...
January 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457233/introduction-to-the-congenital-heart-defects-anatomy-of-the-conduction-system
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy P Moore, Jamil A Aboulhosn
The position and course of the conduction system in congenital heart disease are intricately tied to the underlying congenital malformation. Although only subtle differences exist between the anatomy of the conduction axis for simple congenital heart lesions and normal anatomy, almost every patient with congenital heart disease harbors some important anatomic variation. This article summarizes the body of literature by retaining original classical concepts and by attempting to translate the available knowledge into useful points for the congenital heart disease specialist...
June 2017: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447058/development-of-lymph-node-dissection-in-laparoscopic-gastrectomy-safety-and-technical-tips
#18
REVIEW
Ru-Hong Tu, Ping Li, Jian-Wei Xie, Jia-Bin Wang, Jian-Xian Lin, Jun Lu, Qi-Yue Chen, Long-Long Cao, Mi Lin, Chang-Ming Huang, Chao-Hui Zheng
With the accumulation of experience in laparoscopic radical gastrectomy and the progress in surgical instruments, the laparoscopic technique has been widely applied in gastric cancer. Combining previous reports with data from our center, we believe that laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer is safe and feasible, and its surgery-related complications have an incidence that is not higher, and perhaps even lower, than that of traditional laparotomy. However, the stomach has many anatomical levels and an abundant blood supply; additionally, laparoscopic surgery is relatively difficult...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390188/prediction-of-normal-bone-anatomy-for-the-planning-of-corrective-osteotomies-of-malunited-forearm-bones-using-a-three-dimensional-statistical-shape-model
#19
Flavien Mauler, Christoph Langguth, Andreas Schweizer, Lazaros Vlachopoulos, Tobias Gass, Marcel Lüthi, Philipp Fürnstahl
Corrective osteotomies of the forearm based on 3D computer simulation using contralateral anatomy as a reconstruction template is an approved method. Limitations are existing considerable differences between left and right forearms, and that a healthy contralateral anatomy is required. We evaluated if a computer model, not relying on the contralateral anatomy, may replace the current method by predicting the pre-traumatic healthy shape. A statistical shape model (SSM) was generated from a set of 59 CT scans of healthy forearms, encoding the normal anatomical variations...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389821/variations-of-anatomy-on-mri-of-the-first-extensor-compartment-of-the-wrist-and-association-with-dequervain-tenosynovitis
#20
Connie Y Chang, Arvin B Kheterpal, Joao Rafael Terneria Vicentini, Ambrose J Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study anatomical variations on MRI of the first extensor compartment of the wrist in DeQuervain tenosynovitis (DQT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search for DQT patients yielded 47 subjects (51 ± 15 years, 36 female, 11 male). The age-matched control group (normal first extensor compartment) was 49 ± 15 years (29 female, 18 male). Two independent readers reviewed: the number of abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon slips, tendon sheath septations (compartmentalization), and APL and EPB cross-sectional area (CSA) at the radial styloid...
August 2017: Skeletal Radiology
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