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variations of normal anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675634/investigation-of-circle-of-willis-variants-and-hemodynamic-parameters-in-twins-using-transcranial-color-coded-doppler-sonography
#1
Bianka Forgó, Ádám Domonkos Tárnoki, Dávid László Tárnoki, Levente Littvay, Corrado Fagnani, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Giorgio Meneghetti, Emanuela Medda, Filippo Farina, Claudio Baracchini
Morphological and hemodynamic variations of the circle of Willis (CW) may have an important impact on cerebrovascular events. However, the environmental and genetic influence remains unclear. For this reason we studied the variations and hemodynamic parameters of the CW in twins using transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS). Sixty-four twins, 19 monozygotic (MZ) and 13 dizygotic (DZ) pairs from the Italian Twin Registry (average age 45.0 ± 13.7 years) underwent TCCS and risk factor assessment. We examined CW morphology and recorded peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and pulsatility index (PI)...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667933/a-cbct-study-of-the-gravity-induced-movement-in-rotating-rabbits
#2
Jeffrey Barber, Chun-Chien Shieh, William Counter, Jonathan R Sykes, Peter Bennett, Verity Ahern, Stéphanie Corde, Soo-Min Heng, Paul White, Michael Jackson, Paul Liu, Paul J Keall, Ilana Feain
Fixed-beam radiotherapy systems with subjects rotating about a longitudinal (horizontal) axis are subject to gravity-induced motion. Limited reports on the degree of this motion, and any deformation, has been reported previously. The purpose of this study is to quantify the degree of anatomical motion caused by rotating a subject around a longitudinal axis, using cone-beam CT (CBCT). 
 
 In the current study, a purpose-made longitudinal rotating was aligned to a Varian TrueBeam kV imaging system...
April 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664450/quantitative-assessment-of-vertebral-artery-anatomy-in-relation-to-cervical-pedicles-surgical-considerations-based-on-regional-differences
#3
Amro Al-Habib, Fahad Albadr, Jehad Ahmed, Abdulrahman Aleissa, Abdullah Al Towim
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the anatomic relationship between the Cervical pedicle screw (CPS), vertebral artery (VA), and related anatomic structures in the Saudi population. METHODS: This retrospective single center study included 50 consecutive patients (35 males) with normal neck findings on computed tomography angiography performed for trauma or vascular evaluation between 2012 and 2014. Radiologic parameters were assessed and correlated with age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI)...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663370/deformable-torso-phantoms-of-chinese-adults-for-personalized-anatomy-modelling
#4
Hongkai Wang, Xiaobang Sun, Tongning Wu, Congsheng Li, Zhonghua Chen, Meiying Liao, Mengci Li, Wen Yan, Hui Huang, Jia Yang, Ziyu Tan, Libo Hui, Yue Liu, Hang Pan, Yue Qu, Zhaofeng Chen, Liwen Tan, Lijuan Yu, Hongcheng Shi, Li Huo, Yanjun Zhang, Xin Tang, Shaoxiang Zhang, Changjian Liu
In recent years, there has been increasing demand for personalized anatomy modelling for medical and industrial applications, such as ergonomics device development, clinical radiological exposure simulation, biomechanics analysis, and 3D animation character design. In this study, we constructed deformable torso phantoms that can be deformed to match the personal anatomy of Chinese male and female adults. The phantoms were created based on a training set of 79 trunk computed tomography (CT) images (41 males and 38 females) from normal Chinese subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660745/omental-vascularized-lymph-node-flap-a-radiographic-analysis
#5
Julia A Cook, Sarah E Sasor, Sunil S Tholpady, Michael W Chu
BACKGROUND:  Vascularized lymph node transfer is an increasingly popular option for the treatment of lymphedema. The omental donor site is advantageous for its copious soft tissue, well-defined collateral circulation, and large number of available nodes, without the risk of iatrogenic lymphedema. The purpose of this study is to define the anatomy of the omental flap in the context of vascularized lymph node harvest. METHODS:  Consecutive abdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) images performed at a single institution over a 1-year period were reviewed...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651794/celiac-trunk-and-common-hepatic-artery-variations-in-children-an-analysis-with-ct-angiography
#6
Emine Caliskan, Turker Acar, Mehmet Ozturk, Zuhal Bayramoglu, Ravza Yilmaz, Filiz Elbuken, Ibrahim Adaletli
BACKGROUND: Understanding the celiac trunk and hepatic artery anatomy is important not only in preventing iatrogenic injuries but also in planning surgical procedures in children. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of celiac trunk (CeT) and common hepatic artery (CHA) variations in the pediatric population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy-four children (174) who underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography, either because of trauma or liver transplantation, were analyzed retrospectively...
April 13, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616497/malformed-vertebrae-a-clinical-and-imaging-review
#7
REVIEW
Apeksha Chaturvedi, Nina B Klionsky, Umakanthan Nadarajah, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Steven P Meyers
A variety of structural developmental anomalies affect the vertebral column. Malformed vertebrae can arise secondary to errors of vertebral formation, fusion and/or segmentation and developmental variation. Malformations can be simple with little or no clinical consequence, or complex with serious structural and neurologic implications. These anomalies can occasionally mimic acute trauma (bipartite atlas versus Jefferson fracture, butterfly vertebra versus burst fracture), or predispose the affected individual to myelopathy...
April 3, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616107/awareness-of-hepatic-arterial-variants-is-required-in-surgical-oncology-decision-making-strategy-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Robert Sitarz, Monika Berbecka, Jerzy Mielko, Karol Rawicz-Pruszyński, Grzegorz Staśkiewicz, Ryszard Maciejewski, Wojciech Polkowski
Surgery for the treatment of pancreatic cancer remains the gold standard, however, the identification of the vascular supply of the pancreas and the nearby organs remains a crucial difficulties in a curative resection. During pancreatic head resection for carcinoma dissection of regional arterial vasculature is mandatory. Normal coeliac and hepatic arterial anatomy occurs in ~50-70% of patients and multiple variations have been described. Knowledge of multiple arterial anomalies is essential in hepato-pancreatico-billary surgery to avoid unnecessary complications...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602651/anatomical-variation-of-the-radial-artery-associated-with-clinically-significant-ischemia
#9
Elizabeth M Polfer, Jennifer M Sabino, Aviram M Giladi, James P Higgins
PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective review was to investigate the incidence of radial artery anatomical variations in patients with clinically significant distal upper extremity (UE) ischemia. Available anatomical studies report that high takeoff of the radial artery occurs in up to 15% of the population. We hypothesized that there is a higher incidence of high origin of the radial artery in patients with clinically significant ischemia compared with the reported frequency in the general population...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581798/the-main-anatomical-variations-of-the-pancreatic-duct-system-review-of-the-literature-and-its-importance-in-surgical-practice
#10
REVIEW
Ioannis Dimitriou, Anastasios Katsourakis, Eirini Nikolaidou, George Noussios
Anatomical variations or anomalies of the pancreatic ducts are important in the planning and performance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and surgical procedures of the pancreas. Normal pancreatic duct anatomy occurs in approximately 94.3% of cases, and multiple variations have been described for the remaining 5.7%. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the pancreatic duct anatomy and to underline its importance in daily invasive endoscopic and surgical practice. Two main databases were searched for suitable articles published from 2000 to 2017, and results concerning more than 8,200 patients were included in the review...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576928/interindividual-variations-in-foveal-anatomy-and-artifacts-seen-on-inner-retinal-probability-maps-from-spectral-domain-oct-scans-of-the-macula
#11
Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Hassan Muhammad, Khushmit Kaur, Diane Wang, Robert Ritch, Donald C Hood
Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that variations in foveal morphology can account for artifacts seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer probability maps. Methods: A total of 126 healthy subjects were tested with spectral domain (sd) OCT. Thickness and probability maps of the macular RGC plus inner plexiform layer (RGC+) were obtained with customized software. Macular b-scans were analyzed to derive three foveal anatomic parameters: width, depth, and slope...
March 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573022/exploration-of-male-urethral-sphincter-complex-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-based-fiber-tracking
#12
Shantanu Sinha, Usha Sinha, Vadim Malis, Valmik Bhargava, Kyoko Sakamoto, Mahadevan Rajasekaran
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a major clinical problem arising primarily from age-related degenerative changes to the sphincter muscles. However, the precise anatomy of the normal male sphincter muscles has yet to be established. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may offer a unique insight into muscle microstructure and fiber architecture. PURPOSE: To explore the anatomy of the urethral sphincter muscles pertinent to urinary continence function using DT-MRI. STUDY TYPE: Prospective cohort study...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557490/anatomy-and-injuries-of-the-pediatric-wrist-beyond-the-basics
#13
REVIEW
Ezekiel Maloney, Andrew M Zbojniewicz, Jie Nguyen, Yu Luo, Mahesh M Thapa
Ligamentous injuries of the pediatric wrist, once thought to be relatively uncommon, are increasingly recognized in the context of acute high-energy mechanism trauma and chronic axial loading, including those encountered in both recreational and high-performance competitive sports. Recent advances in MR-based techniques for imaging the pediatric wrist allow for sensitive identification of these often radiographically occult injuries. Detailed knowledge of the intrinsic and supportive extrinsic ligamentous complexes, as well as normal developmental anatomy and congenital variation, are essential to accurately diagnose injuries to these structures...
March 20, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543678/clinical-notes-on-chiari-malformation
#14
Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525728/papillary-muscles-of-right-ventricle-morphological-variations-and-its-clinical-relevance
#15
Anubha Saha, Sanchita Roy
INTRODUCTION: Papillary muscle plays an important role in stabilizing the position of the tricuspid valve. Several pathologies can result in anatomical and functional abnormalities of the papillary muscles. The aim of the study is to deliberate the morphometry of papillary muscles in tricuspid valve and to analyze with the eminent research works previously done. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 52 formalin-fixed adult apparently normal cadaveric hearts belonging to either sex obtained from the Department of Anatomy...
February 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498141/normal-values-for-assessment-of-anal-sphincter-morphology-anorectal-motion-and-pelvic-organ-prolapse-with-mri-in-healthy-women
#16
P Tirumanisetty, D Prichard, J G Fletcher, S Chakraborty, A R Zinsmeister, A E Bharucha
BACKGROUND: Endoanal MRI and MR defecography are used to identify anal sphincter injury and disordered defecation. However, few studies have evaluated findings in asymptomatic healthy people. The effects of BMI and parity on rectoanal motion and evacuation are unknown. METHODS: In 113 asymptomatic females (age 50 ± 17 years, Mean ± SD) without risk factors for anorectal trauma, anal sphincter appearance, anorectal motion, and pelvic organ prolapse were evaluated with MRI...
March 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490361/a-pilot-study-to-investigate-the-relationship-between-interaural-differences-in-temporal-bone-anatomy-and-normal-variations-in-caloric-asymmetry
#17
David Carpenter, David Kaylie, Erin Piker, Dennis Frank-Ito
Purpose: This study assesses interaural differences in temporal bone anatomy in subjects with normal caloric findings. Method: Eligible patients included those referred to the Duke University Medical Center otology clinic complaining of dizziness, with a head computed tomography scan and caloric stimulation results within normal ranges (inter-ear difference ≤ 10% or < 25% unilateral weakness). Three-dimensional reconstructions of computed tomography scans in 11 patients were used to calculate the surface area and volume of lateral semicircular canals (LSCCs), mastoid airspaces, mastoid bones, and internal auditory canal diameter and circumference...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479090/mra-based-evaluation-of-anatomical-variation-of-circle-of-willis-in-adult-pakistanis
#18
Rehana Shaikh, Saba Sohail
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and patterns of normal anatomical variation of Circle of Willis on magnetic resonance angiogram in adults without cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Radiology Department of Dow University of Health Sciences / Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2016, and comprised patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and magnetic resonance angiogram without any clinical or radiological manifestation of cerebrovascular disease, primarily including those with suspected demyelination, infection, epilepsy or metastases...
February 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474516/nasal-structural-and-aerodynamic-features-that-may-benefit-normal-olfactory-sensitivity
#19
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Kanghyun Kim, Bradley A Otto, Alexander A Farag, Beverly J Cowart, Edmund A Pribitkin, Pamela Dalton, Kai Zhao
Nasal airflow that effectively transports ambient odors to the olfactory receptors is important for human olfaction. Yet, the impact of nasal anatomical variations on airflow pattern and olfactory function are not fully understood. In this study, 22 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent CT scans for computational simulations of nasal airflow patterns. Unilateral odor detection thresholds (ODT) to l-Carvone, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and d-Limonene were also obtained for all participants. Significant normative variations in both nasal anatomy and aerodynamics were found...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404409/the-influence-of-dat1-comt-and-bdnf-genetic-polymorphisms-on-total-and-subregional-hippocampal-volumes-in-early-onset-heavy-cannabis-users
#20
Albert Batalla, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yann Chye, Murat Yücel, Carles Soriano-Mas, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Marta Torrens, José A S Crippa, Rocío Martín-Santos
Introduction: Hippocampal neuroanatomy is affected by genetic variations in dopaminergic candidate genes and environmental insults, such as early onset of chronic cannabis exposure. Here, we examine how hippocampal total and subregional volumes are affected by cannabis use and functional polymorphisms of dopamine-relevant genes, including the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine transporter (DAT1), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes. Material and Methods: We manually traced total hippocampal volumes and automatically segmented hippocampal subregions using high-resolution MRI images, and performed COMT, DAT1, and BDNF genotyping in 59 male Caucasian young adults aged 18-30 years...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
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