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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727854/toxoplasma-gondii-entry-association-and-physiological-influence-on-the-central-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Oscar A Mendez, Anita A Koshy
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the world's most successful parasites, in part because of its ability to infect and persist in most warm-blooded animals. A unique characteristic of T. gondii is its ability to persist in the central nervous system (CNS) of a variety of hosts, including humans and rodents. How, what, and why T. gondii encysts in the CNS has been the topic of study for decades. In this review, we will discuss recent work on how T. gondii is able to traverse the unique barrier surrounding the CNS, what cells of the CNS play host to T...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727758/longevity-effect-of-a-polysaccharide-from-chlorophytum-borivilianum-on-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Steve Thomas Pannakal, Sibylle Jäger, Albert Duranton, Amit Tewari, Subarna Saha, Aneesha Radhakrishnan, Nita Roy, Jean François Kuntz, Soraya Fermas, Darryl James, Jane Mellor, Namita Misra, Lionel Breton
The traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, provides insights and practical solutions towards a healthy life style. Rasayana is a branch of Ayurveda known for preserving and promoting health, enhancing the quality of life and delaying the aging process. In the traditional knowledge, the Rasayana herb, Chlorophytum borivilianum (C. borivilanum) is regarded as a general health promoting tonic that delays aging and increases lifespan, cognitive function and physical strength. Aging is a complex and multifactorial physiological phenomenon that manifests itself over a wide range of biological systems, tissues, and functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727605/in-vitro-compatibility-of-contact-lenses-with-corneal-epithelial-cells
#3
Ajay K Vijay, Zohra Fadli, Carol Lakkis, Chantal Coles-Brennan, Mark D P Willcox
PURPOSE: To determine the interaction of contact lenses of different materials with corneal epithelial cells grown in tissue culture. METHODS: Two different corneal epithelial cell lines were grown to confluence in culture media. Two hydrogel contact lenses with and without polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) {1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST (1-Day ACUVUE [hydrogel lenses]) and a silicone hydrogel contact lens, AIR OPTIX NIGHT & DAY} were removed from their blister packs, washed in phosphate-buffered saline, and applied to the cells...
July 18, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727135/the-role-of-metalloproteinases-in-endometrial-remodelling-during-menstrual-cycle
#4
Barbara Grzechocińska, Filip Dąbrowski, Anna Cyganek, Grzegorz Panek, Mirosław Wielgoś
Endometrium is the only tissue in the human body subject to cyclic transformations under the influence of ovarian steroid hormones. As estradiol and progesterone balance throughout the physiological menstrual cycle changes, so does the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs). These endopeptides are responsible for keeping the balance between the process of synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, MMP's take part in sustaining physiological stability of the endometrium. A number of MMPs found in the endometrial tissue and their activity is related to menstrual cycle phase...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#5
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726495/use-of-adeno-associated-virus-vector-for-cardiac-gene-delivery-in-large-animal-surgical-models-of-heart-failure
#6
Michael G Katz, Anthony S Fargnoli, Thomas Weber, Roger Hajjar, Charles Bridges
The advancement of gene-therapy-based approaches to treat heart disease represents a need for clinically-relevant animal models with characteristics equivalent to human pathologies. Rodent models of cardiac disease do not precisely reproduce heart failure phenotype and molecular defects. This has motivated researchers to use large animals whose heart size and physiological processes more similar and comparable to those of humans. Today, adeno-associated viruses (AAV)-based vectors are undoubtedly among the most promising DNA delivery vehicles...
July 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725928/structural-modification-of-cuminaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone-increases-inhibition-specificity-toward-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-and-sclerotia-development-in-aspergillus-flavus
#7
Francesca Degola, Franco Bisceglie, Marianna Pioli, Sabrina Palmano, Lisa Elviri, Giorgio Pelosi, Tiziana Lodi, Francesco Maria Restivo
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic mold that represents a serious threat for human and animal health due to its ability to synthesize and release, on food and feed commodities, different toxic secondary metabolites. Among them, aflatoxin B1 is one of the most dangerous since it is provided with a strong cancerogenic and mutagenic activity. Controlling fungal contamination on the different crops that may host A. flavus is considered a priority by sanitary authorities of an increasing number of countries due also to the fact that, owing to global temperature increase, the geographic areas that are expected to be prone to experience sudden A...
July 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725636/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-from-normal-functioning-to-disease-pathology
#8
REVIEW
Olena Bilyk, Mackenzie Coatham, Michael Jewer, Lynne-Marie Postovit
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that is vital throughout the human lifespan. In addition to contributing to the development of various tissues within the growing embryo, EMT is also responsible for wound healing and tissue regeneration later in adulthood. In this review, we highlight the importance of EMT in the development and normal functioning of the female reproductive organs (the ovaries and the uterus) and describe how dysregulation of EMT can lead to pathological conditions, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and carcinogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725488/generation-and-analysis-of-spheroids-from-human-primary-skin-myofibroblasts-an-experimental-system-to-study-myofibroblasts-deactivation
#9
Giuseppina Granato, Maria R Ruocco, Antonino Iaccarino, Stefania Masone, Gaetano Calì, Angelica Avagliano, Valentina Russo, Claudio Bellevicine, Gaetano Di Spigna, Giuseppe Fiume, Stefania Montagnani, Alessandro Arcucci
Myofibroblasts are activated fibroblasts involved in tissue repair and cancer. They are characterized by de novo expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), immunoregulatory phenotype and paracrine interaction with normal and tumorigenic cells leading to cell proliferation. At the end of wound-healing myofibroblasts undergo apoptotic cell death, whereas in vitro-activated fibroblasts are also subjected to a programmed necrosis-like cell death, termed nemosis, associated with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression induction and inflammatory response...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725233/g-quadruplex-in-plants-a-ubiquitous-regulatory-element-and-its-biological-relevance
#10
REVIEW
Vikas Yadav, Hemansi, Nayun Kim, Narendra Tuteja, Puja Yadav
G quadruplexes (G4) are higher-order DNA and RNA secondary structures formed by G-rich sequences that are built around tetrads of hydrogen-bonded guanine bases. Potential G4 quadruplex sequences have been identified in G-rich eukaryotic non-telomeric and telomeric genomic regions. Upon function, G4 formation is known to involve in chromatin remodeling, gene regulation and has been associated with genomic instability, genetic diseases and cancer progression. The natural role and biological validation of G4 structures is starting to be explored, and is of particular interest for the therapeutic interventions for human diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725211/critical-evaluation-of-the-lund-concept-for-treatment-of-severe-traumatic-head-injury-25%C3%A2-years-after-its-introduction
#11
REVIEW
Per-Olof Grände
When introduced in 1992, the Lund concept (LC) was the first complete guideline for treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (s-TBI). It was a theoretical approach, based mainly on general physiological principles-i.e., of brain volume control and optimization of brain perfusion and oxygenation of the penumbra zone. The concept gave relatively strict outlines for cerebral perfusion pressure, fluid therapy, ventilation, sedation, nutrition, the use of vasopressors, and osmotherapy. The LC strives for treatment of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind symptoms rather than just treating the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724925/a-comparative-study-of-five-physiological-key-parameters-between-four-different-human-trophoblast-derived-cell-lines
#12
Mario Rothbauer, Nilaykumar Patel, Hajnalka Gondola, Monika Siwetz, Berthold Huppertz, Peter Ertl
The human placenta plays a crucial role as the interface between mother and fetus. It represents a unique tissue that undergoes morphological as well as functional changes on the cellular and tissue level throughout pregnancy. To better understand how the placenta works, a variety of techniques has been developed to re-create this complex physiological barrier in vitro. However, due to the low availability of freshly isolated primary cells, choriocarcinoma cell lines remain the usual suspects as in vitro models for placental research...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724920/interleukin-36%C3%AE-provides-protection-against-hsv-1-infection-but-does-not-modulate-initiation-of-adaptive-immune-responses
#13
Katelynn A Milora, Siva R Uppalapati, Julio C Sanmiguel, Wei Zou, Liselotte E Jensen
Interleukin-36 (IL-36) represents three cytokines, IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ, which bind to the same receptor, IL-1RL2; however, their physiological function(s) remain poorly understood. Here, the role of IL-36 in immunity against HSV-1 was examined using the flank skin infection mouse model. Expression analyses revealed increased levels of IL-36α and IL-36β mRNA in infected skin, while constitutive IL-36γ levels remained largely unchanged. In human keratinocytes, IL-36α mRNA was induced by HSV-1, while IL-1β and TNFα increased all three IL-36 mRNAs...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724898/improvement-in-the-production-of-the-human-recombinant-enzyme-n-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase-rhgalns-in-escherichia-coli-using-synthetic-biology-approaches
#14
Luis H Reyes, Carolina Cardona, Luisa Pimentel, Alexander Rodríguez-López, Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz
Previously, we demonstrated production of an active recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (rhGALNS) enzyme in Escherichia coli as a potential therapeutic alternative for mucopolysaccharidosis IVA. However, most of the rhGALNS produced was present as protein aggregates. Here, several methods were investigated to improve production and activity of rhGALNS. These methods involved the use of physiologically-regulated promoters and alternatives to improve protein folding including global stress responses (osmotic shock), overexpression of native chaperones, and enhancement of cytoplasmic disulfide bond formation...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724704/physiological-responses-to-short-term-thermal-stress-in-mayfly-neocloeon-triangulifer-larvae-in-relation-to-upper-thermal-limits
#15
Kyoung Sun Kim, Hsuan Chou, David H Funk, John K Jackson, Bernard W Sweeney, David B Buchwalter
Understanding species' thermal limits and their physiological determinants is critical in light of climate change and other human activities that warm freshwater ecosystems. Here, we ask whether oxygen limitation determines the chronic upper thermal limits in larvae of the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer, an emerging model for ecological and physiological studies. Our experiments are based on a robust understanding of the upper acute (∼40°C) and chronic thermal limits of this species (>28°C, ≤30°C) derived from full life cycle rearing experiments across temperatures...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724703/hormonal-responsiveness-to-stress-is-negatively-associated-with-vulnerability-to-angling-capture-in-fish
#16
Michael J Louison, Shivani Adhikari, Jeffrey A Stein, Cory D Suski
Differences in behavior and physiology amongst individuals often alter relative fitness levels in the environment. However, the ideal behavioral/physiological phenotype in a given environment may be altered by human activity, leading to an evolutionary response in the affected population. One example of this process can be found in fisheries (including recreational freshwater fisheries), where selective capture and harvest of individuals with certain phenotypes can drive evolutionary change. While some life history traits and behavioral tendencies influencing capture likelihood have been studied, the physiological mechanisms driving this vulnerability remain poorly understood...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724643/a-review-of-the-characteristics-of-dietary-fibers-relevant-to-appetite-and-energy-intake-outcomes-in-human-intervention-trials
#17
Kaisa S Poutanen, Pierre Dussort, Alfrun Erkner, Susana Fiszman, Kavita Karnik, Mette Kristensen, Cyril Fm Marsaux, Sophie Miquel-Kergoat, Saara P Pentikäinen, Peter Putz, Joanne L Slavin, Robert E Steinert, David J Mela
Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized.Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans.Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723415/pharmacology-of-human-trace-amine-associated-receptors-therapeutic-opportunities-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Mark D Berry, Raul R Gainetdinov, Marius C Hoener, Mohammed Shahid
The discovery in 2001 of a G protein-coupled receptor family, subsequently termed trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), triggered a resurgence of interest in so-called trace amines. Initial optimism quickly faded, however, as the TAAR family presented a series of challenges preventing the use of standard medicinal chemistry and pharmacology technologies. Consequently the development of basic tools for probing TAAR and translating findings from model systems to humans has been problematic. Despite these challenges the last 5 years have seen considerable advances, in particular with respect to TAAR1, which appears to function as an endogenous rheostat, maintaining central neurotransmission within defined physiological limits, in part through receptor heterodimerization yielding biased signaling outputs...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#19
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723064/doxorubicin-intracellular-remote-release-from-biocompatible-oegma-based-magnetic-nanogels-triggered-by-magnetic-hyperthermia
#20
Esther Cazares-Cortes, Ana Espinosa, Jean-Michel Guigner, Aude Michel, Nébéwia Griffete, Claire Wilhelm, Christine Menager
Hybrid nanogels, composed of thermoresponsive polymers and superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive nanocarriers for biomedical applications, being able - as polymer matrix - to uptake and release high quantities of chemotherapeutic agents and - as magnetic nanoparticles - to heat when exposed to an alternative magnetic field (AMF), better known as magnetic hyperthermia. Herein, biocompatible, pH-, magnetic- and thermo-responsive nanogels, based on oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate monomers (OEGMAs) and methacrylic acid co-monomer (MAA) were prepared by conventional precipitation radical co-polymerization in water, post-assembled by complexation with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of maghemite (-Fe2O3) and loaded with an anticancer drug (doxorubicin - DOX), for remotely controlled drug release by "hot-spot", as an athermal magnetic hyperthermia strategy against cancer...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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