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human physiology

Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Nancy M Lee, Cevat Erisken, Thomas Iskratsch, Michael Sheetz, William N Levine, Helen H Lu
Physiologically relevant models of wound healing are essential for understanding the biology of connective tissue repair and healing. They can also be used to identify key cellular processes and matrix characteristics critical for the design of soft tissue grafts. Modeling the various stages of repair post tendon injury, polymer meshes of varying fiber diameter (nano-1 (390 nm) < nano-2 (740 nm) < micro (1420 nm)) were produced. Alignment was also introduced in the nano-2 group to model matrix undergoing biological healing rather than scar formation...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
Li Zhang, Zhihong Yang, Jocelyn Trottier, Olivier Barbier, Li Wang
: Bile acids (BAs) play critical physiological functions in cholesterol homeostasis and deregulation of BA metabolism causes cholestatic liver injury. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) was recently shown as a potential tumor suppressor, however its basic hepatic function remains elusive. Using RNA pull-down with biotin-labeled sense or anti-sense MEG3RNA followed by mass spectrometry, we identified RNA binding protein polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) as a MEG3 interaction protein and validated their interaction by RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP)...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
H Mielke, E Di Consiglio, R Kreutz, F Partosch, E Testai, U Gundert-Remy
A physiologically based human kinetic model (PBHKM) was used to predict the in vivo ibuprofen dose leading to the same concentration-time profile as measured in cultured human hepatic cells (Truisi et al. in Toxicol Lett 233(2):172-186, 2015). We parameterized the PBHKM with data from an in vivo study. Tissue partition coefficients were calculated by an algorithm and also derived from the experimental in vitro data for the liver. The predicted concentration-time profile in plasma was in excellent agreement with human experimental data when the liver partition coefficient was calculated by the algorithm (3...
October 21, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Pan Dan, Émilie Velot, Grégory Francius, Patrick Menu, Véronique Decot
: One of the outstanding goals in tissue engineering is to develop a natural coating surface which is easy to manipulate, effective for cell adhesion and fully biocompatible. The ideal surface would be derived from human tissue, perfectly controllable, and pathogen-free, thereby satisfying all of the standards of the health authorities. This paper reports an innovative approach to coating surfaces using a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) extracted from the Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the umbilical cord (referred to as WJ-ECM)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Yoon Young Choi, Suji Kim, Jung-Hwa Han, Dae-Hwan Nam, Kwon Moo Park, Seong Yong Kim, Chang-Hoon Woo
Epidemiological studies suggested that diabetic patients are susceptible to develop cardiovascular complications along with having endothelial dysfunction. It has been suggested that methylglyoxal (MGO), a glycolytic metabolite, has more detrimental effects on endothelial dysfunction rather than glucose itself. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which MGO induces endothelial dysfunction via the regulation of ER stress. Biochemical data showed that 4-PBA significantly inhibited MGO-induced protein cleavages of PARP-1 and caspase-3...
October 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Francisca Sanchez-Jiménez, Almudena Pino-Ángeles, Rocio Rodríguez-López, María Morales, José Luis Urdiales
Human histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and dopa decarboxilase (DDC) are highly homologous enzymes responsible for the synthesis of biogenic amines (BA) like histamine, and serotonin and dopamine, respectively. The enzymes share many structural and functional analogies, while their product metabolisms also follow similar patterns that are confluent in some metabolic steps. They are involved in common physiological functions, such as neurotransmission, gastrointestinal track function, immunity, cell growth and cell differentiation...
October 18, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Kattina Zavala, Michael W Vandewege, Federico G Hoffmann, Juan C Opazo
The study of the evolutionary history of genes related to human disease lies at the interface of evolution and medicine. These studies provide the evolutionary context on which medical researchers should work, and are also useful in providing information to suggest further genetic experiments, especially in model species where genetic manipulations can be made. Here we studied the evolution of the β-adrenoreceptor gene family in vertebrates with the aim of adding an evolutionary framework to the already abundant physiological information...
October 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Gloria Isani, Enea Ferlizza, Aurora Cuoghi, Elisa Bellei, Emanuela Monari, Barbara Bianchin Butina, Carolina Castagnetti
Characterisation of the physiologic equine amniotic fluid (AF) proteome is a prerequisite to study its changes during diseases and discover new biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify by a proteomic approach the most abundant proteins of equine AF. AF samples were collected at parturition from 24 healthy mares that delivered healthy foals. All samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) on 4-12% gels. A pool of the 24 samples, after SDS-PAGE, was cut in 25 slices, trypsin-digested and analysed by mass spectrometry (MS) for protein identification...
October 11, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Yun Wang, Jinchen Xia, Juan Han, Xu Bao, Yuanyuan Li, Xu Tang, Liang Ni, Lei Wang, Mengmeng Gao
Hypochlorite serves as a powerful antimicrobial agent in human immune system, the detection of which is of great significance. Herein a novel fluorescent probe based on BODIPY dye and diaminomaleonitrile has been synthesized and characterized to sense hypochlorite. The fluorescence of the system is dramatically enhanced by ClO(-) due to the removal of C=N isomerization effect in physiological pH condition. The complete reaction only needs a few seconds, which enables the probe to facilitate real-time detection...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Hongyang Su, Weidong Ruan, Shunsheng Ye, Yawen Liu, Huimin Sui, Zihui Li, Xiaoying Sun, Chengyan He, Bing Zhao
Potassium ions play pivotal roles in biological systems. A simple and effective Raman scattering-based protocol for the detection of physiological potassium ions level in human serum has been developed. We employed sodium cobaltinitrite, which can react with potassium to form potassium-sodium cobaltinitrite. Combining hydrophobic surface and the Raman scattering for potassium detection, highly reproducible Raman spectra of the potassium-sodium cobaltinitrite can be obtained with highly sensitivity. The characteristic Raman peak of potassium-sodium cobaltinitrite was used to distinguish it from other kinds of matter, and its intensity was used to monitor the amounts of potassium ions in human serum...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Brenda F Narice, Nicola H Green, Sheila MacNeil, Dilly Anumba
BACKGROUND: During labour, the cervix undergoes a series of changes to allow the passage of the fetoplacental unit. While this visible transformation is well-described, the underlying and causative microscopic changes, in which collagen plays a major role, are poorly understood and difficult to visualise. Recent studies in mice and humans have shown that Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy, a non-destructive imaging technique, can detect changes in the cervical collagen. However, the question of whether SHG can identify changes in the arrangement of cervical collagen at different physiological stages still needs addressing...
October 21, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Julien Muffat, Yun Li, Rudolf Jaenisch
In vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells provides a systematic platform to investigate the physiological development and function of the human nervous system, as well as the etiology and consequence when these processes go awry. Recent development in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture systems allows modeling of the complex structure formation of the human CNS, and the intricate interactions between various resident neuronal and glial cell types. Combined with an ever-expanding genome editing and regulation toolkit such as CRISPR/Cas9, it is now a possibility to study human neurological disease in the relevant molecular, cellular and anatomical context...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Ranjan Basak, Naveen Kumar Nair, Indraneel Mittra
There is extensive literature to show that nucleic acids can be taken up by cells under experimental conditions and that foetal DNA can be detected in maternal tissues. The uptaken DNA can integrate into host cell genomes and can be transcribed and translated into proteins. They can also cause chromosomal damage and karyotype alterations. Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs)-based non-invasive DNA diagnostic techniques are being extensively researched in the field of cancer with the potential to advance new prognostic parameters and direct treatment decisions...
October 12, 2016: Mutation Research
Tian Hua, Kiran Vemuri, Mengchen Pu, Lu Qu, Gye Won Han, Yiran Wu, Suwen Zhao, Wenqing Shui, Shanshan Li, Anisha Korde, Robert B Laprairie, Edward L Stahl, Jo-Hao Ho, Nikolai Zvonok, Han Zhou, Irina Kufareva, Beili Wu, Qiang Zhao, Michael A Hanson, Laura M Bohn, Alexandros Makriyannis, Raymond C Stevens, Zhi-Jie Liu
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the principal target of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive chemical from Cannabis sativa with a wide range of therapeutic applications and a long history of recreational use. CB1 is activated by endocannabinoids and is a promising therapeutic target for pain management, inflammation, obesity, and substance abuse disorders. Here, we present the 2.8 Å crystal structure of human CB1 in complex with AM6538, a stabilizing antagonist, synthesized and characterized for this structural study...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Roshini Fernando, Ekaterina Placzek, Edmund A Reese, Andrew T Placzek, Samantha Schwartz, Aaron Trierweiler, Leslie M Niziol, Stephen Atkins, Thomas S Scanlan, Terry J Smith
CONTEXT: The sources and biological impact of 3,3',5,5' tetraiodothyroacetic acid (TA4) are uncertain. CD34(+) fibrocytes express several proteins involved in the production of thyroid hormones. They infiltrate the orbit in Graves' disease (GD), an autoimmune process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. It appears that the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TAO. OBJECTIVE: To quantify levels of TA4 in healthy subjects and those with Graves' disease...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jochem Louisse, Karsten Beekmann, Ivonne Magdalena Catharina Maria Rietjens
The development of reliable non-animal based testing strategies, such as in vitro bioassays, is the holy grail in current human safety testing of chemicals. However, the use of in vitro toxicity data in risk assessment is not straightforward. One of the main issues is that concentration-response curves from in vitro models need to be converted to in vivo dose-response curves. These dose-response curves are needed in toxicological risk assessment to obtain a point of departure to determine safe exposure levels for humans...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Michael L Power, Jay Schulkin, Heather Drought, Lauren A Milligan, Katie L Murtough, Robin M Bernstein
In addition to nutrients, milk contains signaling molecules that influence offspring development. Human milk is similar in nutrient composition to that of apes, but appears to differ in other aspects such as immune function. We examine the longitudinal patterns across lactation of macronutrients, the metabolic hormone adiponectin, the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), and two receptors for these growth factors (EGF-R and TGF-β2-RIII) in milk samples collected between days 175 and 313 postpartum from a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and between days 3 and 1,276 from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and compare the results with human data from the literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Marie-Catherine Drigeard Desgarnier, Corinne Zinflou, Justin D Mallet, Sébastien P Gendron, Sébastien J Méthot, Patrick J Rochette
Purpose: Human chromosomes are protected at their end by a long portion of hexameric tandem repeats, the telomere. In somatic cells, telomere attrition caused by endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress as well as DNA replication can threaten genomic integrity and lead to the deterioration of tissue functions and an age-related physiological decline. The human eye is a complex organ in which cells of different ocular tissues are exposed to photo-oxidation, high mitochondrial metabolic activity, and/or replicative pressure...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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