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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679925/tocotrienol-rich-fraction-supplementation-reduces-hyperglycemia-induced-skeletal-muscle-damage-through-regulation-of-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#1
Heaji Lee, Yunsook Lim
Chronic hyperglycemia induces impairment of muscle growth and development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Since skeletal muscle is the major site for disposal of ingested glucose, impaired glucose metabolism causes imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation which adversely affects physical mobility. In this study, we investigated the effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on skeletal muscle damage in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet with streptozotocin (STZ) injection (100 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679894/nicotinamide-riboside-attenuates-alcohol-induced-liver-injuries-via-activation-of-sirt1-pgc-1%C3%AE-mitochondrial-biosynthesis-pathway
#2
Sufan Wang, Ting Wan, Mingtong Ye, Yun Qiu, Lei Pei, Rui Jiang, Nengzhi Pang, Yuanling Huang, Baoxia Liang, Wenhua Ling, Xiaojun Lin, Zhenfeng Zhang, Lili Yang
BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) precursor which is present in foods such as milk and beer. It was reported that NR can prevent obesity, increase longevity, and promote liver regeneration. However, whether NR can prevent ethanol-induced liver injuries is not known. This study aimed to explore the effect of NR on ethanol induced liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We fed C57BL/6 J mice with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet with or without 400 mg/kg·bw NR for 16 days...
April 5, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679690/reduced-body-weight-or-increased-muscle-quality-which-is-more-important-for-improving-physical-function-following-exercise-and-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-older-women
#3
Chad R Straight, Alison C Berg, Rachelle A Reed, Mary Ann Johnson, Ellen M Evans
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d)...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679625/nutrition-therapy-within-and-beyond-gestational-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Teri L Hernandez, Archana Mande, Linda A Barbour
With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth will have far-reaching implications. The conventional focus has been to rigidly limit all types of carbohydrate. While controlling glucose, this approach fosters maternal anxiety and is a primary barrier to adherence. Many mothers substitute fat for carbohydrate, which may unintentionally enhance lipolysis, promote elevated free fatty acids (FFA), and worsen maternal insulin resistance (IR)...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679619/a-global-perspective-on-carotenoids-metabolism-biotechnology-and-benefits-for-nutrition-and-health
#5
REVIEW
Manuel Rodriguez Concepcion, Javier Avalos, M Luisa Bonet, Albert Boronat, Lourdes Gomez-Gomez, Damaso Hornero-Mendez, M Carmen Limon, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez, Begoña Olmedilla-Alonso, Andreu Palou, Joan Ribot, Maria J Rodrigo, Lorenzo Zacarias, Changfu Zhu
Carotenoids are lipophilic isoprenoid compounds synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi. With some notable exceptions, animals (including humans) do not produce carotenoids de novo but take them in their diets. In photosynthetic systems carotenoids are essential for photoprotection against excess light and contribute to light harvesting, but perhaps they are best known for their properties as natural pigments in the yellow to red range. Carotenoids can be associated to fatty acids, sugars, proteins, or other compounds that can change their physical and chemical properties and influence their biological roles...
April 18, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679462/impact-of-urbanization-on-abundance-and-phenology-of-caterpillars-and-consequences-for-breeding-in-an-insectivorous-bird
#6
Gábor Seress, Tamás Hammer, Veronika Bókony, Ernő Vincze, Bálint Preiszner, Ivett Pipoly, Csenge Sinkovics, Karl L Evans, András Liker
Urbanization can have marked effects on plant and animal populations' phenology, population size, predator-prey interactions and reproductive success. These aspects are rarely studied simultaneously in a single system, and some are rarely investigated, e.g. how insect phenology responds to urban development. Here, we study a tri-trophic system of trees - phytophagous insects (caterpillars) - insectivorous birds (great tits) to assess how urbanization influences i) the phenology of each component of this system, ii) insect abundance and iii) avian reproductive success...
April 20, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679395/placental-adaptations-to-micronutrient-dysregulation-in-the-programming-of-chronic-disease
#7
Pierre Hofstee, Daniel McKeating, Anthony V Perkins, James S M Cuffe
Poor nutrition during pregnancy is known to impair foetal development and increase the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Both macronutrients and micronutrients are required for a healthy pregnancy although significantly less is understood about the role of micronutrients in the programming of chronic disease. This is despite the fact that modern calorie rich diets are often also deficient in key micronutrients. The importance of micronutrients in gestational disorders is clearly understood but how they impact long term disease in humans requires further investigation...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679297/animal-models-of-diverticulosis-review-and-recommendations
#8
REVIEW
Bhavesh Patel, Xiaomei Guo, Jillian Noblet, Sean Chambers, Ghassan S Kassab
Diverticulosis is a structural alteration of the colon tissue characterized by the development of pouch-like structures called diverticula. It afflicts a significant portion of the population in Western countries, with a higher prevalence among the elderly. Diverticulosis is believed to be the result of a synergetic interaction between inherent tissue weakness, diet, colonic microstructure, motility, and genetic factors. A validated etiology has, however, not yet been established. Non-surgical treatment is currently lacking due to this poor understanding, and surgical colon resection is the only long-term solution following recurrent complications...
April 20, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679294/gender-differences-in-home-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-of-post-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-patients
#9
Yong Hwan Kim, Wi-Young So
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a structured program for the prevention of secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. This study aimed to investigate whether there are gender differences after 9 months of home-based cardiac rehabilitation program in post-percutaneous coronary intervention patients. A total of 114 (58.29 ± 10.33 years) men and 30 (60.90 ± 9.32 years) women were enrolled in the CR program. The program included three visits: initial, 4th month (follow-up), and 9th month (final) visits at a CR center...
April 20, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679277/the-role-of-mitochondrial-dna-damage-at-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-on-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Julia Matzenbacher Dos Santos, Denise Silva de Oliveira, Marcos Lazaro Moreli, Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro
Reduced cellular response to insulin in skeletal muscle is one of the major components of the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mitochondrial dysfunction involves in the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to verify the involvement of mitochondrial DNA damage at ROS generation in skeletal muscle during development of T2D. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 60% fat over 8 weeks and at day 14 a single injection of STZ (25 mg/kg) was administered (T2D-induced)...
April 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678976/fostering-active-living-and-healthy-eating-through-understanding-physical-activity-and-dietary-behaviours-of-arabic-speaking-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-from-the-middle-east
#11
Tam Truong Donnelly, Tak Shing Fung, Al-Anoud Bint Mohammad Al-Thani
OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets increase the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many people in Qatar are sedentary and consume diets high in fats, salt and sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels, food habits and understand the variables that might predict physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among Arabic-speaking adults living in the State of Qatar. SETTING: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with 1606 Arab adults ≥18 years of age from March 2013 to June 2015...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678807/digital-inequalities-in-the-use-of-self-tracking-diet-and-fitness-apps-interview-study-on-the-influence-of-social-economic-and-cultural-factors
#12
Faustine Régnier, Louis Chauvel
BACKGROUND: Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. METHODS: Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France...
April 20, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678792/effects-of-dietary-arginine-on-antioxidant-status-and-immunity-involved-in-ampk-no-signaling-pathway-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream
#13
Hualiang Liang, Ke Ji, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren, Bo Liu, Bingwen Xi, Liangkun Pan
The present study assessed the effects of dietary arginine on antioxidant status and immunity involved in AMPK-NO signaling pathway in juvenile blunt snout bream. Fish were fed six practical diets with graded arginine levels ranging from 0.87% to 2.70% for 8 weeks. The results showed that compared with the control group (0.87% dietary arginine level), significantly higher mRNA levels of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), activities of total nitric oxide synthetase (T-NOS) and nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), and plasma nitric oxide (NO) contents were observed in fish fed with 1...
April 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678744/long-noncoding-rna-lncarsr-promotes-hepatic-cholesterol-biosynthesis-via-modulating-akt-srebp-2-hmgcr-pathway
#14
Jiabin Hang, Shangjun Chen, Dongliang Cai, Deqiang Bian, Fengling Wang
AIMS: Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis has been identified as a major factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and strokes. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical players in cellular cholesterol metabolism, but their functions are still largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL6/j mice were fed with high cholesterol diet (containing 4% cholesterol) or chow diet. Adenoviruses-lncARSR and lncARSR shRNA were used to overexpress or knockdown lncARSR expression...
April 17, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678666/biochemical-deficits-and-cognitive-decline-in-brain-aging-intervention-by-dietary-supplements
#15
REVIEW
Jit Poddar, Munmun Pradhan, Gargi Ganguly, Sasanka Chakrabarti
The aging of brain in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases, usually called non-pathological brain aging or normal cognitive aging, is characterized by an impairment of memory and cognitive functions. The underlying cellular and molecular changes in the aging brain that include oxidative damage, mitochondrial impairment, changes in glucose-energy metabolism and neuroinflammation have been reported widely from animal experiments and human studies. The cognitive deficit of non-pathological brain aging is the resultant of such inter-dependent and reinforcing molecular pathologies which have striking similarities with those operating in Alzheimer's disease which causes progressive, irreversible and a devastating form of dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly people...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678642/heat-shock-protein-70-accelerates-atherosclerosis-by-downregulating-the-expression-of-abca1-and-abcg1-through-the-jnk-elk-1-pathway
#16
Zhen-Wang Zhao, Min Zhang, Ling-Yan Chen, Duo Gong, Xiao-Dan Xia, Xiao-Hua Yu, Si-Qi Wang, Xiang Ou, Xiao-Yan Dai, Xi-Long Zheng, Da-Wei Zhang, Chao-Ke Tang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) may play critical roles in cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of HSP70 on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice remain largely unknown. This study was to investigate the role and potential mechanism of HSP70 in atherosclerosis. METHODS: HSP70 was overexpressed in apoE-/- mice and THP-1-derived macrophages with lentiviral vectors. Oil Red O, hematoxylin-eosin, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate atherosclerotic plaque in apoE-/- mice fed the Western type diet...
April 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#17
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678570/overexpression-of-nrk1-ameliorates-diet-and-age-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#18
Rui Fan, Jing Cui, Feng Ren, Qingzhi Wang, Yanmei Huang, Bin Zhao, Lai Wei, Xinlai Qian, Xiwen Xiong
NAD+ is a co-enzyme in redox reactions and a substrate required for activity of various enzyme families, including Sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Dietary supplementation of NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR) protects against metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disorders and age-related physiological decline in mammals. Here we sought to identify the roles of nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1) plays in regulating hepatic NAD+ biosynthesis and lipid metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678475/both-oophorectomy-and-obesity-impaired-solely-hippocampal-dependent-memory-via-increased-hippocampal-dysfunction
#19
Duangkamol Mantor, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Wanitchaya Minta, Wissuta Sutham, Siripong Palee, Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Sirawit Sriwichaiin, Warunsorn Krintratun, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Our previous study demonstrated that obesity aggravated peripheral insulin resistance and brain dysfunction in the ovariectomized condition. Conversely, the effect of obesity followed by oophorectomy on brain oxidative stress, brain apoptosis, synaptic function and cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory, has not been investigated. Our hypothesis was that oophorectomy aggravated metabolic impairment, brain dysfunction and cognitive impairment in obese rats...
April 17, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678447/mediterranean-diet-and-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-what-do-we-know
#20
REVIEW
Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Jesús Francisco García-Gavilán, Mònica Bulló, Laura Barrubés
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality is increasing, representing an important public health issue worldwide. It is well-known that risk of CVD is substantially influenced by lifestyle, including poor diet, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity. In the last years, the so-called Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has been associated with broad healthy benefits on human health, including protection against CVD. The present narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the evidence from meta-analyses of epidemiological and clinical trials analyzing MedDiet and CVD risk...
April 17, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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