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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432877/maternal-low-protein-diet-decreases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-the-brains-of-the-neonatal-rat-offspring
#1
Gurdeep Marwarha, Kate Claycombe-Larson, Jared Schommer, Othman Ghribi
Prenatal exposure to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet has been known to cause cognitive impairment, learning and memory deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. Herein, we demonstrate that a maternal LP diet causes, in the brains of the neonatal rat offspring, an attenuation in the basal expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin indispensable for learning and memory. Female rats were fed either a 20% normal protein (NP) diet or an 8% LP 3 weeks before breeding and during the gestation period...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#2
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432725/synthesis-and-biological-potency-of-anilino-triazine-insecticides
#3
Timothy C Johnson, Annette V Brown, Kristy K Bryan, Katherine K Guenthenspberger, Ricky Hunter, Timothy P Martin, Noormohamed Niyaz, Gene F Tisdell, Tony Trullinger
BACKGROUND: An insecticide screening effort identified N-(4-bromophenyl)-4,6-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,5-triazine-2-amine as having weak potency against two Lepidopteran species, Helicoverpa zea and Spodoptera exigua. A structure activity relationship study about the trifluoroethoxy substituents and the aniline of this compound was carried out in an effort to improve insecticidal potency. RESULTS: Initially, a series of analogs bearing various substituents on the aniline were prepared and the insecticidal potency was evaluated against Helicoverpa zea and Spodoptera exigua in greenhouse diet feeding assays...
April 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#4
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432383/increased-blood-cadmium-levels-were-not-associated-with-increased-fracture-risk-but-with-increased-total-mortality-in-women-the-malm%C3%A3-diet-and-cancer-study
#5
L Moberg, P M Nilsson, G Samsioe, G Sallsten, L Barregard, G Engström, C Borgfeldt
This study aimed to investigate if high levels of blood cadmium at baseline were associated with increased fracture risk during follow-up in middle-aged women. No increased fracture risk was observed during follow-up, but women with higher levels of cadmium had an increased overall mortality. INTRODUCTION: Exposure to high levels of cadmium has been associated with an increased fracture risk. The aim was to investigate a perceived association between low levels of blood cadmium (B-Cd) at baseline and risk of first incident fracture...
April 21, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432130/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-engaging-our-endogenous-adjuvants
#6
Nicholas Collins, Yasmine Belkaid
The reliance of the immune system on constitutive microbial stimulation support the idea that both responsiveness to vaccines and vaccine design need to be considered in the context of host-microbiota interactions. Manipulation of microbe function or composition via diet alteration or microbiota engraftment may soon become a viable approach to control immunity and, as such, vaccine responses. Learning from our endogenous original adjuvants could be critical in overcoming the enormous hurdle of vaccine design against the numerous pathogens that cause chronic infection...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431885/safety-of-adding-oats-to-a-gluten-free-diet-for-patients-with-celiac-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-and-observational-studies
#7
María Inés Pinto-Sánchez, Natalia Causada-Calo, Premysl Bercik, Alexander C Ford, Joseph A Murray, David Armstrong, Carol Semrad, Sonia S Kupfer, Armin Alaedini, Paul Moayyedi, Daniel A Leffler, Elena F Verdú, Peter Green
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with celiac disease should maintain a gluten-free diet (GFD), excluding wheat, rye, and barley. Oats might increase the nutritional value of a GFD, but their including is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety of oats as part of a GFD in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for clinical trials and observational studies of the effects of including oats in GFD of patients with celiac disease...
April 18, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431772/low-glycemic-index-treatment-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#8
Se Hee Kim, Hoon-Chul Kang, Eun Joo Lee, Joon Soo Lee, Heung Dong Kim
OBJECTIVE: Low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) is a newly developed dietary therapeutic option for epilepsy that is less restrictive than the ketogenic diet (KD). Our objective was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of LGIT. METHODS: From March 2014 to February 2015, 36 patients received LGIT at Severance Children's Hospital. One-year seizure outcomes and side effects were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 36 patients were assessed. Fourteen were female...
April 18, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431761/-dependent-relative-effects-on-family-health
#9
M Eugenia Estrada Fernández, Ana I Gil Lacruz, Marta Gil Lacruz, Antonio Viñas López
OBJETIVES: The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. SETTING: The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality...
April 18, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431743/opportunistic-sampling-to-quantify-plastics-in-the-diet-of-unfledged-black-legged-kittiwakes-rissa-tridactyla-northern-fulmars-fulmarus-glacialis-and-great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo
#10
Heidi Acampora, Stephen Newton, Ian O'Connor
Seabirds can interact with marine litter, mainly by entanglement or ingestion. The ingestion of plastics can lead to starvation or physical damage to the digestive tract. For chicks, it could additionally lead to reduced growth, affecting survival and fledging. This study quantified the ingestion of plastics by seabird chicks via an opportunistic sampling strategy. When ringing is carried out at colonies, birds may spontaneously regurgitate their stomach contents due to the stress or as a defence mechanism...
April 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431509/regular-recreational-physical-activity-and-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Chen-Lin Lin, Wei-Ting Lee, Chun-Yen Ou, Jenn-Ren Hsiao, Cheng-Chih Huang, Jehn-Shyun Huang, Tung-Yiu Wong, Ken-Chung Chen, Sen-Tien Tsai, Sheen-Yie Fang, Tze-Ta Huang, Jiunn-Liang Wu, Yuan-Hua Wu, Wei-Ting Hsueh, Chia-Jui Yen, Yu-Hsuan Lai, Hsiao-Chen Liao, Shang-Yin Wu, Ming-Wei Yang, Forn-Chia Lin, Jang-Yang Chang, Yi-Hui Wang, Ya-Ling Weng, Han-Chien Yang, Yu-Shan Chen, Jeffrey S Chang
BACKGROUND: Although substantial evidence supports a 20-30% risk reduction of colon cancer, breast cancer, and endometrial cancer by physical activity (PA), the evidence for head and neck cancer (HNC) is limited. Three published studies on the association between PA and HNC have generated inconsistent results. The current study examined the association between recreational PA (RPA) and HNC risk with a more detailed assessment on the intensity, frequency, duration, and total years of RPA...
April 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431497/effect-of-ensiled-mulberry-leaves-and-sun-dried-mulberry-fruit-pomace-on-the-fecal-bacterial-community-composition-in-finishing-steers
#12
Yan Li, Qingxiang Meng, Bo Zhou, Zhenming Zhou
BACKGROUND: Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on fecal bacterial communities in Simmental crossbred finishing steers. To this end, the steers were reared on a standard TMR diet, standard diet containing EML, and standard diet containing SMFP. The protein and energy levels of all the diets were similar. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative real-time PCR were used to analyze and detect the fecal bacterial community...
April 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431322/xanthohumol-and-8-prenylnaringenin-ameliorate-diabetic-related-metabolic-dysfunctions-in-mice
#13
Raquel Costa, Ilda Rodrigues, Luísa Guardão, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Carolina Silva, José Magalhães, Manuel Ferreira-de-Almeida, Rita Negrão, Raquel Soares
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disturbances in specific tissues. The present work aimed to analyze the effects of xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), two beer-derived polyphenols, in liver and skeletal muscle lipid and glycolytic metabolism in T2DM mice model. Thirty C57Bl/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: standard diet (control), high-fat diet (DM), high-fat diet plus ethanol (DM-Ethanol), high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L XN (DM-XN) and high-fat diet plus 10 mg/L 8PN (DM-8PN) during 20 weeks...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#14
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431295/clove-and-rosemary-essential-oils-and-encapsuled-active-principles-eugenol-thymol-and-vanillin-blend-on-meat-quality-of-feedlot-finished-heifers
#15
Jéssica de Oliveira Monteschio, Kennyson Alves de Souza, Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital, Ana Guerrero, Maribel Velandia Valero, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho Kempinski, Vinícius Cunha Barcelos, Karina Favoreto Nascimento, Ivanor Nunes do Prado
Forty Nellore heifers were fed (73days) with different diets: with or without essential oils (clove and/or rosemary essential oil) and/or active principle blend (eugenol, thymol and vanillin). The pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area and water losses (thawing and drip) were evaluated 24h post mortem on the Longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (14days) was evaluated on the meat cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Treatments had no effect (P>0...
April 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431252/engineered-regulatory-systems-modulate-gene-expression-of-human-commensals-in-the-gut
#16
Bentley Lim, Michael Zimmermann, Natasha A Barry, Andrew L Goodman
The gut microbiota is implicated in numerous aspects of health and disease, but dissecting these connections is challenging because genetic tools for gut anaerobes are limited. Inducible promoters are particularly valuable tools because these platforms allow real-time analysis of the contribution of microbiome gene products to community assembly, host physiology, and disease. We developed a panel of tunable expression platforms for the prominent genus Bacteroides in which gene expression is controlled by a synthetic inducer...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431244/bacterial-metabolism-affects-the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-response-to-cancer-chemotherapeutics
#17
Aurian P García-González, Ashlyn D Ritter, Shaleen Shrestha, Erik C Andersen, L Safak Yilmaz, Albertha J M Walhout
The human microbiota greatly affects physiology and disease; however, the contribution of bacteria to the response to chemotherapeutic drugs remains poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans and its bacterial diet provide a powerful system to study host-bacteria interactions. Here, we use this system to study how bacteria affect the C. elegans response to chemotherapeutics. We find that different bacterial species can increase the response to one drug yet decrease the effect of another. We perform genetic screens in two bacterial species using three chemotherapeutic drugs: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUDR), and camptothecin (CPT)...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#18
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431178/influence-of-dietary-calcium-concentrations-and-the-calcium-to-non-phytate-phosphorus-ratio-on-growth-performance-bone-characteristics-and-digestibility-in-broilers
#19
A E Gautier, C L Walk, R N Dilger
Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of dietary Ca concentrations (Experiment 1) and a combination of dietary Ca and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) to create distinct Ca-to-NPP ratios (Experiment 2) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to broiler chickens from 2 to 23 d of age. In Experiment 1, dietary treatments consisted of 7 concentrations of Ca (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, or 1.6% of the diet; 7 treatments total), and NPP concentrations were maintained at 0.3%. Increasing the dietary Ca concentration while maintaining 0...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431151/dietary-choline-and-phospholipid-supplementation-enhanced-docosahexaenoic-acid-enrichment-in-egg-yolk-of-laying-hens-fed-a-2-schizochytrium-powder-added-diet
#20
H Wang, H J Zhang, X C Wang, S G Wu, J Wang, L Xu, G H Qi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
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