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Chao Huang, Peng Wang, Xing Xu, Yaru Zhang, Yu Gong, Wenfeng Hu, Minhui Gao, Yue Wu, Yong Ling, Xi Zhao, Yibin Qin, Rongrong Yang, Wei Zhang
Direct induction of macrophage ramification has been shown to promote an alternative (M2) polarization, suggesting that the ramified morphology may determine the function of immune cells. The ketone body metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) elevated in conditions including fasting and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) can reduce neuroinflammation. However, how exactly BHB impacts microglia remains unclear. We report that BHB as well as its producing stimuli fasting and KD induced obvious ramifications of murine microglia in basal and inflammatory conditions in a reversible manner, and these ramifications were accompanied with microglial profile toward M2 polarization and phagocytosis...
October 23, 2017: Glia
Luigi Schiavo, Guillaume Favrè, Vincenzo Pilone, Gianluca Rossetti, Gabriele De Sena, Antonio Iannelli, Alfonso Barbarisi
BACKGROUND: Obese patients with preoperative gout often suffer of gouty attacks after bariatric surgery (BS), probably due to the lack of an adequate postoperative diet. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to assess whether sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is effective in reducing the frequency of gouty attacks and also whether a postoperative low-purine diet (LPD) may further reduce these attacks as compared to a normal-purine diet (NPD) in a series of patients suffering of gout before SG...
October 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Nicole M Gilbertson, Andrew S Paisley, Sibylle Kranz, Arthur Weltman, Jennifer L Kirby, Peter T Hallowell, Steven K Malin
Bariatric surgery is an effective and durable treatment for individuals with obesity and its associated comorbidities. However, not all patients meet weight loss and/or cardiometabolic goals following bariatric surgery, suggesting that some people are bariatric surgery resistant. The reason for this resistance is unclear, but potential factors, such as adiposity-derived inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and aerobic fitness prior to surgery, have been related to blunted surgery responsiveness...
October 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
Ampere A Tseng
The equivalent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) by Mahayana Buddhists with vegetarian diets is quantitatively evaluated. The Buddhists in seven Mahayana-dominated countries or regions, i.e., China, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, are studied. Assessments of the vegetarian population among these Mahayana-dominated countries or regions are performed. Correlation formulas based on data from a national survey are developed to quantify the GHGEs of various dietary groups by using the meat consumption as the only required input...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
Amy C Krist, Laura Bankers, Katelyn Larkin, Michele D Larson, Daniel J Greenwood, Marissa A Dyck, Maurine Neiman
We investigated whether previously documented variation among populations in availability of dietary phosphorus (P) is linked to heterogeneity in growth rate of the New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum on a P-limited diet. We chose this system because P. antipodarum inhabits water bodies that vary in P availability and because P. antipodarum growth rate varies considerably in response to low P. We quantified specific growth rate and alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression in a diverse array of juvenile P...
October 23, 2017: Oecologia
Marie Juul Ornstrup, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Torben Harsløf, Bente Lomholt Langdahl, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic compound. A recent study suggests a positive effect on BMD in men; however, the underlying changes in microstructure and strength remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of RSV on the skeleton in hindlimb-immobilized and non-immobilized rats. Seventy-two female Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Two baseline (BSL) groups underwent short-term diet intervention for 4 weeks before sacrifice [phytoestrogen-deficient diet (PD) (BSL + PD) or RSV diet (600 mg/kg body weight/day) (BSL + RSV)]...
October 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
X L Dong, W X Yu, C M Li, S He, L P Zhou, C W Poon, M S Wong
Dietary patterns may interfere with the efficacy of herbal intervention. Our results demonstrated the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract (SMA) on bone metabolism were influenced by levels of dietary fat and sucrose in ovariectomized (OVX) rats through its actions on attenuating lipid deposition and oxidative stress in rats. INTRODUCTION: Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), also known as Danshen, has been tested as an osteoporosis treatment in a series of small, short human trials that generally report improvements in bone property...
October 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
Tess Pallister, Matthew A Jackson, Tiphaine C Martin, Jonas Zierer, Amy Jennings, Robert P Mohney, Alexander MacGregor, Claire J Steves, Aedin Cassidy, Tim D Spector, Cristina Menni
Reduced gut microbiome diversity is associated with multiple disorders including metabolic syndrome (MetS) features, though metabolomic markers have not been investigated. Our objective was to identify blood metabolite markers of gut microbiome diversity, and explore their relationship with dietary intake and MetS. We examined associations between Shannon diversity and 292 metabolites profiled by the untargeted metabolomics provider Metabolon Inc. in 1529 females from TwinsUK using linear regressions adjusting for confounders and multiple testing (Bonferroni: P < 1...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Filippo Molica, Merlijn J Meens, Juan Dubrot, Avigail Ehrlich, Christel L Roth, Sandrine Morel, Graziano Pelli, Laurent Vinet, Vincent Braunersreuther, Osman Ratib, Marc Chanson, Stephanie Hugues, Eliana Scemes, Brenda R Kwak
Extracellular ATP is a central signaling molecule in inflammatory responses. Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels release ATP in a controlled manner and have been implicated in various inflammatory pathologies, but their role in atherogenesis remains elusive. Using atherosclerosis-susceptible mouse models with ubiquitous deletion of Panx1 (Panx1 (-/-) Apoe (-/-) ) or with Cre recombinase-mediated deletion of Panx1 in endothelial cells and monocytes (Tie2-Cre (Tg) Panx1 (fl/fl) Apoe (-/-) ; Panx1 (del) Apoe (-/-) ), we identified a novel role for Panx1 in the lymphatic vasculature...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mark W Pataky, Haiyan Wang, Carmen S Yu, Edward B Arias, Robert J Ploutz-Snyder, Xiaohua Zheng, Gregory D Cartee
Skeletal muscle is the major site for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and muscle insulin resistance confers many negative health outcomes. Muscle is composed of multiple fiber types, and conventional analysis of whole muscles cannot elucidate fiber type differences at the cellular level. Previous research demonstrated that a brief (two weeks) high fat diet (HFD) caused insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study was to determine in rat skeletal muscle the influence of a brief (two weeks) HFD on glucose uptake (GU) ± insulin in single fibers that were also characterized for fiber type...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Silvia Marchianò, Michele Biagioli, Paolo Scarpelli, Angela Zampella, Maria Chiara Monti, Stefano Fiorucci
Gpbar1 is a bile acid activated receptor for secondary bile acids. Here we have investigated the mechanistic role of Gpbar1 in the regulation of adipose tissues functionality in a murine model of steatohepatitis (NASH). Feeding wild type and Gpbar1(-/-) mice with a high fat diet-fructose (HFD-F) lead to development of NASH-like features. Treating HFD-F mice with 6β-ethyl-3a,7b-dihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-ol (BAR501), a selective Gpbar1-ligand, reversed insulin resistance and histologic features of NASH, increased the weight of epWAT and BAT functionality and promoted energy expenditure and the browning of epWAT as assessed by measuring expression of Ucp1 and Pgc-1α...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sylvain Recoquillon, Manuel Gómez-Guzmán, Marion Rodier, Camille Koffi, Mathieu Nitiéma, Frédéric Gagnadoux, M Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) which alters endothelial function, induces inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases. The non-muscular myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) isoform contributes to endothelial cell-cell junction opening. Deletion of nmMLCK protects mice from death in septic shock models and prevents atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the study was to analyze the implication of nmMLCK in IH-induced vascular inflammation...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kyung Cheul Shin, Injae Hwang, Sung Sik Choe, Jeu Park, Yul Ji, Jong In Kim, Gha Young Lee, Sung Hee Choi, Jianhong Ching, Jean-Paul Kovalik, Jae Bum Kim
Obesity is closely associated with increased adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which contribute to systemic insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism by creating a pro-inflammatory environment. Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is involved in lipoprotein uptake and storage. However, whether lipid uptake via VLDLR in macrophages affects obesity-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance is not well understood. Here we show that elevated VLDLR expression in ATMs promotes adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance in obese mice...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Danah K AboAlSamh, Ahmad A Abulaban, Ismail A Khatri, Ali M Al-Khathaami
OBJECTIVE: To explore if renal dysfunction in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can be considered a risk factor for stroke outcomes. METHODS: The study population consisted of adults diagnosed with acute stroke admitted to the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2015. Data was collected by chart review. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was used to estimate GFR. Patients were classified into 2 eGFR categories: eGFR more than 60 (normal) and eGFR less than or equal 60 (low)...
October 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso, Elena Alvarez-Salas, Gilberto Matamoros-Trejo, Patricia de Gortari
Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH) levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII) in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH)...
October 18, 2017: Nutrients
Maureen M Leonard, Pamela Cureton, Alessio Fasano
For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year on a gluten-free diet. These patients require evaluation for other common GI etiologies and assessment of their celiac disease status in order to make a diagnosis and suggest treatment. Here, we propose an approach to evaluating patients with celiac disease with persistent symptoms, persistently elevated serology, and or persistent villous atrophy despite a gluten-free diet...
October 18, 2017: Nutrients
Andrea Ragusa, Carla Centonze, Maria Elena Grasso, Maria Francesca Latronico, Pier Francesco Mastrangelo, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi, Michele Maffia
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is among the basic constituents of the Mediterranean diet. Its nutraceutical properties are due mainly, but not only, to a plethora of molecules with antioxidant activity known as biophenols. In this article, several biophenols were measured in EVOOs from South Apulia, Italy. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and their conjugated structures to elenolic acid in different forms were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) together with lignans, luteolin and α-tocopherol...
October 18, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Sara Petrillo, Emanuela Piermarini, Anna Pastore, Gessica Vasco, Tommaso Schirinzi, Rosalba Carrozzo, Enrico Bertini, Fiorella Piemonte
Oxidative stress is actively involved in Friedreich's Ataxia (FA), thus pharmacological targeting of the antioxidant machinery may have therapeutic value. Here, we analyzed the relevance of the antioxidant phase II response mediated by the transcription factor Nrf2 on frataxin-deficient cultured motor neurons and on fibroblasts of patients. The in vitro treatment of the potent Nrf2 activator sulforaphane increased Nrf2 protein levels and led to the upregulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes. The neuroprotective effects were accompanied by an increase in neurites' number and extension...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
L Wang, D Wu, T Yan, L Wang
The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of rumen cannulation on the microbial community of goat rumens using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Twelve Boer crossbred goats were used in the experiment: six goats were surgically fitted with rumen cannula, and the other six were used as controls. All goats were fed the same diet for 20 days, after which their rumen digesta were sampled once per week for three consecutive weeks. Total microbial DNA was extracted from the collected rumen fluid and was used as a template to amplify the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Alex Effah, Steven J Ersser, Ann Hemingway
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans (also known as Buruli ulcer) disease is a rare skin disease which is prevalent in rural communities in the tropics mostly in Africa. Mortality rate is low, yet morbidity and consequent disabilities affect the quality of life of sufferers. AIMS: The aim of this paper is to use the grounded theory method to explore the support needs of people living with the consequences of Buruli ulcer in an endemic rural community in Ghana...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
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