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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912362/sympathetic-function-during-whole-body-cooling-is-altered-in-hypertensive-adults
#1
Jody L Greaney, W Larry Kenney, Lacy M Alexander
During moderate cold exposure, cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality increase disproportionately in hypertensive adults (HTN); however, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well defined. We hypothesized that whole-body cold stress would evoke exaggerated increases in blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in HTN compared to normotensive adults (NTN) and that sympathetic baroreflex function would be altered during cooling in HTN. MSNA (peroneal microneurography) and beat-to-beat BP (Finometer) were measured continuously in 10 NTN (6M/4W; age 53±3 yrs; resting BP 125±3/79±1 mmHg) and 13 HTN (7M/6W; age 58±2 yrs; resting BP 146±5/88±2 mmHg) during whole-body cooling-induced reductions in mean skin temperature (Tsk; water-perfused suit) from 34...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912359/left-ventricular-strain-rate-is-reduced-during-voluntary-apnea-in-healthy-humans
#2
Joshua R Smith, Shelbi L Sutterfield, Dryden R Baumfalk, Kaylin D Didier, Shane M Hammer, Jacob Troy Caldwell, Carl J Ade
During an apneic event, sympathetic nerve activity increases resulting in subsequent increases in left ventricular afterload and myocardial work. It is unknown how cardiac mechanics are acutely impacted by the increased myocardial work during an apneic event. 10 healthy individuals (23 ± 3 yrs) performed multiple voluntary end-expiratory apnea (VEEA) maneuvers exposed to room air, while a subset (n=7) completed multiple VEEA exposed to hyperoxic air (100% FiO2). Beat-by-beat blood pressure, heart rate and stroke volume were measured continuously...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903938/atrial-fibrillation-in-acute-obstructive-sleep-apnea-autonomic-nervous-mechanism-and-modulation
#3
Lilei Yu, Xuefei Li, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Menglong Wang, Liping Zhou, Guannan Meng, Yuhong Wang, Zhenya Wang, Jielin Deng, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not completely understood. This study investigated the roles of the intrinsic and extrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system in OSA-induced AF and provided noninvasive autonomic nervous modulation for the suppression of OSA-induced AF by using low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation (LL-TS) of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve at the tragus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen dogs received tracheostomy under general anesthesia and were randomly divided into 3 groups: the OSA group (OSA was simulated via clamping of the endotracheal tube at end expiration for 1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899913/central-chemoreflex-activation-induces-sympatho-excitation-without-altering-static-or-dynamic-baroreflex-function-in-normal-rats
#4
Keita Saku, Takeshi Tohyama, Masako Shinoda, Takuya Kishi, Kazuya Hosokawa, Takuya Nishikawa, Yasuhiro Oga, Takafumi Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Kenji Sunagawa
Central chemoreflex activation induces sympatho-excitation. However, how central chemoreflex interacts with baroreflex function remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the impact of central chemoreflex on the dynamic as well as static baroreflex functions under open-loop conditions. In 15 anesthetized, vagotomized Sprague-Dawley rats, we isolated bilateral carotid sinuses and controlled intra-sinus pressure (CSP). We then recorded sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) at the celiac ganglia, and activated central chemoreflex by a gas mixture containing various concentrations of CO2 Under the baroreflex open-loop condition (CSP = 100 mmHg), central chemoreflex activation linearly increased SNA and arterial pressure (AP)...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899908/activation-of-the-splenocardiac-axis-by-electronic-and-tobacco-cigarettes-in-otherwise-healthy-young-adults
#5
Zachary Boas, Pawan Gupta, Roya S Moheimani, May Bhetraratana, Fen Yin, Kacey M Peters, Jeffrey Gornbein, Jesus A Araujo, Johannes Czernin, Holly R Middlekauff
The "Splenocardiac Axis" describes an inflammatory signaling network underlying acute cardiac ischemia, characterized by sympathetic nerve stimulation of hematopoietic tissues, such as the bone marrow and spleen, which then release proinflammatory monocytes that populate atherosclerotic plaques, thereby promoting ischemic heart disease. Electronic (e) cigarettes, like tobacco cigarettes trigger sympathetic nerve activation, but virtually nothing is known about their influence on hematopoietic and vascular tissues and cardiovascular risks...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895408/sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-innervation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
L Zhang, L L Wu, H B Huan, X J Chen, X D Wen, D P Yang, F Xia
Autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the development of multiple cancers via regulating cancer cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. However, no detailed studies have been performed to study the role of autonomic nerve fibers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as its correlation with the progression of HCC. Here, we examined the distribution of the autonomic nerve fibers and analyzed the correlation between autonomic nerve fibers and the pathological characteristics of HCC patients...
September 12, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894424/editorial-function-of-renal-sympathetic-nerves
#7
EDITORIAL
Yutang Wang, Kyungjoon Lim, Kate M Denton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891509/role-of-the-medullary-lateral-tegmental-field-in-sympathetic-control
#8
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890043/a-migration-case-of-kii-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia-complex-with-the-shortest-stay-in-the-endemic-area-and-the-longest-incubation-to-develop-the-disease
#9
Keiichiro Tsunoda, Toru Yamashita, Hitoshi Shimada, Emi Nomura, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Jingwei Shang, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Makoto Higuchi, Tetsuya Suhara, Yasumasa Kokubo, Shigeki Kuzuhara, Koji Abe
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) is an endemic disease observed in the Kii peninsula, Guam, and Papua. We report a case of a 76-year old man with ALS/PDC of the Kii peninsula of Japan (Kii ALS/PDC). The patient was born and grew up in the Kii peninsula. He moved out at age three, and developed symptoms 73years later. He showed pyramidal sign, parkinsonian symptoms, and mildly impaired cognitive function. (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy showed decreased cardiac sympathetic nerve function, and dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography imaging showed decreased (123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane accumulation...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888522/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-heart-failure-what-does-the-future-hold
#10
REVIEW
Martin R Cowie, Angela M Gallagher
Most patients with heart failure (HF) have sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), with central (rather than obstructive) sleep apnea becoming the predominant form in patients with more severe disease. Cyclical apnea and hypopneas are associated with sleep disturbance, hypoxemia, hemodynamic changes, and sympathetic activation. These patients have a worse prognosis than those without SDB. Mask-based therapies of positive airway pressure targeted at SDB can improve measures of sleep quality and can partially normalize the sleep and respiratory physiology...
August 30, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887775/imaging-cardiac-innervation-in-amyloidosis
#11
Riemer H J A Slart, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Bouke P C Hazenberg, Walter Noordzij
Cardiac amyloidosis is a form of restrictive cardiomyopathy resulting in heart failure and potential risk on arrhythmia, due to amyloid infiltration of the nerve conduction system and the myocardial tissue. The prognosis in this progressive disease is poor, probably due the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Early detection of cardiac sympathetic innervation disturbances has become of major clinical interest, because its occurrence and severity limits the choice of treatment. The use of iodine-123 labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine ([I-123]MIBG), a chemical modified analogue of norepinephrine, is well established in patients with heart failure and plays an important role in evaluation of sympathetic innervation in cardiac amyloidosis...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887003/effects-of-acupuncture-at-the-st-36-point-on-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure-in-normal-adults
#12
Kenichi Kimura, Kazuya Ishida, Noriyo Takahashi, Yasushi Toge, Fumihiro Tajima
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of acupuncture on post-ganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans. MSNA was measured in 8 healthy adult males by microneurography evaluation of the left peroneal nerve. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were simultaneously recorded. MSNA was evaluated as the burst rate, with total MSNA, BP and HR normalized to their respective baseline values. After 10min of rest in the supine position, acupuncture was applied to the right ST-36 point in the tibialis anterior muscle for 15min, with recovery then monitored over a 20-min period...
September 1, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884416/repeated-stress-exaggerates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-rat-spleen
#13
M Laukova, Peter Vargovic, I Rokytova, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Spleen is an immune organ innervated with sympathetic nerves which together with adrenomedullary system control splenic immune functions. However, the mechanism by which prior stress exposure modulates the immune response induced by immunogenic challenge is not sufficiently clarified. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single (2 h) and repeated (2 h daily for 7 days) immobilization stress (IMO) on the innate immune response in the spleen induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/kg)...
September 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877995/a-neuroprotective-agent-that-inactivates-prodegenerative-trka-and-preserves-mitochondria
#14
Konstantin Feinberg, Adelaida Kolaj, Chen Wu, Natalie Grinshtein, Jonathan R Krieger, Michael F Moran, Lee L Rubin, Freda D Miller, David R Kaplan
Axon degeneration is an early event and pathological in neurodegenerative conditions and nerve injuries. To discover agents that suppress neuronal death and axonal degeneration, we performed drug screens on primary rodent neurons and identified the pan-kinase inhibitor foretinib, which potently rescued sympathetic, sensory, and motor wt and SOD1 mutant neurons from trophic factor withdrawal-induced degeneration. By using primary sympathetic neurons grown in mass cultures and Campenot chambers, we show that foretinib protected neurons by suppressing both known degenerative pathways and a new pathway involving unliganded TrkA and transcriptional regulation of the proapoptotic BH3 family members BimEL, Harakiri,and Puma, culminating in preservation of mitochondria in the degenerative setting...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877652/angiotensin-1-7-attenuates-atrial-tachycardia-induced-sympathetic-nerve-remodeling
#15
Wenfeng Shangguan, Wen Shi, Guangping Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Jian Li, Xuewen Wang
INTRODUCTION: The effect of Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) on atrial autonomic remodeling is still unknown. We hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) could inhibit sympathetic nerve remodeling in a canine model of chronic atrial tachycardia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen dogs were randomly assigned to sham group, pacing group and Ang-(1-7) group. Rapid atrial pacing was maintained for 14 days in the pacing and Ang-(1-7) groups. Ang-(1-7) was administered intravenously in the Ang-(1-7) group...
July 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874461/selective-deletion-of-renin-b-in-the-brain-alters-drinking-and-metabolism
#16
Keisuke Shinohara, Pablo Nakagawa, Javier Gomez, Donald A Morgan, Nicole K Littlejohn, Matthew D Folchert, Benjamin J Weidemann, Xuebo Liu, Susan A Walsh, Laura L Ponto, Kamal Rahmouni, Justin L Grobe, Curt D Sigmund
The brain-specific isoform of renin (Ren-b) has been proposed as a negative regulator of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We analyzed mice with a selective deletion of Ren-b which preserved expression of the classical renin (Ren-a) isoform. We reported that Ren-b(Null) mice exhibited central RAS activation and hypertension through increased expression of Ren-a, but the dipsogenic and metabolic effects in Ren-b(Null) mice are unknown. Fluid intake was similar in control and Ren-b(Null) mice at baseline and both exhibited an equivalent dipsogenic response to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt...
September 5, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872777/orexin-a-increases-sympathetic-nerve-activity-through-promoting-expression-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Yuanyuan Fan, Enshe Jiang, Taija Hahka, Qinghui Chen, Jianqun Yan, Zhiying Shan
AIM: Accumulating evidence suggests that orexin signaling is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular function. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that upregulated orexin A signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) through stimulating expression of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). METHODS: In vivo sympathetic nerve recordings were performed to test the impact of PVN orexin signaling on sympathetic outflow in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
September 5, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871339/recruitment-strategies-in-efferent-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#18
REVIEW
J Kevin Shoemaker
In 1968, the first reported microneurographic recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in humans revealed the bursty behavior of efferent sympathetic nerve activity. The timing of bursts could be explained by baroreflex physiology, but the variability in size of each burst was left unexplained. On the basis of shorter latencies of larger bursts, Wallin's group [53] proposed the existence of variable supraspinal synaptic delays and/or options for recruitment of faster-conducting sympathetic neurons when bursts become stronger...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870566/pre-and-postganglionic-vasomotor-dysfunction-causes-distal-limb-coldness-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#19
Kazumasa Shindo, Mai Tsuchiya, Yuta Ichinose, Kishin Koh, Takanori Hata, Nobuo Yamashiro, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Takamura Nagasaka, Yoshihisa Takiyama
BACKGROUND: The detailed pathophysiology of limb coldness in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated cutaneous vasomotor neural function in 18 MSA patients with or without limb coldness, and in 20 healthy volunteers as controls. We measured resting skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and spontaneous changes of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) and skin blood flow (skin vasomotor reflex: SVR), as well as SVR and reflex changes of SSNA after electrical stimulation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868764/the-role-of-increased-glucose-on-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-the-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Sara Rodrigues, Felipe X Cepeda, Edgar Toschi-Dias, Akothirene C B Dutra-Marques, Jefferson C Carvalho, Valéria Costa-Hong, Maria Janieire N N Alves, Maria Urbana P B Rondon, Luiz A Bortolotto, Ivani C Trombetta
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) causes autonomic alteration and vascular dysfunction. The authors investigated whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is the main cause of vascular dysfunction via elevated sympathetic tone in nondiabetic patients with MetS. Pulse wave velocity, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and forearm vascular resistance was measured in patients with MetS divided according to fasting glucose levels: (1) MetS+IFG (blood glucose ≥100 mg/dL) and (2) MetS-IFG (<100 mg/dL) compared with healthy controls...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
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