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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351473/sympathetically-mediated-cardiac-responses-to-isolated-muscle-metaboreflex-activation-following-exercise-are-modulated-by-body-position-in-humans
#1
André L Teixeira, Mauricio Daher, Mayara Souza, Plinio Santos Ramos, James P Fisher, Lauro C Vianna
Isolated muscle metaboreflex activation with post-handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) increases sympathetic nerve activity and partially maintains the exercise-induced increase in blood pressure, but a smaller heart rate (HR) response occurs. The cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, mechanically sensitive receptors that respond to changes in central blood volume and pressure, are strongly associated with changes in body position and upon activation elicit reflex sympathoinhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postural changes modulate the sympathetically-mediated cardiac response to PEI in humans...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351460/macrophage-dependent-impairment-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-autoreceptor-function-in-sympathetic-neurons-from-doca-salt-but-not-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertensive-rats
#2
Ryan Kwun-Yee Mui, Roxanne Fernandes, Hannah Garver, Nico van Rooijen, James J Galligan
DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension are associated with inflammation and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. Prejunctional α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) provide negative feedback to norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves through inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. Increased neuronal norepinephrine release in DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension occurs through impaired α2AR signaling, however, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Mesenteric arteries are resistance arteries that receive sympathetic innervation from the superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMCG)...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343857/stimulation-of-epicardial-sympathetic-nerves-at-different-sites-induces-cardiac-electrical-instability-to-various-degrees
#3
Liang Wang, Lin Sun, Kun Wang, Yingying Jin, Qing Liu, Zhongnan Xia, Xudong Liu, Jiakun Zhang, Jingjie Li
The cardiac sympathetic nerves distribute across cardiac tissues with uneven density. Yet, to what extent this anatomical heterogeneity affects electrical activity of the left ventricle is largely unknown. Dogs were randomized into non-stimulation control (NC), posterior basal-stimulation (PB), anterior superior-stimulation (AS), apical part-stimulation (AP) group. The epicardial sympathetic nerves at different sites along their distribution were with electrical stimulation (ES) for 4 hours except in the NC group...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339089/concentration-gradient-of-noradrenaline-from-the-periphery-to-the-centre-of-the-cornea-a-clue-to-its-origin
#4
Luis Figueira, Carla Ferreira, Catarina Janeiro, Paula Serrao, Fernando Falcao-Reis, Daniel Moura
We set out to demonstrate that the major source of corneal catecholamines is its neuronal release from intrinsic sympathetic nerves rather than circulating or non-neuronal local production. Three concentric segments (central, intermediate, peripheral) were obtained by double trephination (9.5-7.25 mm) performed on corneas harvested from 3-4 month old rabbits and human corneas rejected for transplantation, along with aqueous humour, full iris tissue and blood samples. Endogenous catecholamines were quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED), and comparison with the uptake of radio-labelled noradrenaline (3H-NA) before and after incubation with cocaine was performed...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336212/simulated-microgravity-impairs-cardiac-autonomic-neurogenesis-from-neural-crest-cells
#5
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336094/sympathetic-neurovascular-regulation-during-pregnancy-a-longitudinal-case-series-study
#6
Laura M Reyes, Charlotte W Usselman, Rachel J Skow, Nisha Charkoudian, Jeffery S Staab, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
The adaptations of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during pregnancy remain poorly understood. An increase in blood volume, cardiac output (Q) and SNA with a concomitant drop in total peripheral resistance (TPR), suggest that during pregnancy there is a reduced transduction of SNA into TPR. Most of these findings have originated from cross-sectional studies, thus, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of SNA and TPR in two participants. Measures were made pre-pregnancy (early follicular phase), four occasions during pregnancy, and at two-months postpartum...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334157/elevated-sympathetic-vasomotor-outflow-in-response-to-increased-inspiratory-muscle-activity-during-exercise-is-less-in-young-women-compared-with-men
#7
Keisho Katayama, Joshua R Smith, Kanako Goto, Kaori Shimizu, Mitsuru Saito, Koji Ishida, Teruhiko Koike, Satoshi Iwase, Craig A Harms
We compared changes in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and cardiovascular variables during leg cycle exercise with increased inspiratory muscle resistance in men and women. We hypothesized that sympathetic vasomotor outflow during exercise with increased inspiratory resistance would be attenuated in young women compared with age-matched men. Eight women and seven men completed the study. The subjects performed two 10-min exercise bouts at 40% peak oxygen uptake using a cycle ergometer in a semirecumbent position [spontaneous breathing for 5 min and voluntary hyperventilation with or without inspiratory resistive breathing for 5 min (breathing frequency: 50 breaths min-1 with a 50% duty cycle, inspiratory resistance: 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure)]...
January 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329321/impact-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-inflammation-on-baroreflex-controlled-sympathetic-arterial-pressure-regulation
#8
Takeshi Tohyama, Keita Saku, Toru Kawada, Takuya Kishi, Keimei Yoshida, Takuya Nishikawa, Hiroshi Mannoji, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kenji Sunagawa, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute inflammation, activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and alters hemodynamics. Since the arterial baroreflex is a negative feedback system to stabilize arterial pressure (AP), examining the arterial baroreflex function is a prerequisite to understanding complex hemodynamics under LPS challenge. We investigated the impact of LPS-induced acute inflammation on SNA and AP regulation by performing baroreflex open-loop analysis. METHODS: Ten anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were used...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327782/development-of-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-of-conscious-rats-importance-of-normalization-and-comparison-with-other-regions-of-interest
#9
Daniel J Huereca, Konstandinos A Bakoulas, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Bruce A Berkowitz, Avril Genene Holt, Patrick J Mueller
Spinally projecting neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are believed to contribute to pathophysiological alterations in sympathetic nerve activity and the development of cardiovascular disease. The ability to identify changes in the activity of RVLM neurons in conscious animals and humans, especially longitudinally, would represent a clinically important advancement in our understanding of the contribution of the RVLM to cardiovascular disease. To this end, we describe the initial development of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) for the rat RVLM...
January 12, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325034/ghrelin-preserves-ischemia-induced-vasodilation-of-male-rat-coronary-vessels-following-beta-adrenergic-receptor-blockade
#10
James T Pearson, Nicola Collie, Regis R Lamberts, Tadakatsu Inagaki, Misa Yoshimoto, Keiji Umetani, Philip Davis, Gerard Wilkins, Pete P Jones, Mikiyasu Shirai, Daryl O Schwenke
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an adverse increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). While β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-blockers are routinely used for the management of MI, they may also counter β-AR-mediated vasodilation of coronary vessels. We have reported that ghrelin prevents sympathetic activation following MI. Whether ghrelin modulates coronary vascular tone following MI, either through the modulation of SNA, or directly as a vasoactive mediator, has never been addressed.We utilized synchrotron microangiography to image coronary perfusion and vessel internal diameter (ID) in anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats before, and then again 30 mins after induction of an MI (left coronary artery ligation)...
January 9, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323138/whole-mount-adult-ear-skin-imaging-reveals-defective-neuro-vascular-branching-morphogenesis-in-obese-and-type-2-diabetic-mouse-models
#11
Tomoko Yamazaki, Wenling Li, Ling Yang, Ping Li, Haiming Cao, Sei-Ichiro Motegi, Mark C Udey, Elise Bernhard, Takahisa Nakamura, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are frequently associated with peripheral neuropathy. Though there are multiple methods for diagnosis and analysis of morphological changes of peripheral nerves and blood vessels, three-dimensional high-resolution imaging is necessary to appreciate the pathogenesis with an anatomically recognizable branching morphogenesis and patterning. Here we established a novel technique for whole-mount imaging of adult mouse ear skin to visualize branching morphogenesis and patterning of peripheral nerves and blood vessels...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322377/s-ketamine-current-trends-in-emergency-and-intensive-care-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Helmut Trimmel, Raimund Helbok, Thomas Staudinger, Wolfgang Jaksch, Brigitte Messerer, Herbert Schöchl, Rudolf Likar
S(+)-ketamine, the pure dextrorotatory enantiomer of ketamine has been available for clinical use in analgesia and anesthesia for more than 25 years. The main effects are mediated by non-competitive inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor but S(+)-ketamine also interacts with opioid receptors, monoamine receptors, adenosine receptors and other purinergic receptors. Effects on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and L‑type calcium chanels have also been described...
January 10, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315578/hcn4-pacemaker-channels-attenuate-the-parasympathetic-response-and-stabilize-the-spontaneous-firing-of-sinoatrial-node
#13
Yuko Kozasa, Noriyuki Nakashima, Masayuki Ito, Taisuke Ishikawa, Hiroki Kimoto, Kazuo Ushijima, Naomasa Makita, Makoto Takano
The heart rate is dynamically controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems that regulate the sinoatrial node (SAN). HCN4 pacemaker channels are well-known causative molecule of congenital sick sinus syndrome. Although HCN4 channels are activated by cAMP, the sympathetic response of SAN was preserved in the patients carrying loss-of-function mutations of HCN4 gene. In order to clarify the contribution of HCN4 channels in the autonomic regulation of SAN, we developed novel gain-of-function mutant mice in which expression level of HCN4 channels could be reversibly changed from zero to ∼3 times of that in wild type mice, using tetracycline trans-activator and tetracycline responsive element...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315576/the-metaboreflex-does-not-contribute-to-the-increase-in-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-contracting-muscle-during-static-exercise-in-humans
#14
Daniel Boulton, Chloe E Taylor, Simon Green, Vaughan G Macefield
Both central command and metaboreflex inputs from contracting muscles increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to non-contracting muscle during sustained isometric exercise. We recently showed that MSNA to contracting muscle also increases in an intensity-dependent manner, but whether this can be sustained by the metaboreflex is unknown. MSNA was recorded from the left common peroneal nerve and spikes of MSNA extracted. Eleven subjects performed a series of four-minute dorsiflexions of the left ankle at 10% of maximum voluntary contraction under three conditions: without ischaemia, with 6 min of post-exercise ischaemia and with ischaemia during and after exercise; these were repeated in the right leg...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306937/the-effects-of-stress-and-meditation-on-the-immune-system-human-microbiota-and-epigenetics
#15
Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306322/curcumin-attenuates-collagen-induced-inflammatory-response-through-the-gut-brain-axis
#16
Yannong Dou, Jinque Luo, Xin Wu, Zhifeng Wei, Bei Tong, Juntao Yu, Ting Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Yan Yang, Xusheng Yuan, Peng Zhao, Yufeng Xia, Huijuan Hu, Yue Dai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of curcumin exhibited an anti-arthritic effect despite its poor bioavailability. The present study aimed to explore whether the gut-brain axis is involved in the therapeutic effect of curcumin. METHODS: The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model was induced by immunization with an emulsion of collagen II and complete Freund's adjuvant. Sympathetic and parasympathetic tones were measured by electrocardiographic recordings...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305268/long-term-estradiol-17%C3%AE-exposure-decreases-the-cholinergic-innervation-pattern-of-the-pig-ovary
#17
B Jana, K A Meller, M Czajkowska, J Całka
Elevated levels of endogenous estrogens in the course of pathological states of ovaries, as well as xenoestrogens, may lead to hyperestrogenism. It has previously been demonstrated that long-term estradiol-17β (E2) administration in adult gilts affected the population of sympathetic intraovarian nerve fibers. The aim of this study has been to determine the effect of long-term E2 exposure on the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries. Intraovarian distribution and the density of nerve fibers immunoreactive (IR) to vesicular acetylocholine transporter (VAChT) and/or neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) were determined...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304162/adrenergic-receptors-inhibit-trpv1-activity-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-of-rats
#18
Yumi Matsushita, Miki Manabe, Naoki Kitamura, Izumi Shibuya
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor channel that responds to multiple types of stimuli, such as heat, acid, mechanical pressure and some vanilloids. Capsaicin is the most commonly used vanilloid to stimulate TRPV1. TRPV1 channels are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons that extend to Aδ- and C-fibers and have a role in the transduction of noxious inputs to the skin into the electrical signals of the sensory nerve. Although noradrenergic nervous systems, including the descending antinociceptive system and the sympathetic nervous system, are known to modulate pain sensation, the functional association between TRPV1 and noradrenaline in primary sensory neurons has rarely been examined...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301234/the-effect-of-coatings-and-nerve-growth-factor-on-attachment-and-differentiation-of-pheochromocytoma-cells
#19
Anna Orlowska, Pallale Tharushi Perera, Mohammad Al Kobaisi, Andre Dias, Huu Khuong Duy Nguyen, Shahram Ghanaati, Vladimir Baulin, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
Cellular attachment plays a vital role in the differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells are noradrenergic clonal cells isolated from the adrenal medulla of Rattus norvegicus and studied extensively as they have the ability to differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells. The effect of several experimental parameters including (i) the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF); (ii) substratum coatings, such as poly-L-lysine (PLL), fibronectin (Fn), and laminin (Lam); and (iii) double coatings composed of PLL/Lam and PLL/Fn on the differentiation process of PC12 cells were studied...
December 31, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300244/sympathetic-and-baroreflex-abnormalities-in-the-uncomplicated-prediabetic-state
#20
Raffaella Dell'Oro, Fosca Quarti Trevano, Pierluigi Gamba, Claudia Ciuffarella, Gino Seravalle, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic abnormalities characterize overt diabetic state. However, how early is their appearance in the clinical course of the disease is unclear. METHODS: In 26 normotensive and normoweight prediabetic patients, aged 45.2 ± 3.2 years (mean ± SEM), we assessed efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (MSNA, microneurography), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, and a number of hemodynamic and metabolic variables, including homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
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