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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630892/disruption-of-the-axonal-trafficking-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-mrna-impairs-catecholamine-biosynthesis-in-the-axons-of-sympathetic-neurons
#1
Armaz Aschrafi, Anthony E Gioio, Lijin Dong, Barry B Kaplan
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. In a previous communication, evidence was provided that TH mRNA is trafficked to the axon, where it is locally translated. In addition, a 50-bp sequence element in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of TH mRNA was identified that directs TH mRNA to distal axons (i.e., zip-code). In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that local translation of TH plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the axon and/or presynaptic nerve terminal...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629852/bioelectronic-block-of-paravertebral-sympathetic-nerves-mitigates-post-myocardial-infarction-ventricular-arrhythmias
#2
Ray W Chui, Una Buckley, Pradeep S Rajendran, Tina Vrabec, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey L Ardell
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction contributes to induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT). OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of charge-balanced direct current (CBDC), applied to the T1-T2 segment of the paravertebral sympathetic chain, on VT inducibility post-myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: In a porcine model, CBDC was applied in acute animals (n=7) to optimize stimulation parameters for sympathetic blockade and in chronic MI animals (n=7) to evaluate the potential for VTs...
June 16, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628036/arcuate-neuropeptide-y-inhibits-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-multiple-neuropathways
#3
Zhigang Shi, Christopher J Madden, Virginia L Brooks
Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627670/intermedin-improves-cardiac-function-and-sympathetic-neural-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure
#4
Bin Xu, Hao Xu, Heng Cao, Xiaoxiao Liu, Chunhuan Qin, Yanzhou Zhao, Xiaolin Han, Hongli Li
Emerging evidence has suggested that intermedin (IMD), a novel member of the calcitonin gene‑related peptide (CGRP) family, has a wide range of cardioprotective effects. The present study investigated the effects of long‑term administration of IMD on cardiac function and sympathetic neural remodeling in heart failure (HF) rats, and studied potential underlying mechanism. HF was induced in rats by myocardial infarction (MI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either saline or IMD (0.6 µg/kg/h) treatment groups for 4 weeks post‑MI...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627137/effect-of-sympathetic-nerve-blockade-on-low-frequency-oscillations-of-forearm-and-leg-skin-blood-flow-in-healthy-humans
#5
Gary J Hodges, Matthew M Mallette, Zachary T Martin, Andrew T Del Pozzi
Examine the effect of inhibiting sympathetic function on cutaneous vasomotion in the forearm and leg METHODS: Intradermal microdialysis fibres were placed in the forearm and leg, one as an untreated control (lactated Ringer's) the other perfused with bretylium tosylate to block sympathetic nerves. Skin blood flow was monitored using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Baseline was collected for 10 min before local skin temperature was increased to 42°C. Spectral analysis was performed using a Morlet wavelet RESULTS: Bretylium tosylate increased skin blood flow during baseline in the forearm (d=1...
June 19, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625674/regional-cerebral-cortical-thickness-correlates-with-autonomic-outflow
#6
REVIEW
Katelyn N Wood, Mark B Badrov, Mark R Speechley, J Kevin Shoemaker
Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known. This study tested the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in autonomic outflow across the adult age-span are related to cerebral cortex thickness. A total of 55 healthy, active individuals participated in this study (21-73years; 18 female). Physical fitness was treated as a possible covariate (VO2peak: 26-81mL/kg/min)...
June 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620841/device-based-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-arterial-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Jens Jordan
Device-based antihypertensive treatments have primarily been developed and clinically tested for patients with hypertension refractory to pharmacological treatment. Most but not all device-based treatments target the sympathetic nervous system and provided important new insight in the mechanisms of human hypertension. This review provides an overview on the scientific rational and clinical data on recent device-based antihypertensive treatment approaches. Device-based treatments targeting the sympathetic nervous system include catheter-based renal nerve ablation, electrical carotid sinus stimulation, modulation of baroreflex transduction through a dedicated carotid stent, carotid body denervation, and deep brain stimulation...
July 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619579/recording-sympathetic-nerve-activity-from-the-skin
#8
REVIEW
Thomas H Everett, Anisiia Doytchinova, Yong-Mei Cha, Peng-Sheng Chen
Sympathetic tone is important in cardiac arrhythmogenesis; however, methods to estimate sympathetic tone are either invasive or require proper sinus node function that may be abnormal in disease states. Because of the direct and extensive connections among various nerve structures, it is possible for the sympathetic nerves in the various structures to activate simultaneously. Therefore, we hypothesized that nerve activity can be recorded from the skin and it can be used to estimate the cardiac sympathetic tone...
May 10, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616545/assessment-of-various-parameters-using-simple-non-invasive-tests-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-with-or-without-cardiac-rehabilitation
#9
Takashi Ueda, Shin-Ichiro Miura, Kanta Fujimi, Toshihisa Ishida, Takuro Matsuda, Masaomi Fujita, Yoshiyuki Ura, Kouji Kaino, Maya Sakamoto, Tomoe Horita, Tadaaki Arimura, Yuhei Shiga, Takashi Kuwano, Ken Kitajima, Keijiro Saku
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Simpler techniques are needed for use by physicians in the examination room to assess the usefulness of CR. We enrolled 46 consecutive CVD patients in a CR program (CR group) and prospectively followed them for 3 months. We compared them to 18 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched CVD patients without CR (non-CR group). Various parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 months using 3 simple non-invasive tests: severity of atherosclerosis [arterial velocity pulse index and arterial pressure volume index (API)] were determined using PASESA®, an autonomic nerve total activity amount index and a coefficient of variation of the R-R interval (CVRR) were determined using eHEART®, and peripheral resistance index, pressure rate product, stroke volume and cardiac index were determined using nico®]...
September 2016: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616394/new-method-of-sudomotor-function-measurement-to-detect-microvascular-disease-and-sweat-gland-nerve-or-unmyelinated-c-fiber-dysfunction-in-adults-with-retinopathy
#10
John E Lewis, Steven E Atlas, Ammar Rasul, Ashar Farooqi, Laura Lantigua, Oscar L Higuera, Andrea Fiallo, Lianette Laria, Renata Picciani, Ken Wals, Zohar Yehoshua, Armando Mendez, Janet Konefal, Sharon Goldberg, Judi Woolger
BACKGROUND: Diabetes-associated microvascular complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy often lead to end-organ and tissue damage. Impaired skin microcirculation often precedes the detection of other advanced diabetic complications. The ANS-1 system contains a redesigned sympathetic skin response (ANS-1 SSR) device that measures sudomotor function, a photoplethysmography sensor, and a blood pressure device to comprehensively assess cardiac autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611676/autonomic-modulation-in-patients-with-heart-failure-increases-beat-to-beat-variability-of-ventricular-action-potential-duration
#11
Bradley Porter, Martin J Bishop, Simon Claridge, Jonathan Behar, Benjamin J Sieniewicz, Jessica Webb, Justin Gould, Mark O'Neill, Christopher A Rinaldi, Reza Razavi, Jaswinder S Gill, Peter Taggart
Background: Exaggerated beat-to-beat variability of ventricular action potential duration (APD) is linked to arrhythmogenesis. Sympathetic stimulation has been shown to increase QT interval variability, but its effect on ventricular APD in humans has not been determined. Methods and Results: Eleven heart failure patients with implanted bi-ventricular pacing devices had activation-recovery intervals (ARI, surrogate for APD) recorded from LV epicardial electrodes under constant RV pacing. Sympathetic activity was increased using a standard autonomic challenge (Valsalva) and baroreceptor indices were applied to determine changes in sympathetic stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610438/pneumorachis-associated-with-persistent-tachycardia-after-blunt-thoracic-trauma
#12
Paris-Dimitrios Kalogerakos, George Lazopoulos, Stefanos Palioudakis, Ioannis Drositis, Kiriaki Chionidou, George Chalkiadakis
Pneumorachis, or intraspinal air, can be a rare result of blunt thoracic trauma. We report the case of a 40-year-old man with multiple injuries and pneumorachis associated with persistent tachycardia. As factors that increase heart rate were gradually ruled out, intraspinal air was considered the potential culprit. Computed tomography revealed intraspinal air at the thoracic level, which possibly promoted cardiac arrhythmogenesis. Air may transiently compress the preganglionic cardiac sympathetic nerves and increase sympathetic output to the heart...
January 1, 2017: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606950/pathophysiology-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Pelliccia, Juan Carlos Kaski, Filippo Crea, Paolo G Camici
Originally described by Japanese authors in the 1990s, Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) generally presents as an acute myocardial infarction characterized by severe left ventricular dysfunction. TTS, however, differs from an acute coronary syndrome because patients have generally a normal coronary angiogram and left ventricular dysfunction, which extends beyond the territory subtended by a single coronary artery and recovers within days or weeks. The prognosis was initially thought to be benign, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that both short-term mortality and long-term mortality are higher than previously recognized...
June 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603514/cutaneous-autonomic-pilomotor-testing-to-unveil-the-role-of-neuropathy-progression-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-capture-pd-protocol-for-a-multicenter-study
#14
Timo Siepmann, Alexandra Pintér, Sylvia J Buchmann, Leonie Stibal, Martin Arndt, Anne Sophie Kubasch, Marie Luise Kubasch, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Elka Frenz, Wagner Zago, Tamás Horváth, Szabolcs Szatmári, Dániel Bereczki, Annamária Takáts, Tjalf Ziemssen, Axel Lipp, Roy Freeman, Heinz Reichmann, Kristian Barlinn, Ben Min-Woo Illigens
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), alpha-synuclein accumulation in cutaneous autonomic pilomotor and sudomotor nerve fibers has been linked to autonomic nervous system disturbances even in the early stages of the disease. This study aims to assess the association between alpha-synuclein-mediated structural autonomic nerve fiber damage and function in PD, elucidate the role of neuropathy progression during the early disease stages, and test reproducibility and external validity of pilomotor function assessment using quantitative pilomotor axon-reflex test and sudomotor function via quantitative direct and indirect test of sudomotor function...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601952/an-in-vitro-experimental-model-for-analysis-of-central-control-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity
#15
Yuji Oyama, Kamon Iigaya, Yoshino Minoura, Toshitaka Okabe, Masahiko Izumizaki, Hiroshi Onimaru
Newborn rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations are useful for in vitro analysis of various brainstem functions including respiratory activity. When studying the central control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), it is important to record peripheral outputs of the SNA. We developed an in vitro preparation in which neuronal connections between the cardiovascular center in the medulla and SNA peripheral outputs are preserved. Zero- to 1-day-old rats were deeply anesthetized with isoflurane, and the brainstem and spinal cord were isolated with a partial right thoracic cage to record sympathetic nerve discharge from the right thoracic sympathetic nerve trunk (T9-T11)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600097/renal-denervation-to-modify-hypertension-and-the-heart-failure-state
#16
REVIEW
Ming Zhong, Luke K Kim, Rajesh V Swaminathan, Dmitriy N Feldman
Sympathetic overactivation of renal afferent and efferent nerves have been implicated in the development and maintenance of several cardiovascular disease states, including resistant hypertension and heart failure with both reduced and preserved systolic function. With the development of minimally invasive catheter-based techniques, percutaneous renal denervation has become a safe and effective method of attenuating sympathetic overactivation. Percutaneous renal denervation, therefore, has the potential to modify and treat hypertension and congestive heart failure...
July 2017: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590261/orthostatic-hypotension-and-association-of-arterial-compliance-in-elderly-patients-with-hypertension-a-pilot-study
#17
Ayumi Toba, Joji Ishikawa, Kazumasa Harada
BACKGROUNDS: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, and increased mortality. We evaluated whether OH was affected by cardiac structure and function or autonomic function in elderly hypertensive outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 64 hypertension patients (mean age 74.2±1.7 years old), we evaluated changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability before and after standing up using the MemCalc system. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed their medical records and echocardiographic data...
June 5, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585146/deceleration-capacity-a-novel-measure-for-autonomic-nervous-system-in-patients-with-vasovagal-syncope-on-tilt-table-testing
#18
Fen Huang, Chun-Fang Xu, Xiao-Yan Deng, Ping Zuo, Fan Lin, Jing-Jing Fan, Wen-Jia Xu, Xiao-Yun Yang
This study was to investigate the changes of autonomic nerve function and hemodynamics in patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS) during head-up tilt-table testing (HUT). HUT was performed in 68 patients with unexplained syncope and 18 healthy subjects served as control group. According to whether bradycardia, hypotension or both took place during the onset of syncope, the patients were divided during the test into three subgroups: vasodepressor syncope (VD), cardioinhibitory syncope (CI) and mixed syncope (MX) subgroups...
June 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582906/paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-recognition-based-on-multi-scale-r%C3%A3-nyi-entropy-of-ecg
#19
Yi Xin, Yizhang Zhao, Yuanhui Mu, Qin Li, Caicheng Shi
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common type of arrhythmia disease, which has a high morbidity and can lead to some serious complications. The ability to detect and in turn prevent AF is extremely significant to the patient and clinician. OBJECTIVE: Using ECG to detect AF and develop a robust and effective algorithm is the primary objective of this study. METHODS: Some studies show that after AF occurs, the regulatory mechanism of vagus nerve and sympathetic nerve will change...
May 19, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579284/mechanism-of-physical-stress-induced-inhibition-of-ovarian-estradiol-secretion-in-anesthetized-rats
#20
Sae Uchida, Fusako Kagitani
This study examined the site of main integration center in the physical stress-induced inhibition of ovarian estradiol secretion because of ovarian sympathetic nerve (superior ovarian nerve: SON) activation in anesthetized rats. In central nervous system-intact rats, electrical stimulation of the tibial afferent nerve at 10V increased the efferent activity of the SON by 39±13% and reduced the ovarian secretion of estradiol by 34±7%. These responses were observed in decerebrate rats but were abolished in spinal rats...
May 26, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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