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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239924/cannabinoids-as-gastrointestinal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#1
REVIEW
A Fabisiak, J Fichna
In this mini-review, we focus on the potential of the endocannabinoid system as a target for novel therapies to treat gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. We discuss the organization of the endocannabinoid signaling and present possible pharmacological sites in the endocannabinoid system. We also refer to recent clinical findings in the field. Finally, we point at the potential use of cannabinoids at low, non-psychoactive doses to counteract non-inflammatory pathological events in the GI tract, like chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, as evidenced by Abalo et al...
March 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239084/a-case-of-advanced-gastric-cancer-concomitant-with-pyogenic-liver-abscess-in-the-patient-with-subtotal-gastrectomy
#2
Dong Hee Park, Nae Yun Heo, Heon Sa-Kong, Na Ri Jeong, Su Jin Jeong, Sung Jin Oh, Kyung Han Nam
The hematogenous spreading of an infectious pathogen via the portal vein from a mucosal injury in the gastrointestinal tract has been considered as one of the pathologic mechanisms of pyogenic liver abscess. Several studies have presented the association between colorectal cancer and pyogenic liver abscess. However, the cases of stomach cancer concomitant with pyogenic liver abscess have rarely been reported in the world. Herein, we present a case of advanced gastric cancer concomitant with pyogenic liver abscess in a patient who previously underwent subtotal gastrectomy due to peptic ulcer perforation...
February 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237181/moderate-hypofractionated-postprostatectomy-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-with-daily-image-guidance-vmat-igrt-a%C3%A2-mono-institutional-report-on-feasibility-and-acute-toxicity
#3
Sergio Fersino, Umberto Tebano, Rosario Mazzola, Niccolò Giaj-Levra, Francesco Ricchetti, Gioacchino Di Paola, Alba Fiorentino, Gianluisa Sicignano, Stefania Naccarato, Ruggero Ruggieri, Stefano Cavalleri, Filippo Alongi
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity profiles of a moderate hypofractionated regimen with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who underwent radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From December 2012 to February 2016, 125 patients, previously having undergone radical prostatectomy, received adjuvant (64 patients) or salvage (61 patients) radiotherapy (RT) inside an institutional protocol of moderate hypofractionation schedule using the VMAT technique (Varian RapidArc, Palo Alto, CA)...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228619/a-case-of-anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-a-reductase-antibody-positive-paraneoplastic-necrotizing-myopathy-associated-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-that-responded-to-intravenous-immunoglobulin-therapy
#4
Tomohisa Yamaguchi, Akiko Matsunaga, Masamichi Ikawa, Norimichi Shirafuji, Ichizo Nishino, Tadanori Hamano
A 49-year-old woman presented with progressive muscle weakness of the limbs and dysphagia. Her past and family medical history were unremarkable and she did not take statins or any other medications. Laboratory tests showed that serum levels of creatine kinase were elevated (13,565 IU/l) and anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) antibodies were detected in the serum. Other autoantibodies to the nuclear (ANA), RNP, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS), and signal recognition particle (SRP) were negative...
February 22, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225494/a-unique-case-of-inflammatory-fibroid-polyp-in-the-duodenum-of-a-female-adolescent-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Mauricio Giusti Calderon, Valéria Campos Caivano, Sauro Bagnaresi, José Ozório de Oliveira Lira, Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, João Antonio Correa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a very rare benign condition in children that can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized as a polypoid lesion originating in the submucosa, composed of connective tissue and eosinophilic infiltrate. It is most common in the stomach and in adults between the fifth and seventh decades of life. Its occurrence is unusual in the duodenum. CASE SUMMARY: One case of duodenal IFP was described and the literature is reviewed with emphasis on the clinical and pathological features of IFP in children...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225445/adjuvant-radiotherapy-versus-wait-and-see-strategy-for-pathologic-t3-or-margin-positive-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#6
M Parvez Shaikh, Fiori Alite, Meng-Jia Wu, Abhishek A Solanki, Matthew M Harkenrider
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) to wait-and-see (WS) strategy in pathologic T3 or margin-positive prostate cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive EMBASE, MEDLINE, http://www.clinicaltrails.gov, and Cochrane Library search for RCTs of ART versus WS was done. Results were synthesized for metastasis-free, biochemical progression-free, clinical progression-free, hormone-free, and overall survival as well as gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225079/multiple-sodium-channel-isoforms-mediate-the-pathological-effects-of-pacific-ciguatoxin-1
#7
Marco C Inserra, Mathilde R Israel, Ashlee Caldwell, Joel Castro, Jennifer R Deuis, Andrea M Harrington, Angelo Keramidas, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Jessica Maddern, Andelain Erickson, Luke Grundy, Grigori Y Rychkov, Katharina Zimmermann, Richard J Lewis, Stuart M Brierley, Irina Vetter
Human intoxication with the seafood poison ciguatoxin, a dinoflagellate polyether that activates voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV), causes ciguatera, a disease characterised by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. We assessed the activity of the most potent congener, Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), on NaV1.1-1.9 using imaging and electrophysiological approaches. Although P-CTX-1 is essentially a non-selective NaV toxin and shifted the voltage-dependence of activation to more hyperpolarising potentials at all NaV subtypes, an increase in the inactivation time constant was observed only at NaV1...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224562/solitary-choroidal-metastasis-from-gastric-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report
#8
Masanari Shimada, Susumu Amaya, Hiroaki Sugita, Yuichiro Furutani, Yoshinori Munemoto, Takeshi Mitsui, Toshiro Tanahashi, Yuzo Kikuchi
BACKGROUND: Metastatic choroidal carcinomas that originated from the gastrointestinal tract are extremely rare. We report a case of suspected solitary choroidal metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 60-year-old man who had undergone laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D1+ lymphadenecetomy for gastric cancer. The clinical stage was T1bN0M0 (TNM classification), but the pathological stage was T4aN0M0 beyond expectation. Adjuvant chemotherapy with oral Tegafur, Gimeracil, Oteracil potassium (TS-1(®)) was initiated...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223907/comparative-bioavailability-and-utilization-of-particular-forms-of-b12-supplements-with-potential-to-mitigate-b12-related-genetic-polymorphisms
#9
REVIEW
Cristiana Paul, David M Brady
CONTEXT: Three natural forms of vitamin B12 are commercially available: methylcobalamin (MeCbl), adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl), and hydroxycobalamin (OHCbl), all of which have been shown in clinical studies to improve vitamin B12 status. They are bioidentical to the B12 forms occurring in human physiology and animal foods. In contrast, cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), a synthetic B12 compound used for food fortification and in some supplements, occurs only in trace amounts in human tissues as a result of cyanide intake from smoking or other sources...
February 2017: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220362/the-role-of-impedance-planimetry-in-the-evaluation-of-esophageal-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Nitin K Ahuja, John O Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impedance planimetry measures tissue wall distensibility as a function of pressure and cross-sectional area. Recent interest in this technique's relevance to the gastrointestinal tract has been accelerated by the availability of the functional lumen imaging probe, a catheter-based system that dynamically quantitates these biomechanical properties. Herein, we review the device's particular utility in the setting of esophageal pathology, including processes affecting the esophageal body as well as the upper and lower esophageal sphincters...
February 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219800/variations-in-gut-microbiota-and-fecal-metabolic-phenotype-associated-with-depression-by-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-and-lc-ms-based-metabolomics
#11
Meng Yu, Hongmei Jia, Chao Zhou, Yong Yang, Yang Zhao, Maohua Yang, Zhongmei Zou
As a prevalent, life-threatening and highly recurrent psychiatric illness, depression is characterized by a wide range of pathological changes; however, its etiology remains incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence supports that gut microbiota affects not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function and behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To assess the impact of gut microbiota on fecal metabolic phenotype in depressive conditions, an integrated approach of 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) based metabolomics was performed in chronic variable stress (CVS)-induced depression rat model...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219002/molecular-testing-for-gastrointestinal-cancer
#12
Hye Seung Lee, Woo Ho Kim, Yoonjin Kwak, Jiwon Koh, Jeong Mo Bae, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Mee Soo Chang, Hye Seung Han, Joon Mee Kim, Hwal Woong Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Young Hee Choi, Ji Y Park, Mi Jin Gu, Min Jin Lhee, Jung Yeon Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Mee-Yon Cho
With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wild-type RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2-4). A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210071/update-on-the-medical-management-of-gastrointestinal-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Giuseppe Lopalco, Donato Rigante, Vincenzo Venerito, Claudia Fabiani, Rossella Franceschini, Michele Barone, Giovanni Lapadula, Mauro Galeazzi, Bruno Frediani, Florenzo Iannone, Luca Cantarini
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology mainly defined by recurrent oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and chronic relapsing bilateral uveitis, all of which represent the "stigmata" of disease. However, many other organs including the vascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal systems can be affected. The gastrointestinal involvement in Behçet's disease (GIBD), along with the neurological and vascular ones, represents the most feared clinical manifestation of BD and shares many symptoms with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209955/-the-complications-of-intestinal-stoma-in-children
#14
S V Minaev, N I Bykov, A V Isaeva, A V Kachanov, E A Tovkan, N V Filip'yeva, I N Gerasimenko
AIM: To investigate the complications of intestinal stoma in children and to develop measures for decrease of their incidence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 152 children with congenital and acquired gastrointestinal pathology requiring surgical treatment with the imposition of intestinal stoma. Atresia of intestinal tube was observed in 28 (18.4%) children, meconium ileus - in 10 (6.6%) cases, Hirschsprung's disease - in 11 (7.2%)cases, anorectal malformations - in 39 (25...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209476/the-role-of-a-psp-producing-alexandrium-bloom-in-an-unprecedented-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin-mortality-event-in-flanders-bay-new-york-usa
#15
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Robert J Ossiboff, Craig A Burnell, Carlton D Rauschenberg, Kevin Hynes, Russell L Burke, Elizabeth M Bunting, Kim Durham, Christopher J Gobler
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are a threatened or endangered species in much of their range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Over an approximately three-week period from late April to mid-May 2015, hundreds of adult diamondback terrapins were found dead on the shores of Flanders Bay, Long Island, New York, USA. Concurrent with the mortality event, elevated densities of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense (>10(4) cells L(-1)) and high levels of PST in bivalves (maximal levels = 540 μg STX eq...
February 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206938/a-review-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-specimen-histopathology
#16
Luke A Kinsinger, James C Garber, Oliver Whipple
With the increasing popularity of sleeve gastrectomy, many stomach specimens are being evaluated. Understanding the significance and treatment for unexpected pathology is important. This study examines the incidence of relevant histopathology of sleeve gastrectomy specimens. It evaluates previous data for each histopathology and provides recommendations for treatment. In this study, a retrospective review was performed for 241 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2009 to 2014 at a single institution...
November 1, 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205418/pediatric-neuroendocrine-carcinoid-tumors-management-pathology-and-imaging-findings-in-a-pediatric-referral-center
#17
Andrew J Degnan, Shannon Tocchio, Waleed Kurtom, Sameh S Tadros
BACKGROUND: While neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors are increasingly recognized in the adult population, they are often not suspected in children. PROCEDURE: Retrospective review of all well-differentiated neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors was performed based on pathology reports from a quaternary pediatric medical center between January 2003 and June 2016. Clinical presentations, treatment approaches, imaging findings, and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 45 cases of pathology-proven carcinoid tumor were reported with an average age of 14...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203570/multifocal-gastric-ulcers-caused-by-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-a-patient-with-significant-weight-loss
#18
Mark A Gromski, Jennifer L Peng, Jiehao Zhou, Howard C Masuoka, Attaya Suvannasankha, Suthat Liangpunsakul
Primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with varied clinical presentations. The stomach is the most common GI site and accounts for 70% to 75% of GI lymphomas. We present a patient with gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who presented with significant weight loss, early satiety, and multifocal ulcerated gastric lesions. Esophagoduodenoscopy should be performed in patients presenting with warning symptoms as in our case. Diagnosis is usually made by endoscopic biopsies. Multiple treatment modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have been used...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203166/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-with-synchronous-bone-metastases-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Philippe Rochigneux, Lénaig Mescam-Mancini, Delphine Perrot, Erwan Bories, Laurence Moureau-Zabotto, Anthony Sarran, Jérôme Guiramand, François Bertucci
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumours of the digestive tract, derived from Cajal interstitial cells. Bone metastases are very rare, and there is no consensus regarding their treatment. Here, we present the unusual case of a 66-year-old man with a gastric GIST with synchronous bone and liver metastases, fully documented at the pathological and molecular levels with a KIT exon 11 mutation. After 9 months of imatinib, the scanner showed a 33% partial response of target lesions. We also review the literature and describe the characteristics, treatment, and outcome of all cases previously reported...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202366/modulation-of-the-trpv4-ion-channel-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-disease
#20
REVIEW
Megan S Grace, Sara J Bonvini, Maria G Belvisi, Peter McIntyre
Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a broadly expressed, polymodally gated ion channel that plays an important role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. TRPV4 knockout mice and several synthetic pharmacological compounds that selectively target TRPV4 are now available, which has allowed detailed investigation in to the therapeutic potential of this ion channel. Results from animal studies suggest that TRPV4 antagonism has therapeutic potential in oedema, pain, gastrointestinal disorders, and lung diseases such as cough, bronchoconstriction, pulmonary hypertension, and acute lung injury...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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