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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631728/acg-and-cag-clinical-guideline-management-of-dyspepsia
#1
Paul M Moayyedi, Brian E Lacy, Christopher N Andrews, Robert A Enns, Colin W Howden, Nimish Vakil
We have updated both the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) guidelines on dyspepsia in a joint ACG/CAG dyspepsia guideline. We suggest that patients ≥60 years of age presenting with dyspepsia are investigated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to exclude organic pathology. This is a conditional recommendation and patients at higher risk of malignancy (such as spending their childhood in a high risk gastric cancer country or having a positive family history) could be offered an endoscopy at a younger age...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631489/an-update-on-the-recognition-and-treatment-of-autonomic-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Wolfgang H Jost
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor, autonomic, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. These occur in varying degrees in all stages of the disease. Among the autonomic disorders, cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal and thermoregulatory disorders are the most relevant. Within cardiovascular disorders drop of blood pressure after orthostasis and non-dipper behavior are very important; but also the influence of cardiovascular medication. Urgency, nocturia, and incontinence are of particular note within the urological problems...
June 20, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626371/carcinoma-of-the-papilla-of-vater-after-diversion-operation-for-pancreaticobiliary-maljunction
#3
Takahiro Yamanaka, Kenichiro Araki, Norihiro Ishii, Mariko Tsukagoshi, Takamichi Igarashi, Akira Watanabe, Norio Kubo, Hiroyuki Kuwano, Ken Shirabe
Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a congenital malformation that is associated with biliary cancer development. When patients are diagnosed with PBM, a diversion operation is recommended. Although a risk remains for developing residual bile duct carcinoma following diversion, the development of a carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater after a diversion operation for PBM is rare. We present a treated case of carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater after a diversion operation for PBM. A 65-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625867/understanding-the-holobiont-how-microbial-metabolites-affect-human-health-and-shape-the-immune-system
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Siegmund Postler, Sankar Ghosh
The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora, which is known as the microbiome. Disruptions to the microbiome have been shown to be associated with severe pathologies of the host, including metabolic disease, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Mood and behavior are also susceptible to alterations in the gut microbiota. A particularly striking example of the symbiotic effects of the microbiome is the immune system, whose cells depend critically on a diverse array of microbial metabolites for normal development and behavior...
June 14, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625560/small-bowel-ultrasound-beyond-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-updated-review-of-the-recent-literature
#5
REVIEW
Federica Cavalcoli, Alessandra Zilli, Mirella Fraquelli, Dario Conte, Sara Massironi
The use of bowel ultrasonography (US) for the evaluation of gut diseases has increased in recent years and has been proven to provide a widely available, non-invasive and inexpensive method for the initial work-up and follow-up of different intestinal diseases, limited mostly by technical challenges posed by the patient's anatomy. The present review aims to provide an extensive overview of the main pathologic features at US examination of intestinal diseases other than inflammatory bowel disease, both acute (e...
June 15, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625138/membrane-bound-atp-dependent-energy-systems-as-extra-and-intracellular-key-signals-for-gastrointestinal-functions-and-their-regulations-in-the-gastrointestinal-mucosa
#6
Gyula Mózsik, Imre László Szabó, József Czimmer
AIMS: Our research group has carried out various biochemical examinations in rat gastric ulcer models and in human gastrointestinal resecates obtained from patient who underwent gastric intervention due to peptic ulcer disease. Biochemical methods gave excellent possibility to approach the biochemical events taking place in tissues, cellular and subcellular regulatory levels during of ulcer development and of its prevetions. This paper gives a briefsummary of these biochemical examinations conducted during this study period started from the 1960's up till now...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622526/extragastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-of-the-lesser-omentum-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
I E Katsoulis, A Tzortzopoulou, P Tziakou, N Arnogiannaki, I Kostoglou-Athanassiou, G Lypas, I G Karaitianos
INTRODUCTION: Extragastrointestinal stromal tumours (EGISTs) are very uncommon compared to their gastrointestinal counterparts. Most of them originate from the intestinal mesentery and the omentum. CASE REPORT: A 70 year-old Caucasian woman presented with a bulky abdominal mass which on laparotomy was found to originate from the lesser omentum and was completely resected. Histological examination revealed spindle cells with severe pleomorphism and high mitotic activity...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621297/endoscopic-ultrasound-with-or-without-fine-needle-aspiration-has-a-meaningful-impact-on-clinical-care-in-the-pediatric-population
#8
Amit Raina, Maire A Conrad, Benjamin Sahn, Alireza Sedarat, Gregory G Ginsberg, Nuzhat A Ahmad, Vinay Chandrasekhara, Petar Mamula, Michael L Kochman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The safety and utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the evaluation and management of gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders among adults has been established. The literature on safety and efficacy in a pediatric referral population (under 21 years of age) is limited. We hypothesized that EUS is safe and useful in the pediatric population. We reviewed the pediatric EUS experience at a single tertiary-care system. We describe the indications, findings, safety, technical success rate, and impact on clinical outcomes...
May 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620692/the-enteric-nervous-system-is-a-potential-autoimmune-target-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Marie Wunsch, Samir Jabari, Barbara Voussen, Michael Enders, Shanthi Srinivasan, François Cossais, Thilo Wedel, Martina Boettner, Anna Schwarz, Linda Weyer, Oktay Göcer, Michael Schroeter, Mathias Maeurer, Matthias Woenckhaus, Karolin Pollok, Helena Radbruch, Luisa Klotz, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Joachim Nickel, Andreas Friebe, Klaus Addicks, Süleyman Ergün, Paul V Lehmann, Stefanie Kuerten
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults that has serious negative socioeconomic effects. In addition to symptoms caused by CNS pathology, the majority of MS patients frequently exhibit gastrointestinal dysfunction, which was previously either explained by the presence of spinal cord lesions or not directly linked to the autoimmune etiology of the disease. Here, we studied the enteric nervous system (ENS) in a B cell- and antibody-dependent mouse model of MS by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy at different stages of the disease...
June 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618973/from-clinical-uncertainties-to-precision-medicine-the-emerging-role-of-the-gut-barrier-and-microbiome-in-small-bowel-functional-diseases
#10
Wojciech Marlicz, Diana Yung, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Igor Loniewski, Saskia van Hemert, Beata Loniewska, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
Over the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of disease pathophysiology. Many new theories expound on the importance of emerging factors such as microbiome influences, genomics/omics, stem cells, innate intestinal immunity or mucosal barrier complexities. This has introduced a further dimension of uncertainty into clinical decision-making, but equally, may shed some light on less well-understood and difficult to manage conditions. Areas covered: Comprehensive review of the literature on gut barrier and microbiome relevant to small bowel pathology...
June 16, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618865/streptococcus-thermophilus-ncimb-41856-ameliorates-signs-of-colitis-in-an-animal-model-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
J R Bailey, V Vince, N A Williams, T A Cogan
Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is mainly based on suppression of symptoms, often with numerous side effects. Trials of probiotics in IBD have frequently produced disappointing results. The majority of probiotics are unusual, since they do not require iron for growth, unlike many bacteria resident in the intestine. The IBD intestine is iron-rich due to bleeding and use of oral iron supplements; conventional probiotics would be rapidly outcompeted. We have evaluated an iron-responsive Streptococcus thermophilus strain for its potential to reduce signs of colitis...
June 16, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618131/pharmacognosy-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-properties-of-achillea-millefolium-l-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Sofi Imtiyaz Ali, B Gopalakrishnan, V Venkatesalu
Achillea millefoilum L. (Yarrow) is an important species of Asteraceae family with common utilization in traditional medicine of several cultures from Europe to Asia for the treatment of spasmodic gastrointestinal disorders, hepatobiliary, gynecological disorders, against inflammation and for wound healing. An extensive review of literature was made on A. millefoilum L. using ethno botanical text books, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, unpublished materials and scientific databases. The Plant List, International Plant Name Index and Kew Botanical Garden databases were used to authenticate the scientific names...
June 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617889/erdheim-chester-disease-presenting-with-histiocytic-colitis-and-cytokine-storm
#13
George P Christophi, Yeshika Sharma, Quader Farhan, Umang Jain, Ted Walker, Gregory S Sayuc, Deborah C Rubin
BACKGROUND: Non-Langerhans histiocytosis is a group of inflammatory lymphoproliferative disorders originating from non-clonal expansion of hematopoietic stem cells into cytokine-secreting dendritic cells or macrophages. Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD) is a rare type of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by tissue inflammation and injury caused by macrophage infiltration and histologic findings of foamy histiocytes. Often ECD involves the skeleton, retroperitoneum and the orbits...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616751/roles-of-amino-acids-in-preventing-and-treating-intestinal-diseases-recent-studies-with-pig-models
#14
REVIEW
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulong Yin, Yinsheng Qiu, Guoyao Wu, Chien-An Andy Hu
Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering...
June 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616611/technical-success-and-short-term-results-of-surgical-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-an-experience-of-three-centers
#15
Mark Igorevich Gluzman, Victor Anatolevich Kashchenko, Aleksei Mikhailovich Karachun, Rashida Vakhidovna Orlova, Iakov Aleksandrovich Nakatis, Iurii Vasilevich Pelipas, Evgenia Leonidovna Vasiukova, Ivan Vladimirovich Rykov, Veronika Vladimirovna Petrova, Svetlana Leonidovna Nepomniashchaia, Anton Sergeevich Klimov
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) comprise about 80% of gastrointestinal sarcomas. In patients with localized disease, surgery is considered as "Gold Standard" treatment. Organ-sparing radical en-block resection is widely accepted practice. Since lymph node dissection is not routinely indicated, minimally invasive approach is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to investigate the short-term outcomes of different surgical treatment of GISTs. METHODS: We analyzed data of 116 patients who received surgical treatment for localized forms of GIST...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#16
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615312/stem-cells-in-repair-of-gastrointestinal-epithelia
#17
REVIEW
Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Matthias Zilbauer, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Hans Clevers
Among the endodermal tissues of adult mammals, the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium exhibits the highest turnover rate. As the ingested food moves along the GI tract, gastric acid, digestive enzymes, and gut resident microbes aid digestion as well as nutrient and mineral absorption. Due to the harsh luminal environment, replenishment of new epithelial cells is essential to maintain organ structure and function during routine turnover and injury repair. Tissue-specific adult stem cells in the GI tract serve as a continuous source for this immense regenerative activity...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614917/cell-death-associated-ribosomal-rna-cleavage-in-postmortem-tissues-and-its-forensic-applications
#18
Ji Yeon Kim, Yunmi Kim, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Hye Young Lim, Hyungsub Kim, Sooyoung Chung, Juck-Joon Hwang, Seong Hwan Park, Gi Hoon Son
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is a key issue in the field of forensic pathology. With the availability of quantitative analysis of RNA levels in postmortem tissues, several studies have assessed the postmortem degradation of constitutively expressed RNA species to estimate PMI. However, conventional RNA quantification as well as biochemical and physiological changes employed thus far have limitations related to standardization or normalization. The present study focuses on an interesting feature of the subdomains of certain RNA species, in which they are site-specifically cleaved during apoptotic cell death...
June 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611935/gastrointestinal-amyloidosis-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Kyle Rowe, Jon Pankow, Fredy Nehme, William Salyers
Gastrointestinal amyloidosis (GIA), a protein deposition disorder, represents a complex common pathway that encompasses multiple etiologies and presentations. It represents a significant diagnostic and treatment challenge. The disease results from the deposition of insoluble extracellular protein fragments that have been rendered resistant to digestion. GIA can be acquired or genetic, and most commonly results from chronic inflammatory disorders (AA amyloidosis), hematologic malignancy (AL amyloidosis), and end-stage renal disease (Beta-2 amyloidosis)...
May 8, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611300/consistency-mapping-of-16-lymph-node-stations-in-gastric-cancer-by-ct-based-vessel-guided-delineation-of-255-patients
#20
Shuhang Xu, Lingling Feng, Yongming Chen, Ying Sun, Yao Lu, Shaomin Huang, Yang Fu, Zhi-Yu Han, Yujing Zhang, Rong Zhang
In order to refine the location and metastasis-risk density of 16 lymph node stations of gastric cancer for neoadjuvant radiotherapy, we retrospectively reviewed the initial images and pathological reports of 255 gastric cancer patients with lymphatic metastasis. Metastatic lymph nodes identified in the initial computed tomography images were investigated by two radiologists with gastrointestinal specialty. A circle with a diameter of 5 mm was used to identify the central position of each metastatic lymph node, defined as the LNc (the central position of the lymph node)...
June 8, 2017: Oncotarget
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