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Athletic Shoes

Wouter Hoogkamer, Rodger Kram, Christopher J Arellano
A sub-2-hour marathon requires an average velocity (5.86 m/s) that is 2.5% faster than the current world record of 02:02:57 (5.72 m/s) and could be accomplished with a 2.7% reduction in the metabolic cost of running. Although supporting body weight comprises the majority of the metabolic cost of running, targeting the costs of forward propulsion and leg swing are the most promising strategies for reducing the metabolic cost of running and thus improving marathon running performance. Here, we calculate how much time could be saved by taking advantage of unconventional drafting strategies, a consistent tailwind, a downhill course, and specific running shoe design features while staying within the current International Association of Athletic Federations regulations for record purposes...
March 3, 2017: Sports Medicine
Angel Gabriel Lucas-Cuevas, Andrés Camacho-García, Raúl Llinares, Jose Ignacio Priego Quesada, Salvador Llana-Belloch, Pedro Pérez-Soriano
Each time the foot contacts the ground during running there is a rapid deceleration that results in a shock wave that is transmitted from the foot to the head. The fatigue of the musculoskeletal system during running may decrease the ability of the body to absorb those shock waves and increase the risk of injury. Insoles are commonly prescribed to prevent injuries, and both custom-made and prefabricated insoles have been observed to reduce shock accelerations during running. However, no study to date has included a direct comparison of their behaviour measured over the same group of athletes, and therefore great controversy still exists regarding their effectiveness in reducing impact loading during running...
2017: PloS One
James Jastifer, Richard Kent, Jeff Crandall, Chris Sherwood, David Lessley, Kirk A McCullough, Michael J Coughlin, Robert B Anderson
BACKGROUND: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted...
March 2017: Sports Health
Masaru Teramoto, Chad L Cross, Randall H Rieger, Travis G Maak, Stuart E Willick
The National Basketball Association (NBA) Draft Combine is an annual event where prospective players are evaluated in terms of their athletic abilities and basketball skills. Data collected at the Combine should help NBA teams select right the players for the upcoming NBA Draft, however its value for predicting future performance of players has not been examined. This study investigated predictive validity of the NBA Draft Combine on future performance of basketball players. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on the 2010-2015 Combine data to reduce correlated variables (N = 234), a correlation analysis on the Combine data and future on-court performance to examine relationships (maximum pairwise N = 217), and a robust principal component regression (PCR) analysis to predict first-year and three-year on-court performance from the Combine measures (N = 148 and 127, respectively)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Hui Liu, Zitian Wu, Wing-Kai Lam
This study examined the effects of collar height and heel counter-stiffness of basketball shoes on ankle stability during sidestep cutting and athletic performance. 15 university basketball players wore customized shoes with different collar heights (high and low) and heel counter-stiffness (regular, stiffer and stiffest) for this study. Ankle stability was evaluated in sidestep cutting while athletic performance evaluated in jumping and agility tasks. All variables were analysed using two-way repeated ANOVA...
April 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Joshua D Bravo, Shelby A Peel, Yuhua Li, Robert J Townsend
Understanding the effects of training in different footwear on sporting performance would be useful to coaches and athletes. PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of computerized agility training using 3 types of footwear on change-of-direction and balance performance in young adults. METHOD: Thirty recreationally active young adults (Mage = 22.8 ± 3.1 years; Mheight = 1.71 ± 0.7 m; Mbodymass = 73.4 ± 10.3 kg) were randomly assigned to a 6-week computerized agility training intervention in 1 of 3 footwear groups (n = 10/group): barefoot, minimal footwear, or traditional shoes...
March 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Alycia Fong Yan, Richard M Smith, Claire E Hiller, Peter J Sinclair
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the impact attenuation properties of the jazz shoes, and to investigate the in-vivo effect of four jazz shoe designs on lower limb joint stiffness during a dance-specific jump. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: A custom-built mechanical shoe tester similar to that used by athletic shoe companies was used to vertically impact the forefoot and heel region of four different jazz shoe designs. Additionally, dancers performed eight sautés in second position in bare feet and the shoe conditions...
May 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
I S Hettigama, H K G Punchihewa, N K Heenkenda
BACKGROUND: Foot ailments are common among schoolchildren, some of which may be attributed to wearing ill-fitting footwear. As schoolchildren often participate in athletic activity, they are doubly vulnerable to foot ailments, and are particularly vulnerable to conditions such as hallux valgus, Achilles tendonitis, athlete's foot, corns and calluses. Thus, there is an acute need for the design and manufacture of ergonomic footwear for this target group. While research on appropriate footwear for children has been carried out in relation to child populations in other societies, research on the circumstances of Sri Lankan schoolchildren is lacking...
October 17, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
B Tettenborn, S Mehnert, I Reuter
Peripheral nerve injuries due to sports are relatively rare but the exact incidence is not known due to a lack of epidemiological studies. Particular sports activities tend to cause certain peripheral nerve injuries including direct acute compression or stretching, repetitive compression and stretching over time, or another mechanism such as ischemia or laceration. These nerve lesions may be severe and delay or preclude the athlete's return to sports, especially in cases with delayed diagnosis. Repetitive and vigorous use or overuse makes the athlete vulnerable to disorders of the peripheral nerves, and sports equipment may cause compression of the nerves...
September 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Erik Hohmann, Peter Reaburn, Kevin Tetsworth, Andreas Imhoff
The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0...
June 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Brian Thomas Weaver, Kathleen Fitzsimons, Jerrod Braman, Roger Haut
The goal of the current study was to expand on previous work to validate the use of pressure insole technology in conjunction with linear regression models to predict the free torque at the shoe-surface interface that is generated while wearing different athletic shoes. Three distinctly different shoe designs were utilised. The stiffness of each shoe was determined with a material's testing machine. Six participants wore each shoe that was fitted with an insole pressure measurement device and performed rotation trials on an embedded force plate...
September 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Thorsten Sterzing, Clivia Frommhold, Dieter Rosenbaum
OBJECTIVE: Backward locomotion in humans occurs during leisure, rehabilitation, and competitive sports. Little is known about its general biomechanical characteristics and how it affects lower extremity loading as well as muscle coordination. Thus, the purpose of this research was to analyze in-shoe plantar pressure patterns and lower extremity muscle activity patterns for backward compared to forward running. METHODS: On a treadmill, nineteen runners performed forward running at their individually preferred speed, followed by backward running at 70% of their self-selected forward speed...
2016: Gait & Posture
Hayley S Legg, Mark Glaister, Daniel J Cleather, Jon E Goodwin
Weightlifting shoes (WS) are often used by athletes to facilitate their squat technique; however, the nature of these benefits is not well understood. In this study, the effects of footwear and load on the mechanics of squatting were assessed for 32 participants (age: 25.4 ± 4.4 years; mass 72.87 ± 11.35 kg) grouped by sex and experience. Participants completed loaded and unloaded back squats wearing both WS and athletic shoes (AS). Data were collected utilising a 3D motion capture system synchronised with a force platform and used to calculate kinematic and kinetic descriptors of squatting...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mukul Talaty, Sona Patel, Alberto Esquenazi
Rocker bottom shoes have recently gained considerable popularity, likely in part because of the many purported benefits, including reducing joint loading and toning muscles. Scientific inquiry about these benefits has not kept pace with the increased usage of this shoe type. A fundamental premise of rocker bottom shoes is that they transform hard, flat, level surfaces into more uneven ones. Published studies have described a variety of such shoes-all having a somewhat rounded bottom and a cut heel region or a cut forefoot region, or both (double rocker)...
July 2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Athol Thomson, Einar Einarsson, Erik Witvrouw, Rod Whiteley
AlterG® treadmills allow for running at different speeds as well as at reduced bodyweight (BW), and are used during rehabilitation to reduce the impact load. The aim of this study was to quantify plantar loads borne by the athlete during rehabilitation. Twenty trained male participants ran on the AlterG® treadmill in 36 conditions: all combinations of indicated BW (50-100%) paired with different walking and running speeds (range 6-16 km · hr(-1)) in a random order. In-shoe maximum plantar force (Fmax) was recorded using the Pedar-X system...
February 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Robyn Gilden, Marc Plisko, Kathleen Hiteshew, Erika Friedmann, Donald Milton
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the feasibility of measuring pesticide exposure of children using athletic fields to which pesticides were recently applied. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: This project was a pilot feasibility study designed to measure pre and posttest environmental exposure to Horsepower; a combination herbicide containing (4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid (MCPA), dicamba and triclopyr. A spot application of Horsepower to a soccer field occurred at 8AM...
May 2016: Environmental Research
Adam J Berrones, Stephanie P Kurti, Korey M Kilsdonk, Delonyx J Cortez, Flavia F Melo, Michael Whitehurst
Berrones, AJ, Kurti, SP, Kilsdonk, KM, Cortez, DJ, Melo, FF, and Whitehurst, M. Barefoot running reduces the submaximal oxygen cost in female distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2348-2353, 2016-Being a competitive distance runner is, in part, attributable to a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. However, running economy (RE) is a more robust indicator of distance running performance among endurance athletes of similar V[Combining Dot Above]O2max levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of unshod (barefoot) vs...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kevin C Miller, Blaine C Long, Jeffrey Edwards
CONTEXT: The National Athletic Trainers' Association and the American College of Sports Medicine have recommended removing American football uniforms from athletes with exertional heat stroke before cold-water immersion (CWI) based on the assumption that the uniform impedes rectal temperature (T(rec)) cooling. Few experimental data exist to verify or disprove this assumption and the recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To compare CWI durations, T(rec) cooling rates, thermal sensation, intensity of environmental symptoms, and onset of shivering when hyperthermic participants wore football uniforms during CWI or removed the uniforms immediately before CWI...
December 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
Thomas Haugen, Martin Buchheit
The aim of this review is to investigate methodological concerns associated with sprint performance monitoring, more specifically the influence and magnitude of varying external conditions, technology and monitoring methodologies not directly related to human physiology. The combination of different starting procedures and triggering devices can cause up to very large time differences, which may be many times greater than performance changes caused by years of conditioning. Wind, altitude, temperature, barometric pressure and humidity can all combine to yield moderate time differences over short sprints...
May 2016: Sports Medicine
Joseph J Knapik, Rodney Pope, Robin Orr, Tyson Grier
This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates...
2015: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
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