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Biomechanics gait

Hyunglae Lee, Elliott J Rouse, Hermano Igo Krebs
The human ankle joint plays a critical role during walking and understanding the biomechanical factors that govern ankle behavior and provides fundamental insight into normal and pathologically altered gait. Previous researchers have comprehensively studied ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during many biomechanical tasks, including locomotion; however, only recently have researchers been able to quantify how the mechanical impedance of the ankle varies during walking. The mechanical impedance describes the dynamic relationship between the joint position and the joint torque during perturbation, and is often represented in terms of stiffness, damping, and inertia...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, John H Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal weight female adult subjects following a commonly recommended 30-minute walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution were hypothesized to increase in obese females following a 30-minute walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Viktor Feldman, Meir Nyska, Niv Marom, Omer Slavin, Yaron S Brin, Uri Farkash, Ezequiel Palmanovich
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to measure transverse forces between the 1st and 2nd metatarsals after reducing the intermetatarsal angle (IMA) in normal and hallux valgus (HV) feet, during non weight-bearing and weight-bearing phases of gait. METHODS: Four cadaver feet, three normal and one with hallux valgus, were used. A new suture button device (CyclaPlex™) composed of screw-type buttons connected with a wire was implanted at the mid-shaft of the 1st and 2nd metatarsals of all the feet...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Ana Paula Silva, Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Maria Lúcia Cavaliere, Sérgio Pinto, José Silvio de Oliveira Barbosa, Luiz Alberto Batista
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the subtalar eversion range of motion during walking in women with fibromyalgia. METHOD: Twenty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia were directed to walk barefoot at comfortable and self-paced speed on a 7m walkway. Subtalar eversion range of motion was measured using the difference between the maximum and minimum values of subtalar eversion in stance phase. A range of motion between 4°-6° was considered as reference values for subtalar eversion during gait...
September 28, 2016: Foot
Kristin L Popp, William McDermott, Julie M Hughes, Stephanie A Baxter, Steven D Stovitz, Moira A Petit
PURPOSE: To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. METHODS: We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm(3)), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm(2)), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm(4)) at the distal tibia...
October 10, 2016: Bone
Kade L Paterson, Kim L Bennell, Tim V Wrigley, Ben R Metcalf, Jessica Kasza, Rana S Hinman
OBJECTIVE: To validate simple criteria that distinguish flat flexible from stable supportive walking shoes by comparing their effects on the knee adduction moment (KAM) in people with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional biomechanical study. We proposed five criteria to differentiate flat flexible from stable supportive shoes, and selected three pairs of shoes representing each class for biomechanical testing. 28 participants aged ≥50 years with symptomatic medial knee OA underwent gait analysis barefoot and wearing each of the six selected shoes, in random order...
October 8, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Alison H Chang, Joan S Chmiel, Orit Almagor, Ali Guermazi, Pottumarthi V Prasad, Kirsten C Moisio, Laura Belisle, Yunhui Zhang, Karen Hayes, Leena Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Knee sagittal dynamic joint stiffness (DJS) describes the biomechanical interaction between change in external knee flexion moment and flexion angular excursion during gait. In theory, greater DJS may particularly stress the patellofemoral (PF) compartment and thereby contribute to PF osteoarthritis (OA) worsening. We hypothesized that greater baseline knee sagittal DJS is associated with PF cartilage damage worsening 2 years later. METHODS: Participants all had OA in at least one knee...
October 8, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Humberto G Rosas
Although rare, posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries can result in sustained instability and failed cruciate ligament reconstruction if they are not diagnosed. The anatomy of the PLC was once thought to be perplexing and esoteric-in part because of the varying nomenclature applied to this region in the literature, which added unnecessary complexity. More recently, three major structures have been described as the primary stabilizers of the PLC on the basis of biomechanical study findings: the lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Ssu-Yu Chang, Yi-Jia Lin, Wei-Chun Hsu, Lin-Fen Hsieh, Yuan-Hsiang Lin, Chao-Chin Chang, You-Cai Chou, Li-Fei Chen
Six female patients with bilateral medial knee OA and 6 healthy controls were recruited. Patients with knee OA received a 6-week physiotherapist-supervised and home-based exercise program. Outcome measures, including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey as well as objective biomechanical indices were obtained at baseline and follow-up. After treatment, no significant difference was observed in the knee abductor moment (KAM), lever arm, and ground reaction force...
2016: BioMed Research International
V S C Fung
Gait disorder is a common accompaniment of functional neurologic disorders. The diagnosis of a functional or psychogenic gait is complex. It requires a sound knowledge of the range of phenomenology observed in organic movement disorders, the ability to evaluate and diagnose nonmovement disorder neurologic symptoms and signs, but additionally knowledge of potential musculoskeletal causes of gait disturbance. A stepwise approach to the analysis of the phenomenology and separation into four (sometimes overlapping) psychogenic gait syndromes is suggested to aid diagnosis: (1) movement disorder mimics; (2) neurologic (nonmovement disorder) mimics; (3) musculoskeletal or biomechanical mimics; and (4) isolated disequilibrium or balance disorders...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jennifer M Ryan, Nicola Theis, Cherry Kilbride, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Charlie Waugh, Adam Shortland, Grace Lavelle, Marika Noorkoiv, Wendy Levin, Thomas Korff
INTRODUCTION: Gait is inefficient in children with cerebral palsy, particularly as they transition to adolescence. Gait inefficiency may be associated with declines in gross motor function and participation among adolescents with cerebral palsy. Resistance training may improve gait efficiency through a number of biomechanical and neural mechanisms. The aim of the Strength Training for Adolescents with cerebral palsy (STAR) trial is to evaluate the effect of resistance training on gait efficiency, activity and participation in adolescents with cerebral palsy...
October 4, 2016: BMJ Open
Frank E Fish
Re-invasion of the aquatic environment by terrestrial vertebrates resulted in the evolution of species expressing a suite of adaptations for high-performance swimming. Examination of swimming by secondarily aquatic vertebrates provides opportunities to understand potential selection pressures and mechanical constraints, which may have directed the evolution of these aquatic species. Mammals and birds realigned the body and limbs for cursorial movements and flight, respectively, from the primitive tetrapod configuration...
October 3, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Arielle G Fischer, Alon Wolf
BACKGROUND: Body weight unloading is a common method of gait rehabilitation. However, little is known about its effects on the overground gait biomechanical parameters which were often confounded by the walking modality (treadmill) or the speed variability when subjects walked overground while having to pull the body weight unloading system to which they were attached. By designing a mechanical device that pulled the system at a constant speed, we were able to assess the unique effects of body weight unloading on healthy subjects' kinetics during overground gait...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Simona Ferrante, Noelia Chia Bejarano, Emilia Ambrosini, Antonio Nardone, Anna M Turcato, Marco Monticone, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Alessandra Pedrocchi
It has been largely suggested in neuroscience literature that to generate a vast variety of movements, the Central Nervous System (CNS) recruits a reduced set of coordinated patterns of muscle activities, defined as muscle synergies. Recent neurophysiological studies have recommended the analysis of muscle synergies to finely assess the patient's impairment, to design personalized interventions based on the specific nature of the impairment, and to evaluate the treatment outcomes. In this scope, the aim of this study was to design a personalized multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller for gait training, integrating three novel aspects: (1) the FES strategy was based on healthy muscle synergies in order to mimic the neural solutions adopted by the CNS to generate locomotion; (2) the FES strategy was personalized according to an initial locomotion assessment of the patient and was designed to specifically activate the impaired biomechanical functions; (3) the FES strategy was mapped accurately on the altered gait kinematics providing a maximal synchronization between patient's volitional gait and stimulation patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jeanne Montastruc, David Amarantini, Valérie Lambert, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, Philippe Marque, David Gasq
OBJECTIVE: Weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) at the expense of the paretic side concerns 60% of stroke patients. WBA is associated with poor functional prognosis especially in terms of gait performance [1,2]. The primary objective was to assess the determinants of WBA in stroke patients from clinical and instrumental data. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The sensitivity (EmNSA), motricity (Fugl-Meyer motor), spatial neglect and visual perception of verticality (VPV) were evaluated in 20 stroke patients (age: 53...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Patrice Rougier, Etienne Cusin
OBJECTIVE: Using unloader knee braces with 3-point pressure in knee osteoarthritis patients is debated. The main reason is discomfort resulting in poor compliance. Studying the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) curve, gold standard in the medial knee load estimation, should be helpful to reduce this discomfort. Reducing constraint solely during the stance phase of gait (combined with an inactivation during large knee flexion) should indeed considerably improve comfort. Thus, the objective of this study was to validate both a method for measuring dynamic activity of new unloader knee braces and to highlight the biomechanical effectiveness of these orthoses...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Marie Lumeau, Mathieu Lempereur, Emmanuel Sonnet, Olivier Remy Neris
OBJECTIVE: Distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DPN) is a leading risk factor of developing ulcer, including increased pressures at the forefoot. The rocker sole shoes are prescribed to decrease pressures but could induce instability [1]. The aim of this study was to compare the postural stability between normal shoes (NS) and rocker sole shoes (RSS) in patients with type 2 diabetes and DPN. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this preliminary, randomized, controlled study, NS and RSS were compared during static standing and gait...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Ratnakar P Veeramachaneni, Matthew N Bartels, Kevin Frison, Timothy Tiu, Rakhi Sutaria, Karen Morice, Se Won Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Fumihiro Matsuda, Masahiko Mukaino, Kei Ohtsuka, Hiroki Tanikawa, Kazuhiro Tsuchiyama, Toshio Teranishi, Yoshikiyo Kanada, Hitoshi Kagaya, Eiichi Saitoh
BACKGROUND: The toe clearance of a paretic limb in the swing phase of gait is related to tripping, which is considered a major cause of falls. The biomechanical factors for obtaining toe clearance are more complicated in hemiparetic gait than that in normal gait because of the compensatory movements during swing phase. Understanding the biomechanical factors should help in targeting the point for rehabilitative interventions. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the biomechanical factors behind toe clearance during swing phase in hemiparetic gait...
September 27, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
L Sosdian, R S Hinman, T V Wrigley, K L Paterson, M Dowsey, P Choong, K Bennell
BACKGROUND: Varus-valgus thrust is a biomechanical characteristic linked to knee osteoarthritis disease progression. This study aimed to determine: i) direction of thrust in individuals awaiting total knee arthroplasty versus controls, ii) whether thrust and related parameters differed between groups, iii) differences between osteoarthritis patients awaiting surgery with varus and valgus thrust. METHODS: 44 patients scheduled for surgery and 40 asymptomatic participants were recruited...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
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