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Biomechanics gait

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162607/computational-study-on-the-effect-of-malalignment-of-the-tibial-component-on-the-biomechanics-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-finite-element-analysis
#1
D-S Suh, K-T Kang, J Son, O-R Kwon, C Baek, Y-G Koh
OBJECTIVES: Malalignment of the tibial component could influence the long-term survival of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The object of this study was to investigate the biomechanical effect of varus and valgus malalignment on the tibial component under stance-phase gait cycle loading conditions. METHODS: Validated finite element models for varus and valgus malalignment by 3° and 5° were developed to evaluate the effect of malalignment on the tibial component in TKA...
November 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159731/effects-of-population-variability-on-knee-loading-during-simulated-human-gait
#2
Rebecca J Nesbitt, Nathaniel A Bates, Marepalli B Rao, Grant Schaffner, Jason T Shearn
Cadaveric simulation models allow researchers to study native tissues in situ. However, as tests are conducted using donor specimens with unmatched kinematics, techniques that impose population average motions are subject to deviation from true physiologic conditions. This study aimed to identify factors which explain the kinetic variability observed during robotic simulations of a single human gait motion using a sample of human cadaver knees. Twelve human cadaver limbs (58 ± 16 years) were subjected to tibiofemoral geometrical analysis and cyclical stiffness testing in each anatomical degree of freedom...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153477/biomechanical-adaptations-during-running-differ-based-on-type-of-exercise-and-fitness-level
#3
Lindsay V Slater, Austin S Simpson, Silvia S Blemker, Jay Hertel, Susan A Saliba, Arthur L Weltman, Joseph M Hart
Lower extremity injuries are most common in more active and fit individuals, suggesting that adaptations from neuromuscular fatigue may differ depending on type of exercise and fitness level. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in gait in highly fit and recreationally active individuals before and after two exercise protocols. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were measured on the dominant leg during running before and after two exercise protocols (walking/sport) from 0 to 100% of gait in 24 healthy individuals divided into higher (n=13) and lower fitness (n=11) groups...
November 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150344/biomechanical-mechanism-of-lateral-trunk-lean-gait-for-knee-osteoarthritis-patients
#4
Kazuki Tokuda, Masaya Anan, Makoto Takahashi, Tomonori Sawada, Kenji Tanimoto, Nobuhiro Kito, Koichi Shinkoda
The biomechanical mechanism of lateral trunk lean gait employed to reduce external knee adduction moment (KAM) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is not well known. This mechanism may relate to the center of mass (COM) motion. Moreover, lateral trunk lean gait may affect motor control of the COM displacement. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis is an evaluation index used to understand motor control and variability of the motor task. Here we aimed to clarify the biomechanical mechanism to reduce KAM during lateral trunk lean gait and how motor variability controls the COM displacement...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149623/the-effect-of-surgical-approach-on-gait-mechanics-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#5
Joseph Zeni, Kathleen Madara, Hunter Witmer, Riley Gerhardt, James Rubano
BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the biomechanical outcomes of different surgical approaches for hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare hip, pelvic, and trunk kinematics and kinetics between individuals who underwent a posterior or anterolateral approach. METHODS: Forty-five individuals between 40 and 80 years old underwent motion analysis during overground gait prior to hip arthroplasty and 3 months after surgery. Walking speed, hip flexion angle, hip extension angle, adduction angle and moment, trunk angle, trunk lean, and pelvis drop were compared between approaches...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148155/identifying-biomechanical-gait-parameters-in-adolescent-boys-with-haemophilia-using-principal-component-analysis
#6
L B Suckling, D Stephensen, M C Cramp, R Mahaffey, W I Drechsler
INTRODUCTION: Improvements in the medical management for those with haemophilia have resulted in improved clinical outcomes. However, current treatment regimens do not alleviate all joint haemarthroses with the potential for long-term joint deterioration remaining. The evaluation of functional activities such as gait, using standardized tools to monitor children with haemophilia is emerging. AIM: This study explored differences in sagittal plane biomechanics of walking in adolescent boys aged 11-18 years with haemophilia and an age-matched group of typically developing boys...
November 17, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147083/spinal-cord-stimulation-in-failed-back-surgery-syndrome-effects-on-posture-and-gait-a-preliminary-3d-biomechanical-study
#7
L Brugliera, A De Luca, S Corna, M Bertolotto, G A Checchia, M Cioni, P Capodaglio, C Lentino
We studied 8 patients with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) devices which had been previously implanted to treat neuropathic chronic pain secondary to Failed Back Surgery Syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of SCS on posture and gait by means of clinical scales (Short Form Health Survey-36, Visual Analogue Scale for pain, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and instrumented evaluation with 3D Gait Analysis using a stereophotogrammetric system. The latter was performed with the SCS device turned both OFF and ON...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145886/are-mice-good-models-for-human-neuromuscular-disease-comparing-muscle-excursions-in-walking-between-mice-and-humans
#8
Xiao Hu, James P Charles, Turgay Akay, John R Hutchinson, Silvia S Blemker
BACKGROUND: The mouse is one of the most widely used animal models to study neuromuscular diseases and test new therapeutic strategies. However, findings from successful pre-clinical studies using mouse models frequently fail to translate to humans due to various factors. Differences in muscle function between the two species could be crucial but often have been overlooked. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare muscle excursions in walking between mice and humans. METHODS: Recently published musculoskeletal models of the mouse hindlimb and human lower limb were used to simulate muscle-tendon dynamics during mouse and human walking, a key daily activity...
November 16, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143300/effect-of-restraining-the-base-of-support-on-the-other-biomechanical-features-in-patients-with-cerebellar-ataxia
#9
C Conte, Mariano Serrao, L Cuius, A Ranavolo, S Conforto, F Pierelli, L Padua
This study aimed to analyze the biomechanical consequences of reducing the base of support in patients with ataxia. Specifically, we evaluated the spatio-temporal parameters, upper- and lower-body kinematics, muscle co-activation, and energy recovery and expenditure. The gaits of 13 patients were recorded using a motion analysis system in unperturbed and perturbed walking conditions. In the latter condition, patients had to walk using the same step width and speed of healthy controls. The perturbed walking condition featured reduced gait speed, step length, hip and knee range of motion, and energy recovery and increased double support duration, gait variability, trunk oscillation, and ankle joint muscle co-activation...
November 15, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141879/lower-limb-biomechanical-analysis-during-an-unanticipated-step-on-a-bump-reveals-specific-adaptations-of-walking-on-uneven-terrains
#10
Fausto A Panizzolo, Sangjun Lee, Taira Miyatake, Denise Martineli Rossi, Christopher Siviy, Jozefien Speeckaert, Ignacio Galiana, Conor J Walsh
Although it is clear that walking over different irregular terrain is associated with altered biomechanics, there is little understanding of how we quickly adapt to unexpected variations in terrain. This study aims to investigate which adaptive strategies humans adopt when performing an unanticipated step on an irregular surface, specifically a small bump. Nine healthy male participants walked at their preferred walking speed along a straight walkway during five conditions: four involving unanticipated bumps of two different heights, and one level walking condition...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139573/gait-patterns-symptoms-and-function-in-patients-with-isolated-tibiofemoral-osteoarthritis-and-combined-tibiofemoral-and-patellofemoral-osteoarthritis
#11
Harvi F Hart, Kay M Crossley, Michael A Hunt
The purpose of this study was to compare hip and knee biomechanics during walking in individuals with isolated TFOA, combined TFOA and PFOA, and those without knee OA, and to compare patient-reported symptoms and function in individuals with isolated TFOA and those with combined TFOA and PFOA. Participants with and without knee OA were assessed and categorized into (i) no OA, (ii) isolated TFOA, and (iii) combined TFOA and PFOA, based on Kellgren and Lawrence diagnostic criteria. Quantitative motion analyses were conducted during walking, and hip and knee kinematics and external moments were calculated...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128508/relative-and-absolute-test-retest-reliabilities-of-biomechanical-risk-factors-for-knee-osteoarthritis-progression-benchmarks-for-meaningful-change
#12
Nicholas M Brisson, Paul W Stratford, Monica R Maly
OBJECTIVE: Biomechanical factors are important treatment targets in knee osteoarthritis. The knee adduction (KAM) and flexion (KFM) moments, quadriceps strength and power, load frequency, and body mass index (BMI) all have the potential to affect knee articular cartilage integrity by modulating forces across the joint. To identify clinically meaningful change, however, these measurements must be reliable and sensitive to change. This study estimated relative and absolute test-retest reliabilities over long periods of biomechanical risk factors for knee osteoarthritis progression...
November 8, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114512/the-runsmart-training-program-effect-on-oxygen-consumption-and-lower-extremity-biomechanics-during-running
#13
Jennifer Bogulski, Steven Gonser, Doug Bush, Rachel Bugner, Lindsey Clark, Lisa Farrell, Kristen Swanson, Michael David Ross
As recreational running continues to gain popularity, more individuals are seeking ways to improve running performance. RunSmart is a running intervention program designed to enhance a runner's form. In addition to correcting flaws in a runner's form, RunSmart offers the opportunity for runners to continue a regular regimen while slowly integrating changes in form. The purpose of this case series was twofold: to determine if the RunSmart program coincides with improvements in oxygen consumption (VO2), a variable often associated with better running performance times, and to evaluate the RunSmart program in regard to enhancing gait biomechanics...
August 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112750/high-stocking-density-alters-bone-related-calcium-and-phosphorus-metabolism-by-changing-intestinal-absorption-in-broiler-chickens
#14
Z W Sun, Q H Fan, X X Wang, Y M Guo, H J Wang, X Dong
Live performance, bone health and metabolic responses to the interaction among stocking density and dietary concentrations of total calcium (TCa) and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) were determined on 2,232 Ross 308 female broilers over a 3-wk experimental period. From 22 d of age, birds were randomly divided into 48 groups and provided with different corn-soybean meal-based diets varying in TCa (0.70% or 0.90%) and NPP (0.28% or 0.36%) content at 1 of 2 stocking densities [28.6 (LSD, 13 broilers/m2) and 39.6 (HSD, 18 broilers/m2) kg of predicted final BW/m2 floor space], according to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with 6 replications in each treatment...
November 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111608/approach-for-gait-analysis-in-persons-with-limb-loss-including-residuum-and-prosthesis-socket-dynamics
#15
A K LaPrè, M Price, R Wedge, B R Umberger, F Sup
Musculoskeletal modeling and marker based motion capture techniques are commonly used to quantify the motions of body segments, and the forces acting on them during human gait. However, when these techniques are applied to analyze the gait of people with lower limb loss, the clinically relevant interaction between the residual limb and prosthesis socket is typically overlooked. It is known that there is considerable motion and loading at the residuum-socket interface, yet traditional gait analysis techniques do not account for these factors due to the inability to place tracking markers on the residual limb inside of the socket...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108686/effect-of-extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-on-passive-ankle-stiffness-in-patients-with-plantar-fasciopathy
#16
Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Pei-An Yu, Li-Ju Lai, Chi-Lung Chen, Liang-Tseng Kuo, Chun-Hao Fan
Plantar fasciopathy (PF) is the most common cause of heel pain. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) improves the gait pattern in patients with PF. However, the effects of ESWT on the biomechanics of the ankle in these patients remains unclear. Sixteen participants were included in the present study. Of the 16 participants, 8 patients with PF were assigned to receive extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and 8 healthy participants served as an external control group. ESWT was applied to the PF group for 1500 pulses at an energy flux of 0...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103780/sex-differences-in-gait-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#17
Jodie A McClelland, Julian A Feller, Kate E Webster
BACKGROUND: Before total knee arthroplasty (TKA), males walk with biomechanics that are distinct from females. It is not known whether these sex-specific profiles are maintained after TKA and whether any differences reflect those typical of unimpaired males and females. The aim of this study was to compare knee biomechanics of males and females with TKA with unimpaired controls during walking. METHODS: Eighty-five participants (44 females and 41 males) who were at least 12 months after unilateral TKA and 39 matched control participants (21 females and 18 males) were included in this observational cohort study...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103600/upper-body-accelerations-during-planned-gait-termination-in-young-and-older-women
#18
Lorenzo Rum, Luca Laudani, Andrea Macaluso, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Transitory tasks, such as gait termination, involve interactions between neural and biomechanical factors that challenge postural stability and head stabilization patterns in older adults. The aim of the study was to compare upper body patterns of acceleration during planned gait termination at different speeds between young and older women. Ten young and 10 older women were asked to carry out three gait termination trials at slow, comfortable and fast speed. A stereophotogrammetric system and a 15-body segments model were used to calculate antero-posterior whole-body Center of Mass (AP CoM) speed and to reconstruct the centroids of head, trunk and pelvis segments...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100145/automated-event-detection-algorithm-for-two-squatting-protocols
#19
Wilshaw R Stevens, Alicia Y Kokoszka, Anthony M Anderson, Kirsten Tulchin-Francis
INTRODUCTION: Squatting biomechanics assessed using motion analysis relies on the identification of specific events: start of descent, transition between descent/ascent and end of ascent. Automated identification reduces the time needed to process trials while allowing consistency across studies. The purpose of this study was to develop criteria for the identification of events and apply them to two squatting protocols in pathological patient and typically developing (TD) groups. METHODS: Thirty-four subjects with hip dysplasia and 41 TD subjects were enrolled in this study...
October 26, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097056/a-community-based-bionic-leg-rehabilitation-program-for-patients-with-chronic-stroke-clinical-trial-protocol
#20
Amy Wright, Keeron Stone, Danielle Lambrick, Simon Fryer, Lee Stoner, Edward Tasker, Simon Jobson, Grace Smith, John Batten, Jo Batey, Vicky Hudson, Helen Hobbs, James Faulkner
Stroke is a major global health problem whereby many survivors have unmet needs concerning mobility during recovery. As such, the use of robotic-assisted devices (i.e., a bionic leg) within a community setting may be an important adjunct to normal physiotherapy in chronic stroke survivors. This study will be a dual-center, randomized, parallel group clinical trial to investigate the impact of a community-based training program using a bionic leg on biomechanical, cardiovascular, and functional outcomes in stroke survivors...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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