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Biomechanics gait

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898852/horse-species-symposium-biomechanics-of-the-exercising-horse
#1
Hilary M Clayton
In spite of having large height and body mass, horses are cursorial animals with an extensive gait repertoire and considerable athletic abilities. The limbs have evolved so that the heavy musculature is confined to the proximal limbs while the distal limbs are light in weight with a single functional digit and long, lightweight tendons to move and support the distal joints. These adaptations reduce the moment of inertia and decrease the energy expended to protract and retract the limbs during locomotion. There is a division of labor between the forelimbs, which have a pillar-like construction specialized for weight bearing, and the hind limbs, in which the more angulated joints provide leverage for the generation of propulsion...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896679/what-are-the-biomechanical-properties-of-the-taylor-spatial-frame%C3%A2
#2
Daniel J Henderson, Jeremy L Rushbrook, Paul J Harwood, Todd D Stewart
BACKGROUND: The Taylor Spatial Frame™ (TSF) is a versatile variant of the traditional Ilizarov circular fixator. Although in widespread use, little comparative data exist to quantify the biomechanical effect of substituting the tried-and-tested Ilizarov construct for the TSF hexapod system. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: This study was designed to investigate the mechanical properties of the TSF system under physiologic loads, with and without the addition of a simulated bone model, with comparison to the standard Ilizarov frame...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882360/static-and-dynamic-predictors-of-foot-progression-angle-in-individuals-with-and-without-diabetes-mellitus-and-peripheral-neuropathy
#3
Ericka N Merriwether, Mary K Hastings, Michael J Mueller, Kathryn L Bohnert, Michael J Strube, Darrah R Snozek, David R Sinacore
INTRODUCTION: Foot progression angle (FPA) is a predictor of elevated regional plantar stresses and loads, which are indicators of dermal injury risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DMPN). FPA accounts for 15-45% of the variance in plantar stresses and loads in adults with DMPN. However, the biomechanical factors underlying an "out-toeing" gait pattern in this clinical population have not been examined. The primary purpose of this study was to identify static and dynamic predictors of foot progression angle magnitude in adults with and without DMPN...
2016: Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876119/primary-bladder-neck-obstruction-may-be-determined-by-postural-imbalances
#4
Tommaso Ciro Camerota, Matteo Zago, Stefano Pisu, Daniela Ciprandi, Chiarella Sforza
Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a frequent under-investigated urological condition in which the bladder neck fails to open adequately during voiding. In the majority of cases no known etiological factor can be found. In this study we propose a new hypothesis to explain the origin of the disease in young male patients with no neurological disorders. We suggest a possible role of an unbalanced biomechanics of the pelvis on urethral sphincters activity and on functional bladder capacity. To support the proposed hypothesis, we present pilot gait analysis data of young male patients with primary bladder neck obstruction...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865814/obesity-and-the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-in-the-surgical-management-of-osteoarthritis-of-the-hip-and-knee-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Bryan D Springer, Jonathan T Carter, Alexander S McLawhorn, Keith Scharf, Mitchell Roslin, Kara J Kallies, John M Morton, Shanu N Kothari
Obesity accelerates the development of osteoarthritis of the knee and hip by exerting deleterious effects on joints through both biomechanical and also systemic inflammatory changes. The objective of this review was to evaluate the impact of obesity on lower limb biomechanics and total joint arthroplasty outcomes, as well as weight changes after joint arthroplasty and the role of bariatric surgery among patients requiring joint arthroplasty. The currently published data indicate that weight loss increases swing time, stride length, gait speed, and lower extremity range of motion...
September 14, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865313/surgical-equinus-correction-for-the-diabetic-charcot-foot-what-the-evidence-reveals
#6
REVIEW
Claire M Capobianco
Triceps surae contracture, or equinus, is a known deforming force in the foot and ankle. Biomechanical studies have shown that ankle equinus significantly alters gait and plantar pressures, and in the diabetic neuropathic patient population, this can propagate plantar ulceration and/or Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN). Surgical correction of equinus is globally and frequently used to aid in plantar wound healing in the neuropathic diabetic patient, with and without CN. Treatment guidelines for equinus correction in this medically complex population are undefined and lack evidence from high-quality published peer-reviewed studies...
January 2017: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865154/a-narrow-bimalleolar-width-is-a-risk-factor-for-ankle-inversion-injury-in-male-military-recruits-a-prospective-study
#7
Hannah Rice, Michael Nunns, Carol House, Joanne Fallowfield, Adrian Allsopp, Sharon Dixon
BACKGROUND: Ankle inversion injuries are one of the most common and burdensome injuries in athletic populations. Research that prospectively identifies characteristics associated with this injury is lacking. This prospective study compared baseline anthropometric and biomechanical gait characteristics of military recruits who sustained an ankle inversion injury during training, with those who remained injury-free. METHODS: Bilateral plantar pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were recorded in 1065 male, injury-free military recruits, during barefoot running...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859527/gait-mechanics-and-second-acl-rupture-implications-for-delaying-return-to-sport
#8
Jacob J Capin, Ashutosh Khandha, Ryan Zarzycki, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
Second anterior cruciate ligament rupture is a common and devastating injury among young women who return to sport after ACL reconstruction, but it is inadequately understood. The purpose of this study was to compare gait biomechanics and return-to-sport time frames in a matched cohort of young female athletes who, after primary ACLR, returned to sport without re-injury or sustained a second ACL injury. Approximately 6 months after primary reconstruction, 14 young women (age 16 ± 2 years) involved in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent motion analysis testing after physical therapy and impairment resolution...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858517/slip-initiation-in-alternative-and-slip-resistant-footwear
#9
Harish Chander, Chip Wade, John C Garner, Adam C Knight
Slips occur as a result of failure of normal locomotion. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of alternative footwear [Crocs™ (CC), flip-flops (FF)] and an industry standard low top slip resistant shoe (SRS)] under multiple gait trials [normal dry (NG); unexpected slip (US), alert slip (AS) and expected slip (ES)] on lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity. Eighteen healthy male participants [age: 22.28 ± 2.2 years; height: 177.66 ± 6.9 cm; mass: 79.27 ± 7.6 kg] completed the study...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849459/the-prevalence-of-gait-deviations-in-individuals-with-transtibial-amputation
#10
Christopher A Rábago, Jason M Wilken
Individuals with a transtibial amputation (TTA) are at increased risk for developing secondary musculoskeletal disorders as a result of multiple gait deviations. These deviations are primarily characterized using group mean comparisons, which do not establish if deviations are prevalent, of large magnitude, or both. In contrast, use of normative reference ranges and prevalence specifically identifies the percentage of individuals outside of a predefined acceptable range. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize gait deviations in service members with unilateral TTA using group mean comparisons and normative reference ranges (able-bodied mean ± 2 SD)...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845667/walking-with-a-backpack-using-load-distribution-and-dynamic-load-compensation-reduces-metabolic-cost-and-adaptations-to-loads
#11
Joon-Hyuk Park, Paul Stegall, Haohan Zhang, Sunil Agrawal
In this study, we showed a way of reducing the metabolic cost of walking with a backpack using load distribution and dynamic load compensation, provided by a wearable upper body device. This device distributes the backpack load between the shoulders and the pelvis, senses the vertical motion of the pelvis, and provides gait synchronized compensatory forces to reduce the dynamic loads from a backpack. It was hypothesized that by reducing dynamic loads from a backpack during load carriage, the users gait and postural adaptation, muscular effort and metabolic cost would be reduced...
November 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842560/a-non-invasive-home-based-biomechanical-therapy-for-patients-with-spontaneous-osteonecrosis-of-the-knee
#12
Ehud Atoun, Amit Mor, Ganit Segal, Ronen Debi, Dan Grinberg, Yeshaiau Benedict, Nimrod Rozen, Yiftah Beer, Avi Elbaz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of a non-invasive, home-based biomechanical treatment program for patients with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK). METHODS: Seventeen patients with SONK, confirmed by MRI, participated in this retrospective analysis. Patients underwent a spatiotemporal gait analysis and completed the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Short-Form-36 (SF-36)...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836503/in-vitro-hip-testing-in-the-international-society-of-biomechanics-coordinate-system
#13
Richard J van Arkel, Jonathan R T Jeffers
Many innovative experiments are designed to answer research questions about hip biomechanics, however many fail to define a coordinate system. This makes comparisons between studies unreliable and is an unnecessary hurdle in extrapolating experimental results to clinical reality. The aim of this study was to present a specimen mounting protocol which aligns and registers hip specimens in the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) coordinate system, which is defined by bony landmarks that are identified by palpation of the patient׳s body...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834573/minimum-detectable-change-in-medial-tibiofemoral-contact-force-parameters-derivation-and-application-to-a-load-altering-intervention
#14
Joaquin Barrios, John Willson
Medial tibiofemoral joint contact forces can be estimated using musculoskeletal models. To assess change in these forces that accompany load-modifying interventions, minimum detectable change (MDC) thresholds must be established. The primary study purpose was to derive MDCs for medial tibiofemoral peak force and force impulse during walking. The secondary purpose was to identify the proportions of individuals exhibiting reductions greater than these MDCs when walking with lateral foot wedging. Eight healthy individuals provided three-dimensional gait data over three test sessions to serve as inputs for an inverse dynamics-driven medial tibiofemoral contact force model, from which MDCs for peak force and impulse were derived...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834558/comprehensive-gait-analysis-of-healthy-older-adults-who-have-undergone-long-distance-walking
#15
Mustafa M O Elhadi, Christina Z Ma, Duo W C Wong, Anson H P Wan, Winson C C Lee
Many older adults do not adhere to the recommended physical activity levels. This study examines the gait changes upon long-distance walking among healthy older adults. Gait tests of 24 adults aged 65 or more were conducted at the baseline, at the end of 30 and 60 minutes of treadmill walk. Spatial temporal, kinematic and kinetic gait data were computed. Perceived level of exertion was evaluated for each subject. Ten subjects (Group B) perceived higher exertion level than the remaining fourteen subjects (Group A)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832608/neuromuscular-responses-differ-between-slip-induced-falls-and-recoveries-in-older-adults
#16
Andrew Sawers, Yi-Chung Clive Pai, Tanvi Bhatt, Lena H Ting
How does the robust control of walking and balance break down during a fall? As a first step in identifying the neuromuscular determinants of falls, we tested the hypothesis that falls and recoveries are characterized by differences in neuromuscular responses. Using muscle synergy analysis, conventional onset latencies, and peak activity, we identified differences in muscle coordination between older adults who fell and those who recovered from a laboratory-induced slip. We found that subjects who fell recruited fewer muscle synergies than those who recovered, suggesting a smaller motor repertoire...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826404/the-activation-pattern-of-trunk-and-lower-limb-muscles-in-an-electromyographic-assessment-comparison-between-ground-and-treadmill-walking
#17
Reza Mazaheri, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Gelareh Radmehr, Farzin Halabchi, Hooman Angoorani
BACKGROUND: Due to biomechanical differences, various patterns of muscle contraction are expected to occur while walking over ground versus when walking on a treadmill. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare amplitude and duration of activation of selected trunk and lower extremity muscles during over-ground and treadmill walking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a simple sampling method, 19 sedentary healthy men within the age range of 20 - 40 were selected...
September 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825602/comparison-of-different-material-models-of-articular-cartilage-in-3d-computational-modeling-of-the-knee-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative-oai
#18
Olesya Klets, Mika E Mononen, Petri Tanska, Miika T Nieminen, Rami K Korhonen, Simo Saarakkala
The intricate properties of articular cartilage and the complexity of the loading environment are some of the key challenges in developing models for biomechanical analysis of the knee joint. Fibril-reinforced poroelastic (FRPE) material models have been reported to accurately capture characteristic responses of cartilage during dynamic and static loadings. However, high computational and time costs associated with such advanced models limit applicability of FRPE models when multiple subjects need to be analyzed...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824657/effect-of-footwear-on-joint-pain-and-function-in-older-adults-with-lower-extremity-osteoarthritis
#19
Amy Wagner, Sarah Luna
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition among older adults; given the risks of surgical and pharmaceutical interventions, conservative, lower-cost management options such as footwear warrant further investigation. This systematic review investigated the effects of footwear, including shoe inserts, in reducing lower extremity joint pain and improving gait, mobility, and quality of life in older adults with OA. METHODS: The CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, RECAL, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for publications from January 1990 to September 2014, using the terms "footwear," "shoes," "gait," "pain," and "older adult...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817976/return-to-sport-activity-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-in-skeletally-immature-athletes-with-manual-drilling-original-all-inside-reconstruction-at-8-years-follow-up
#20
Giacomo Placella, Matteo Bartoli, Marco Peruzzi, Andrea Speziali, Valerio Pace, Giuliano Cerulli
OBJECTIVE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common injuries in adolescent athletes, especially in those who bear high stress on their knees due to shearing forces. The goal of the surgical procedures in skeletally immature patients is to restore joint stability avoiding the adverse effects on the growth process. The aim of this study was to verify the return of the skeletally immature professional athletes to sports in the long-term, following ACL reconstruction with the original all-inside technique and with manual drilling...
November 3, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
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