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Bronchitis antibiotics

Norbert Garcia-Henriquez, Eric M Toloza, Farah Khalil, Maria F Echavarria, Joseph R Garrett, Carla C Moodie, Frank J Kaszuba, Jacques P Fontaine
We present the case of a 55-year-old man who developed extensive occlusive bronchial casts after trachea-esophageal (TE) fistula repair. The bronchial casts were treated by bronchoscopic extraction, high dose steroids, antibiotics, and antifungals. Despite this multi-modality treatment, the rapid formation of these occlusive bronchial casts was very aggressive and could not be controlled even with a series of five rigid bronchoscopic extractions within a 48-hour period. The patient quickly deteriorated and succumbed to the inflammatory state...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
J M Prins, T van der Poll
Better use of current antibiotics is warranted to curb increasing antimicrobial resistance rates. Procalcitonin guidance can safely reduce antibiotic usage when used to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in adult patients with a respiratory tract infection. However, the claimed reductions in antibiotic usage are mainly achieved in patients with acute bronchitis and exacerbations of COPD, conditions for which guidelines already discourage antibiotic treatment. Sequential procalcitonin measurements can also reduce the treatment duration of community-acquired pneumonia from 10-12 to 5-7 days, which is, however, already the recommended treatment duration for in- and outpatients under the current Dutch guidelines...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Roberto W Dal Negro, Massimiliano Mazzolini, Paola Turco, Alessandro Zanasi
BACKGROUND: Cough is one of the most common discomforts affecting general population, which can disrupt subjects' quality of life due to its physical, social, and psychological effects. Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of cough and related beliefs of general population. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was carried out by means of a specific, validated questionnaire on a representative sample of Italian general population. All the interviews were carried out according to the Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) methodology by expert, professional interviewers...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Gloria Cordoba, Lidia Caballero, Håkon Sandholdt, Fátima Arteaga, Monica Olinisky, Luis Fabián Ruschel, Marjukka Makela, Lars Bjerrum
OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare antibiotic prescribing patterns for primary care patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in four South American countries. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. General practitioners (GPs) from Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay registered data about all consultations of patients with suspected RTIs in the winter of 2014 (June-August). Variation in antibiotic prescriptions was assessed using a two-level hierarchical logistic model...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Marc Miravitlles, Anthony D'Urzo, Dave Singh, Vladimir Koblizek
Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations and managing them appropriately to reduce this risk represents an important clinical challenge. Numerous treatments have been assessed for the prevention of exacerbations and their efficacy may differ by patient phenotype. Given their centrality in the treatment of COPD, there is strong rationale for maximizing bronchodilation as an initial strategy to reduce exacerbation risk irrespective of patient phenotype. Therefore, in patients assessed as frequent exacerbators (>1 exacerbation/year) we propose initial bronchodilator treatment with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/ long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)...
September 10, 2016: Respiratory Research
Stephen I Rennard, Fernando J Martinez, Klaus F Rabe, Sanjay Sethi, Emilio Pizzichini, Andrew McIvor, Shahid Siddiqui, Antonio Anzueto, Haiyuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Roflumilast, a once-daily, selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, reduces the risk of COPD exacerbations in patients with severe COPD associated with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations. The RE(2)SPOND study is examining whether roflumilast, when added to an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) fixed-dose combination (FDC), further reduces exacerbations. The methodology is described herein. METHODS: In this Phase IV, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, participants were randomized 1:1 (stratified by long-acting muscarinic antagonist use) to receive roflumilast or placebo, plus ICS/LABA FDC, for 52 weeks...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Carlos H Martinez, Alejandro A Diaz, Catherine Meldrum, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christopher B Cooper, Cheryl Pirozzi, Richard E Kanner, Robert Paine Iii, Prescott G Woodruff, Eugene R Bleecker, Nadia N Hansel, R Graham Barr, Nathaniel Marchetti, Gerard J Criner, Ella A Kazerooni, Eric A Hoffman, Brian D Ross, Craig J Galban, Christine T Cigolle, Fernando J Martinez, MeiLan K Han
RATIONALE: Aging is associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (FEV1/FVC), hyperinflation and alveolar enlargement, but little is known about how age affects small airways. We hypothesized that chest computed tomography(CT)-assessed functional small airway would increase with age, even among asymptomatic individuals. METHODS: We used parametric response mapping analysis of paired inspiratory/expiratory CTs to identify functional small airway abnormality (PRMFSA) and emphysema (PRMEMPH) in the SPIROMICS cohort...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Rebecca M Roberts, Lauri A Hicks, Monina Bartoces
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic prescribing has become increasingly viewed as an issue related to patient safety and quality of care. The objective of this study was to better understand the differences between health plan reporting and the geographic variation seen in quality measures related to antibiotic use. STUDY DESIGN: We focused on 3 measures from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) related to antibiotic prescribing and testing to guide antibiotic prescribing...
August 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
Mick Soukavong, Jungmee Kim, Kyounghoon Park, Bo Ram Yang, Joongyub Lee, Xue Mei Jin, Byung Joo Park
We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Francesco Blasi, Clive Page, Gian Maria Rossolini, Lucia Pallecchi, Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani, Mario Cazzola
OBJECTIVES: In airway infections, biofilm formation has been demonstrated to be responsible for both acute and chronic events, and constitutes a genuine challenge in clinical practice. Difficulty in eradicating biofilms with systemic antibiotics has led clinicians to consider the possible role of non-antibiotic therapy. The aim of this review is to examine current evidence for the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of biofilm-related respiratory infections. METHODS: Electronic searches of PUBMED up to September 2015 were conducted, searching for 'biofilm', 'respiratory tract infection', 'N-acetylcysteine', 'cystic fibrosis', 'COPD', 'bronchiectasis', 'otitis', and 'bronchitis' in titles and abstracts...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Mieke L van Driel, Simon Morgan, Amanda Tapley, Lawrie McArthur, Patrick McElduff, Lucy Yardley, Anthea Dallas, Laura Deckx, Katie Mulquiney, Joshua S Davis, Andrew Davey, Kim Henderson, Paul Little, Parker J Magin
BACKGROUND: Australian General Practitioners (GPs) are generous prescribers of antibiotics, prompting concerns including increasing antimicrobial resistance in the community. Recent data show that GPs in vocational training have prescribing patterns comparable with the high prescribing rate of their established GP supervisors. Evidence-based guidelines consistently advise that antibiotics are not indicated for uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and are rarely indicated for acute bronchitis...
2016: BMC Family Practice
Ali Naghi Shokri, Hossein A Ghasemi, Kamran Taherpour
This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Aloe vera (AV) powder and synbiotic as growth promoter agents on performance, gut morphology, immune responses, hematology and serum biochemistry in broilers. A total of 240-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replicates. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg virginiamycin (VM), 1 g/kg synbiotic (Syn), 2...
June 3, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
R-F Han, H-Y Li, J-W Wang, X-J Cong
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical effects and immunologic mechanism of infant capillary bronchitis secondary bronchial asthma treated with bacterial lysates (Broncho-Vaxom OM-85BV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between February 2013 and February 2014, 136 infant capillary bronchitis secondary bronchial asthma cases were chosen. This research was approved by Ethics Committee in our hospital and obtained the informed consent right from patients and guardians. Patients were divided into the control group (n = 62) and the observation group (n = 74) using random number table method...
May 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Sara Malo, Beatriz Poblador-Plou, Alexandra Prados-Torres, María Jesús Lallana, Clara Laguna-Berna, María José Rabanaque
BACKGROUND: Although acute bronchitis is frequently viral in nature, antibiotics are usually inappropriately prescribed in Primary Care to treat this condition, with serious public health consequences. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and predictors of appropriate management of antibiotic use in acute bronchitis processes diagnosed in outpatients in the Spanish region of Aragón. METHODS: Four different electronic health databases provided demographic and clinical information pertaining to patients diagnosed with acute bronchitis in Primary Care in Aragón during 2011, as well as data for corresponding antibiotic prescriptions dispensed at pharmacies...
October 2016: Family Practice
Carl Llor, Lars Bjerrum
INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half-day reduction in duration of cough. However, at follow-up there are no significant differences in overall clinical improvement inpatients treated with antibiotics compared with those receiving placebo...
July 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Rachel McKay, Allison Mah, Michael R Law, Kimberlyn McGrail, David M Patrick
Antibiotic use is a modifiable driver of antibiotic resistance. In many circumstances, antibiotic use is overly broad or unnecessary. We systematically assessed factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTI). Studies were included if they used actual (not self-reported or intended) prescribing data, assessed factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for RTIs, and performed multivariable analysis of associations. We searched Medline, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts using keyword and MeSH (medical subject headings) search terms...
July 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Parker J Magin, Simon Morgan, Amanda Tapley, Kim M Henderson, Elizabeth G Holliday, Jean Ball, Joshua S Davis, Anthea Dallas, Andrew R Davey, Neil A Spike, Lawrie McArthur, Rebecca Stewart, Katie J Mulquiney, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antibiotic prescription and subsequent antibacterial resistance are major threats to health worldwide. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to establish whether early-career 'apprenticeship-model' experience in family practice influences antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections and to also establish other associations of antibiotic prescribing changes during this early-career experience. METHODS: A longitudinal analysis (2010-2014) of a cohort study of Australian GP registrars' (vocational trainees') consultations...
August 2016: Family Practice
Pei Wang, Xing Liao, Yan-Ming Xie, Yan Chai, Ling-Hui Li
BACKGROUND: Acute bronchitis (AB) is one of the common diseases. Tanreqing injection (TRQ) was widely used to treat patients with acute bronchitis, and many randomized controlled trials have been conducted to investigate its efficacy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TRQ for AB. METHODS: Eight English and Chinese electronic databases, up to October 2014, were searched to identify randomized controlled trials on TRQ for AB...
April 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Sruthi Renati, Jeffrey A Linder
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common symptomatic reason to seek ambulatory care, but many ARI visits may not be necessary. OBJECTIVE: To measure the proportion of primary care ARI visits that may not require an office visit. METHODS: We identified 58398 ARI visits to 14 primary care practices between May 2011 and May 2012 and randomly selected 500 visits, 439 of which were new ARI visits. We separated non-visit-required information [e...
June 2016: Family Practice
Parker J Magin, Simon Morgan, Amanda Tapley, Joshua S Davis, Lawrie McArthur, Kim M Henderson, Katie J Mulquiney, Anthea Dallas, Andrew R Davey, John Scott, Mieke L van Driel
Over-prescription of antibiotics for non-pneumonia respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is a major concern in general practice. Australian general practice registrars (trainees) have inappropriately high rates of prescription of antibiotics for RTIs. The 'apprenticeship' educational model and the trainee-trainer relationship are drivers of this inappropriate prescribing. We aimed to reduce registrars' non-pneumonia RTI antibiotic prescribing via an educational intervention (a 90-min face-to-face workshop supported by online modules), complemented by delivery of the same intervention, separately, to their trainers...
March 2016: Education for Primary Care
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