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Abdelilah Arredouani, Matteo Stocchero, Nicola Culeddu, Julia El-Sayed Moustafa, Jean Tichet, Beverley Balkau, Thierry Brousseau, Marco Manca, Mario Falchi
Low serum salivary amylase levels have been associated with a range of metabolic abnormalities, including obesity and insulin resistance. We recently suggested that low copy-number at the AMY1 gene, associated with lower enzyme levels, also increases susceptibility to obesity. To advance our understanding of the effect of AMY1 copy-number variation on metabolism, we compared the metabolomic signatures of high and low copy-number carriers. We analysed, using mass spectrometry and NMR, the sera of healthy normal-weight women carrying either low (LA:≤4 copies; n=50) or high (HA:≥8 copies; n=50) AMY1 copies...
July 19, 2016: Diabetes
Yanfang Yang, Kai Zhu, Jian Wu, Liqing Liu, Guiling Sun, Yanbiao He, Fadi Chen, Deyue Yu
A NAC -like gene named DlNAC1 was identified in chrysanthemum and characterized; it may be involved in regulation of response to abiotic stressors, especially in tolerance to drought and salinity. NAC transcription factors in plants play crucial roles in tolerance to abiotic stressors, and overexpression of the NAC gene in Arabidopsis has been demonstrated to lead to improved drought tolerance. Functions of the NAC genes in chrysanthemum, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, a NAC-like gene named DlNAC1 was identified in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema lavandulifolium) and characterized...
August 2016: Plant Cell Reports
M Loredana Marcovecchio, Rosalba Florio, Fabio Verginelli, Laura De Lellis, Cristian Capelli, Delfina Verzilli, Francesco Chiarelli, Angelika Mohn, Alessandro Cama
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI). Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV), have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1) gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children...
2016: PloS One
Lauren R Yule, Rebekah L Bower, Harveen Kaur, Renata Kowalczyk, Debbie L Hay, Margaret A Brimble
Pramlintide (Symlin®), a synthetic analogue of the neuroendocrine hormone amylin, is devoid of the tendency to form cytotoxic amyloid fibrils and is currently used in patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus as an adjunctive therapy with insulin or insulin analogues. As part of an on-going search for a pramlintide analogue with improved pharmacokinetic properties, we herein report the synthesis of mono- and di-glycosylated analogues of pramlintide and their activity at the AMY1(a) receptor. Introduction of N-glycosylated amino acids into the pramlintide sequence afforded the native N-linked glycomimetics whilst use of Cu(i)-catalysed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (click) chemistry delivered 1,2,3-triazole linked glycomimetics...
June 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Christopher S Walker, Debbie L Hay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Kristian Agmund Haanes, Ka Yi Chan, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Rita Y Y Yong, Su'Aidah B Mustaffa, Pavandip S Wasan, Liang Sheng, Christian R Marshall, Stephen W Scherer, Yik-Ying Teo, Eric P H Yap
The human amylase gene locus at chromosome 1p21.1 is structurally complex. This region contains two pancreatic amylase genes, AMY2B, AMY2A, and a salivary gene AMY1. The AMY1 gene harbors extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent studies have implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets and in association to obesity for European and Asian populations. In this study, we showed that by combining quantitative PCR and digital PCR, coupled with careful experimental design and calibration, we can improve the resolution of genotyping CNV with high copy numbers (CNs)...
July 2016: Human Mutation
Kei Nakajima
For the last decade, low serum amylase (hypoamylasemia) has been reported in certain common cardiometabolic conditions such as obesity, diabetes (regardless of type), and metabolic syndrome, all of which appear to have a common etiology of insufficient insulin action due to insulin resistance and/or diminished insulin secretion. Some clinical studies have shown that salivary amylase may be preferentially decreased in obese individuals, whereas others have revealed that pancreatic amylase may be preferentially decreased in diabetic subjects with insulin dependence...
March 25, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
Stephanie Breitenbach, Walter F Rowe, Bruce McCord, Ira S Lurie
The recent development of modern methods for ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) has great potential for impacting the analysis of seized drugs. In the separation of synthetic cannabinoids the technique has the potential to produce superior resolution of positional isomers and diastereomers. To demonstrate this potential we have examined the capability of UHPSFC for the analysis of two different groups of synthetic cannabinoids. The first group was a mixture of 22 controlled synthetic cannabinoids, and the second group included JWH018 and nine of its non-controlled positional isomers The clear superiority of UHPSFC over other separation techniques was demonstrated, in that it was capable of near baseline separation of all 10 positional isomers using a chiral column...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yahya Sefidbakht, Omid Ranaei Siadat, Fatemeh Taheri
With consumers growing increasingly aware of environmental issues, industries find enzymes as a reasonable alternative over physical conditions and chemical catalysts. Amylases are important hydrolase enzymes, which have been widely used in variety of industrial process such as pharmaceutical, food and fermentation industries. Among amylases α-Amylase is in maximum demand due to its wide range of applications. The homology modeling study on Schwanniomyces occidentalis amylase (AMY1, UniProt identifier number P19269) was performed by Modeller using Aspergillus oryzae (6TAA) as the template...
February 16, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Ze-Min Yang, Long-Hui Chen, Min Zhang, Jing Lin, Jie Zhang, Wei-Wen Chen, Xiao-Rong Yang
It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1) copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount) in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them...
2015: Frontiers in Physiology
Ewelina Celińska, Monika Borkowska, Wojciech Białas
Starch is the dominant feedstock consumed for the bioethanol production, accounting for 60 % of its global production. Considering the significant contribution of bioethanol to the global fuel market, any improvement in its major operating technologies is economically very attractive. It was estimated that up to 40 % of the final ethanol unit price is derived from the energy input required for the substrate pre-treatment. Application of raw starch hydrolyzing enzymes (RSHE), combined with operation of the process according to a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) strategy, constitutes the most promising solutions to the current technologies limitations...
March 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jatinder Singh Sangha, Owen Wally, Arjun H Banskota, Roumiana Stefanova, Jeff T Hafting, Alan T Critchley, Balakrishnan Prithiviraj
We report here the protective effects of a methanol extract from a cultivated strain of the red seaweed, Chondrus crispus, against β-amyloid-induced toxicity, in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, expressing human Aβ1-42 gene. The methanol extract of C. crispus (CCE), delayed β-amyloid-induced paralysis, whereas the water extract (CCW) was not effective. The CCE treatment did not affect the transcript abundance of amy1; however, Western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease of Aβ species, as compared to untreated worms...
October 2015: Marine Drugs
Shohei Mizuno, Ichiro Hanamura, Akinobu Ota, Sivasundaram Karnan, Tomoko Narita, Masaki Ri, Motonori Mizutani, Mineaki Goto, Mayuko Gotou, Norikazu Tsunekawa, Masato Shikami, Shinsuke Iida, Yoshitaka Hosokawa, Hiroshi Miwa, Ryuzo Ueda, Masakazu Nitta, Akiyoshi Takami
Amylase-producing myeloma exhibits refractoriness to chemotherapy and a dismal prognosis. In this study, we established a human myeloma cell line, 8226/AMY1, in which a lentivirally transfected AMY1 gene was stably expressed and explored its biological characteristics. 8226/AMY1 showed a survival advantage over mock control when treated with dexamethasone, bortezomib, and lenalidomide in vitro partly through inhibition of apoptosis induced by these reagents. In a xenograft murine model, 8226/AMY1 showed rapid tumor growth and reduced sensitivity to bortezomib compared with mock...
November 2015: International Journal of Hematology
Zemin Yang, Jing Lin, Longhui Chen, Min Zhang, Xiaorong Yang, Weiwen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the correlations between salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity and amylase, alpha 1 (salivary) gene (AMYl) copy number or its gene expression between splenic asthenia and healthy children, and investigate the reasons of attenuated sAA activity ratio before and after citric acid stimulation in splenic asthenia children. METHODS: Saliva samples from 20 splenic asthenia children and 29 healthy children were collected before and after citric acid stimulation...
June 2015: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
Verena Ming Hui Tan, Delicia Shu Qin Ooi, Jeevesh Kapur, Ting Wu, Yiong Huak Chan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Yung Seng Lee
PURPOSE: There are wide inter-individual differences in glycemic response (GR). We aimed to examine key digestive parameters that influence inter-individual and ethnic differences in GR in healthy Asian individuals. METHODS: Seventy-five healthy male subjects (25 Chinese, 25 Malays, and 25 Asian-Indians) were served equivalent available carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of jasmine rice (JR) and basmati rice (BR) on separate occasions. Postprandial blood glucose concentrations were measured at fasting (-5 and 0 min) and at 15- to 30-min interval over 180 min...
June 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Heli Viljakainen, Johanna C Andersson-Assarsson, Miriam Armenio, Minna Pekkinen, Maria Pettersson, Helena Valta, Marita Lipsanen-Nyman, Outi Mäkitie, Anna Lindstrand
BACKGROUND: The salivary α-amylase locus (AMY1) is located in a highly polymorphic multi allelic copy number variable chromosomal region. A recent report identified an association between AMY1 copy numbers and BMI in common obesity. The present study investigated the relationship between AMY1 copy number, BMI and serum amylase in childhood-onset obesity. PATIENTS: Sixty-one subjects with a history of childhood-onset obesity (mean age 19.1 years, 54% males) and 71 matched controls (19...
2015: PloS One
Christopher S Walker, Sajedeh Eftekhari, Rebekah L Bower, Andrea Wilderman, Paul A Insel, Lars Edvinsson, Henry J Waldvogel, Muhammad A Jamaluddin, Andrew F Russo, Debbie L Hay
OBJECTIVE: The trigeminovascular system plays a central role in migraine, a condition in need of new treatments. The neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is proposed as causative in migraine and is the subject of intensive drug discovery efforts. This study explores the expression and functionality of two CGRP receptor candidates in the sensory trigeminal system. METHODS: Receptor expression was determined using Taqman G protein-coupled receptor arrays and immunohistochemistry in trigeminal ganglia (TG) and the spinal trigeminal complex of the brainstem in rat and human...
June 2015: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Christina L Usher, Robert E Handsaker, Tõnu Esko, Marcus A Tuke, Michael N Weedon, Alex R Hastie, Han Cao, Jennifer E Moon, Seva Kashin, Christian Fuchsberger, Andres Metspalu, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, Mark I McCarthy, Michael Boehnke, David M Altshuler, Timothy M Frayling, Joel N Hirschhorn, Steven A McCarroll
Hundreds of genes reside in structurally complex, poorly understood regions of the human genome. One such region contains the three amylase genes (AMY2B, AMY2A and AMY1) responsible for digesting starch into sugar. Copy number of AMY1 is reported to be the largest genomic influence on obesity, although genome-wide association studies for obesity have found this locus unremarkable. Using whole-genome sequence analysis, droplet digital PCR and genome mapping, we identified eight common structural haplotypes of the amylase locus that suggest its mutational history...
August 2015: Nature Genetics
Jing Chen, Xianghua Chen, Jun Dai, Guangrong Xie, Luying Yan, Lina Lu, Jianhua Chen
A Bacillus strain with high productivity of α-amylase isolated from a starch farm was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The α-amylase encoding gene amy1 was cloned into pMD18-T vector and amplified in E. coli DH5α. Shuttle vector pP43MNX was reconstructed to obtain vector pP43X for heterologous expression of the α-amylase in B. subtilis WB800. Recombinant enzyme was sufficiently purified by precipitation, gel filtration and anion exchange with a specific activity of 5566 U/mg. The α-amylase sequence contains an open reading frame of 1545 bp, which encodes a protein of 514 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 58...
September 2015: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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