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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418031/fitness-variation-among-host-species-and-the-paradox-of-ineffective-rhizobia
#1
Victor J Pahua, Peter J N Stokes, Amanda C Hollowell, John U Regus, Kelsey A Gano-Cohen, Camille E Wendlandt, Kenjiro W Quides, Jonathan Y Lyu, Joel L Sachs
Legumes can preferentially select beneficial rhizobial symbionts and sanction ineffective strains that fail to fix nitrogen. Yet paradoxically, rhizobial populations vary from highly beneficial to ineffective in natural and agricultural soils. Classic models of symbiosis focus on the single dimension of symbiont cost-benefit to sympatric hosts, but fail to explain the widespread persistence of ineffective rhizobia. Here we test a novel framework predicting that spatio-temporal and community dynamics can maintain ineffective strains in rhizobial populations...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395376/effect-of-wettability-on-two-phase-quasi-static-displacement-validation-of-two-pore-scale-modeling-approaches
#2
Rahul Verma, Matteo Icardi, Maša Prodanović
Understanding of pore-scale physics for multiphase flow in porous media is essential for accurate description of various flow phenomena. In particular, capillarity and wettability strongly influence capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability relationships. Wettability is quantified by the contact angle of the fluid-fluid interface at the pore walls. In this work we focus on the non-trivial interface equilibria in presence of non-neutral wetting and complex geometries. We quantify the accuracy of a volume-of-fluid (VOF) formulation, implemented in a popular open-source computational fluid dynamics code, compared with a new formulation of a level set (LS) method, specifically developed for quasi-static capillarity-dominated displacement...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380872/accurate-costs-of-blood-transfusion-a-microcosting-of-administering-blood-products-in-the-united-kingdom-national-health-service
#3
Elizabeth A Stokes, Sarah Wordsworth, Julie Staves, Nicola Mundy, Jane Skelly, Kelly Radford, Simon J Stanworth
BACKGROUND: In an environment of limited health care resources, it is crucial for health care systems which provide blood transfusion to have accurate and comprehensive information on the costs of transfusion, incorporating not only the costs of blood products, but also their administration. Unfortunately, in many countries accurate costs for administering blood are not available. Our study aimed to generate comprehensive estimates of the costs of administering transfusions for the UK National Health Service...
January 30, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340297/acetic-acid-guided-biopsies-in-barrett-s-surveillance-for-neoplasia-detection-versus-non-targeted-biopsies-seattle-protocol-a-feasibility-study-for-a-randomized-tandem-endoscopy-trial-the-abba-study
#4
Fergus Chedgy, Carole Fogg, Kesavan Kandiah, Hugh Barr, Bernard Higgins, Mimi McCord, Ann Dewey, John De Caestecker, Lisa Gadeke, Clive Stokes, David Poller, Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Pradeep Bhandari
Background and study aims : Barrett's esophagus is a potentially pre-cancerous condition, affecting 375,000 people in the UK. Patients receive a 2-yearly endoscopy to detect cancerous changes, as early detection and treatment results in better outcomes. Current treatment requires random mapping biopsies along the length of Barrett's, in addition to biopsy of visible abnormalities. As only 13 % of pre-cancerous changes appear as visible nodules or abnormalities, areas of dysplasia are often missed...
January 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237922/outcomes-of-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-versus-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-patients-aged-18-45-years-with-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Yang Li, Ran Dong, Kun Hua, Tao-Shuai Liu, Shao-You Zhou, Ning Zhou, Hong-Jia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Debate on treatment for young patients with coronary artery disease still exists. This study aimed to investigate the intermediate- and long-term outcomes between coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients aged 18-45 years with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Between January 2006 and March 2016, a total of 2018 DM patients aged 18-45 years including 517 cases of CABG and 1501 cases of PCI were enrolled in the study...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216103/digital-quantification-of-dna-by-mapping-polarization-degree-related-with-coding-gold-nanorods
#6
Zhenjie Wu, Ran Liao, Xiangyu Sun, Di Zu, Wenlan Liu, Hui Tan, Shuqing Sun
The development of highly sensitive and low-cost methods for detecting DNA is of critical importance. Here, we describe a strategy for the highly sensitive and low-cost digital detection of target DNA. Individual DNA molecules were encoded with a single gold nanorod (Au NR), which was then separated and enriched using the magnetic immune-separation process, followed by dehybridization and dispersion into a buffer solution and immobilization on glass slides for polarized dark-field microscopic imaging. With the imaging we can get the first three data sets of the Stokes vector, and the experimental degree of the linear polarization of the light scattered by the Au NR was obtained...
November 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202613/the-effects-of-infection-on-severe-stroke-patients-in-the-neurological-intensive-care-unit-in-china
#7
Heyin Mi, Shujuan Li, Haiying Li, Wenli Hu
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of infection on severe stroke patients in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and to find the related risk factors for mortality of severe stroke patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study including 343 patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and staying more than 2 patient-days in the NICU at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from January 2011 to December 2015 to analyze the infection features of patients with severe stroke in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199986/a-low-cost-method-for-visible-fluorescence-imaging
#8
Crissy L Tarver, Marc Pusey
A wide variety of crystallization solutions are screened to establish conditions that promote the growth of a diffraction-quality crystal. Screening these conditions requires the assessment of many crystallization plates for the presence of crystals. Automated systems for screening and imaging are very expensive. A simple approach to imaging trace fluorescently labeled protein crystals in crystallization plates has been devised, and can be implemented at a cost as low as $50. The proteins β-lactoglobulin B, trypsin and purified concanavalin A (ConA) were trace fluorescently labeled using three different fluorescent probes: Cascade Yellow (CY), Carboxyrhodamine 6G (CR) and Pacific Blue (PB)...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140977/low-cost-and-open-source-multi-fluorescence-imaging-system-for-teaching-and-research-in-biology-and-bioengineering
#9
Isaac Nuñez, Tamara Matute, Roberto Herrera, Juan Keymer, Timothy Marzullo, Timothy Rudge, Fernán Federici
The advent of easy-to-use open source microcontrollers, off-the-shelf electronics and customizable manufacturing technologies has facilitated the development of inexpensive scientific devices and laboratory equipment. In this study, we describe an imaging system that integrates low-cost and open-source hardware, software and genetic resources. The multi-fluorescence imaging system consists of readily available 470 nm LEDs, a Raspberry Pi camera and a set of filters made with low cost acrylics. This device allows imaging in scales ranging from single colonies to entire plates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113542/using-facebook-and-linkedin-to-recruit-nurses-for-an-online-survey
#10
Yehudis Stokes, Amanda Vandyk, Janet Squires, Jean-Daniel Jacob, Wendy Gifford
Social media is an emerging tool used by researchers; however, limited information is available on its use for participant recruitment specifically. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of Facebook and LinkedIn social media sites in the recruitment of nurses for an online survey, using a 5-week modified online Dillman approach. Within 3 weeks, we exceeded our target sample size ( n = 170) and within 5 weeks recruited 267 English-speaking nurses ( n = 172, Facebook; n = 95, LinkedIn). Advantages included speed of recruitment, cost-efficiency, snowballing effects, and accessibility of the researcher to potential participants...
November 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050713/is-preoperative-fibrinogen-testing-associated-with-total-blood-loss-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-correction
#11
Matthew J Geck, Devender Singh, Holly Gunn, John K Stokes, Eeric Truumees
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the potential association between preoperative fibrinogen, bleeding, and transfusion requirements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) corrections. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Blood loss after major spinal reconstruction increases the risks and costs of surgery. Preoperative fibrinogen levels may predict intra- and postoperative blood loss. METHODS: Data were collected from clinic charts and hospital medical records of all 110 of a single surgeon's consecutive AIS patients undergoing greater than three-level deformity correction surgeries from January 2011 to December 2013...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982172/numerical-investigation-of-the-vortex-induced-vibration-of-an-elastically-mounted-circular-cylinder-at-high-reynolds-number-re-104-and-low-mass-ratio-using-the-rans-code
#12
Niaz Bahadur Khan, Zainah Ibrahim, Linh Tuan The Nguyen, Muhammad Faisal Javed, Mohammed Jameel
This study numerically investigates the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) tools. CFD analysis is performed for a fixed-cylinder case with Reynolds number (Re) = 104 and for a cylinder that is free to oscillate in the transverse direction and possesses a low mass-damping ratio and Re = 104. Previously, similar studies have been performed with 3-dimensional and comparatively expensive turbulent models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972568/cfd-modeling-of-chamber-filling-in-a-micro-biosensor-for-protein-detection
#13
Meiirbek Islamov, Marzhan Sypabekova, Damira Kanayeva, Luis Rojas-Solórzano
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the cornerstone for controlling TB outbreaks. To reduce this burden, the existing gap between detection and treatment must be addressed, and dedicated diagnostic tools such as biosensors should be developed. A biosensor is a sensing micro-device that consists of a biological sensing element and a transducer part to produce signals in proportion to quantitative information about the binding event...
October 3, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969313/randomized-trial-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-personalized-optimization-of-cerebral-tissue-oxygenation-during-cardiac-surgery
#14
C A Rogers, S Stoica, L Ellis, E A Stokes, S Wordsworth, L Dabner, G Clayton, R Downes, E Nicholson, S Bennett, G D Angelini, B C Reeves, G J Murphy
Background: We assessed whether a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based algorithm for the personalized optimization of cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass combined with a restrictive red cell transfusion threshold would reduce perioperative injury to the brain, heart, and kidneys. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, participants in three UK centres were randomized with concealed allocation to a NIRS (INVOS 5100; Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA)-based 'patient-specific' algorithm that included a restrictive red cell transfusion threshold (haematocrit 18%) or to a 'generic' non-NIRS-based algorithm (standard care)...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949974/aerobic-exercise-for-vasomotor-menopausal-symptoms-a-cost-utility-analysis-based-on-the-active-women-trial
#15
Ilias Goranitis, Leana Bellanca, Amanda J Daley, Adele Thomas, Helen Stokes-Lampard, Andrea K Roalfe, Sue Jowett
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-utility of two exercise interventions relative to a control group for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. DESIGN: Economic evaluation taking a UK National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective and a societal perspective. SETTING: Primary care. POPULATION: Peri- and postmenopausal women who have not used hormone therapy in the past 3 months and experience ≥ 5 episodes of vasomotor symptoms daily...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893392/computational-modeling-and-validation-of-human-nasal-airflow-under-various-breathing-conditions
#16
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Haibo Dong, Kai Zhao
The human nose serves vital physiological functions, including warming, filtration, humidification, and olfaction. These functions are based on transport phenomena that depend on nasal airflow patterns and turbulence. Accurate prediction of these airflow properties requires careful selection of computational fluid dynamics models and rigorous validation. The validation studies in the past have been limited by poor representations of the complex nasal geometry, lack of detailed airflow comparisons, and restricted ranges of flow rate...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879656/variability-in-responses-observed-in-human-white-adipose-tissue-models
#17
Rosalyn D Abbott, Francis E Borowsky, Carlo A Alonzo, Adam Zieba, Irene Georgakoudi, David L Kaplan
Obesity is a risk factor for a myriad of diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction, cirrhosis and cancer and there is a need for new systems to study how excess adipose tissue relates to the onset of disease processes. This study provides proof of concept patient-specific tissue models of human white adipose tissue to accommodate the variability in human samples. Our 3D tissue engineering approach established lipolytic responses and changes in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from small volumes of human lipoaspirate, making this methodology useful for patient specific sample source assessments of treatment strategies, drug responses, disease mechanisms and other responses that vary between patients...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857559/rational-design-of-in-vivo-tau-tangle-selective-near-infrared-fluorophores-expanding-the-bodipy-universe
#18
Peter Verwilst, Hye-Ri Kim, Jinho Seo, Nak-Won Sohn, Seung-Yun Cha, Yeongmin Kim, Sungho Maeng, Jung-Won Shin, Jong Hwan Kwak, Chulhun Kang, Jong Seung Kim
The elucidation of the cause of Alzheimer's disease remains one of the greatest questions in neurodegenerative research. The lack of highly reliable low-cost sensors to study the structural changes in key proteins during the progression of the disease is a contributing factor to this lack of insight. In the current work, we describe the rational design and synthesis of two fluorescent BODIPY-based probes, named Tau 1 and Tau 2. The probes were evaluated on the molecular surface formed by a fibril of the PHF6 ((306)VQIVYK(311)) tau fragment using molecular docking studies to provide a potential molecular model to rationalize the selectivity of the new probes as compared to a homologous Aβ-selective probe...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816476/benefits-of-flexible-prioritization-in-working-memory-can-arise-without-costs
#19
Nicholas E Myers, Sammi R Chekroud, Mark G Stokes, Anna C Nobre
Most recent models conceptualize working memory (WM) as a continuous resource, divided up according to task demands. When an increasing number of items need to be remembered, each item receives a smaller chunk of the memory resource. These models predict that the allocation of attention to high-priority WM items during the retention interval should be a zero-sum game: improvements in remembering cued items come at the expense of uncued items because resources are dynamically transferred from uncued to cued representations...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738606/a-label-free-fluorometric-assay-for-actin-detection-based-on-enzyme-responsive-dna-templated-copper-nanoparticles
#20
Quanwei Song, Lixia Yang, Hongkun Chen, Rong Zhang, Na Na, Jin Ouyang
Herein, we develop a fluorescent strategy for label-free detection of actin by the in situ formation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) templated copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and the digestion capability of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I). In this design, the introduction of actin can effectively hinder the enzymic digestion owing to the exceptional target-mediated conformational structure between actin and DNase I. Consequently, the remaining adenine-thymine-rich dsDNA can act as an efficient template for fluorescent CuNPs (λex = 340nm, λem = 585nm) with a Mega-Stokes shifting (245nm)...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
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