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R T Mumgaard, S D Scott, M Khoury
A multi-spectral line-polarization motional Stark effect (MSE-MSLP) diagnostic has been developed for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak wherein the Stokes vector is measured in multiple wavelength bands simultaneously on the same sightline to enable better polarized background subtraction. A ten-sightline, four wavelength MSE-MSLP detector system was designed, constructed, and qualified. This system consists of a high-throughput polychromator for each sightline designed to provide large étendue and precise spectral filtering in a cost-effective manner...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Mark Robinson, Andrew Siddall, James Bilzon, Dylan Thompson, Julie Greeves, Rachel Izard, Keith Stokes
BACKGROUND: Injuries sustained by military recruits during initial training impede training progression and military readiness while increasing financial costs. This study investigated training-related injuries and injury risk factors among British Army infantry recruits. METHODS: Recruits starting infantry training at the British Army Infantry Training Centre between September 2008 and March 2010 were eligible to take part. Information regarding lifestyle behaviours and injury history was collected using the Military Pre-training Questionnaire...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Yuli Chen, Qi Sui, Zhaohui Li, Zihao Liang, Weiping Liu
A joint chromatic dispersion (CD) and 1st order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring technique for both a coherent and a non-coherent single carrier system based on a pair of cost effective low-bandwidth coherent receivers is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By jointly detecting the narrow band around ± 1/2 baud rate, the CD and PMD can be estimated simultaneously by time domain correlation and Stokes space rotational angle recovery, respectively. The CD estimation range is theoretically infinite and the PMD estimation range is limited to the maximum of 1/2 symbol period...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
Nagamalai Vasimalai, Maria T Fernandez-Arguelles
Highly fluorescent gold nanodots have been synthesized through a novel rapid, facile and one-pot room temperature route using trithiocyanuric acid as mild reducing agent and surface ligand. The proposed synthesis overcomes limitations of other synthetic routes in terms of cost, time, complexity and environmental risks, and gives rise to highly fluorescent gold nanodots within 10 min at room temperature, with a maximum emission wavelength at 623 nm and a large Stokes shift (213 nm). Moreover, the synthesized gold nanodots showed a large emission QY (9...
November 25, 2016: Nanotechnology
Tim Stokes, Elizabeth J Shaw, Janette Camosso-Stefinovic, Mari Imamura, Lovney Kanguru, Julia Hussein
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality remains a major international health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and most could have been prevented by quality improvement interventions already demonstrated to be effective, such as clinical guideline implementation strategies. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise qualitative evidence on guideline implementation strategies to improve obstetric care practice in LMIC in order to identify barriers and enablers to their successful implementation...
October 22, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Rajiv Singh, Saurabh Sinha, Alan Bill, Lynne Turner-Stokes
OBJECTIVE: To identify the needs for specialised rehabilitation provision in a cohort of neurosurgical patients; to determine if these were met, and to estimate the potential cost implications and cost-benefits of meeting any unmet rehabilitation needs. METHODS: A prospective study of in-patient admissions to a regional neurosurgical ward. Assessment of needs for specialised rehabilitation (Category A or B needs) was made with the Patient Categorisation Tool. The number of patients who were referred and admitted for specialised rehabilitation was calculated...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Craig R MacNair, Jonathan M Stokes, Shawn French, Cullen L Myers, Kali R Iyer, Eric D Brown
The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance has created a pressing need for the development of novel drug screening platforms. Herein, we report on the use of cell-based kinetic dose response curves for small molecule characterization in antibiotic discovery efforts. Kinetically monitoring bacterial growth at sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial small molecules generates unique dose response profiles. We show that clustering of profiles by growth characteristics can classify antibiotics by mechanism of action...
September 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Jodi Taylor, Sarah Black, Stephen J Brett, Kim Kirby, Jerry P Nolan, Barnaby C Reeves, Maria Robinson, Chris A Rogers, Lauren J Scott, Adrian South, Elizabeth A Stokes, Matthew Thomas, Sarah Voss, Sarah Wordsworth, Jonathan R Benger
Health outcomes after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are extremely poor, with only 7-9% of patients in the United Kingdom (UK) surviving to hospital discharge. Currently emergency medical services (EMS) use either tracheal intubation or newer supraglottic airway devices (SGAs) to provide advanced airway management during OHCA. Equipoise between the two techniques has led to calls for a well-designed randomised controlled trial. The primary objective of the AIRWAYS-2 trial is to assess whether the clinical effectiveness of the i-gel, a second-generation SGA, is superior to tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of OHCA patients in the UK...
December 2016: Resuscitation
Hesheng Yu, Jesse Thé
: The dispersion of gaseous pollutant around buildings is complex due to complex turbulence features such as flow detachment and zones of high shear. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are one of the most promising tools to describe the pollutant distribution in the near field of buildings. Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are the most commonly used CFD techniques to address turbulence transport of the pollutant. This research work studies the use of [Formula: see text]closure model for the gas dispersion around a building by fully resolving the viscous sublayer for the first time...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Quanwei Song, Ruihua Wang, Feifei Sun, Hongkun Chen, Zoumengke Wang, Na Na, Jin Ouyang
Owing to their promising advantages in biochemical analysis, aptamer-based sensing systems for the fluorescence detection of important biomolecules are being extensively investigated. Herein, we propose a turn-on fluorescent aptasensor for label-free detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by utilizing the in situ formation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and the specific digestion capability of exonuclease I (Exo I). In this assay, the addition of ATP can effectively hinder the digestion of aptamer-derived oligonucleotides due to the G-quadruplex structure...
September 9, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Songze Chen, Zhaoli Guo, Kun Xu
The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme for kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulation and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well-known discrete ordinate method (DOM), which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Lynne Turner-Stokes, Ganesh Bavikatte, Heather Williams, Alan Bill, Keith Sephton
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate functional outcomes, care needs and cost-efficiency of hyperacute (HA) rehabilitation for a cohort of in-patients with complex neurological disability and unstable medical/surgical conditions. DESIGN: A multicentre cohort analysis of prospectively collected clinical data from the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national clinical database, 2012-2015. SETTING: Two HA specialist rehabilitation services in England, providing different service models for HA rehabilitation...
2016: BMJ Open
William Whittaker, Laura Anselmi, Søren Rud Kristensen, Yiu-Shing Lau, Simon Bailey, Peter Bower, Katherine Checkland, Rebecca Elvey, Katy Rothwell, Jonathan Stokes, Damian Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Health services across the world increasingly face pressures on the use of expensive hospital services. Better organisation and delivery of primary care has the potential to manage demand and reduce costs for hospital services, but routine primary care services are not open during evenings and weekends. Extended access (evening and weekend opening) is hypothesized to reduce pressure on hospital services from emergency department visits. However, the existing evidence-base is weak, largely focused on emergency out-of-hours services, and analysed using a before-and after-methodology without effective comparators...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
A Bolis, C D Cantwell, D Moxey, D Serson, S J Sherwin
A hybrid parallelisation technique for distributed memory systems is investigated for a coupled Fourier-spectral/hp element discretisation of domains characterised by geometric homogeneity in one or more directions. The performance of the approach is mathematically modelled in terms of operation count and communication costs for identifying the most efficient parameter choices. The model is calibrated to target a specific hardware platform after which it is shown to accurately predict the performance in the hybrid regime...
September 2016: Computer Physics Communications
Erru Yang, Michael Stokes, Saga Johansson, Carl Mellström, Elizabeth Magnuson, David J Cohen, Phillip Hunt
OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal data are limited regarding outcomes and costs beyond 1 year after acute myocardial infarction (MI) among elderly (≥65 years old) US patients. This study examined long-term outcomes and healthcare costs among elderly MI survivors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 2002-2009 Medicare healthcare claims (5% random sample). Patients were ≥65 years old and survived ≥1 year without recurrent MI after MI hospitalization. Mortality, incidence of hospitalizations for stroke, major bleeding, MI, a composite endpoint (death, MI, or stroke), and nonpharmacy healthcare costs were determined...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Laura B Stokes, Joseph W Rogers, John B Hertig, Robert J Weber
Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy...
July 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
Anne L Harrison, Elizabeth G Hunter, Heather Thomas, Paige Bordy, Erin Stokes, Patrick Kitzman
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is prevalent in Kentucky and comes with a high cost in care and quality of life for individuals and caregivers affected. Many people living with the condition of TBI have unmet needs. Research among people living with TBI in rural areas is limited. The purposes of this study were to (1) increase understanding of the lived experience of people with TBI and caregivers in rural regions of Kentucky across the continuum of their care and (2) provide their perspectives on barriers and facilitators of optimal function and well-being...
August 22, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Barnaby C Reeves, Katie Pike, Chris A Rogers, Rachel Cm Brierley, Elizabeth A Stokes, Sarah Wordsworth, Rachel L Nash, Alice Miles, Andrew D Mumford, Alan Cohen, Gianni D Angelini, Gavin J Murphy
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty about optimal red blood cell transfusion thresholds in cardiac surgery is reflected in widely varying transfusion rates between surgeons and cardiac centres. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a restrictive compared with a liberal threshold for red blood cell transfusion after cardiac surgery reduces post-operative morbidity and health-care costs. DESIGN: Multicentre, parallel randomised controlled trial and within-trial cost-utility analysis from a UK NHS and Personal Social Services perspective...
August 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Xuezhe Zhou, Bennett E Smith, Paden B Roder, Peter J Pauzauskie
Sodium yttrium fluoride (β-NaYF4 ) nanowires (NWs) with a hexagonal crystal structure are synthesized using a low-cost hydrothermal process and are shown to undergo laser refrigeration based on an upconversion process leading to anti-Stokes (blueshifted) photoluminescence. Single-beam laser trapping combined with forward light scattering is used to investigate cryophotonic laser refrigeration of individual NWs through analysis of their local Brownian dynamics.
October 2016: Advanced Materials
Audrey L Stokes, Andrew Bible, Christopher S Hollenbeak, David B Stewart
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted with Clostridium difficile infection are managed in a variety of settings. If their care is inadequate, these patients can rapidly deteriorate. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether mortality for patients admitted with C difficile differed between medical and general/colorectal surgery services. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study with multivariable logistic regression used to evaluate the effect of admitting service on in-hospital mortality rates, with propensity score matching used to validate this relationship...
September 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
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