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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148854/comparative-effectiveness-of-lipid-lowering-treatments-to-reduce-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Dong-Churl Suh, Scott K Griggs, Emmett R Henderson, Seung-Mi Lee, Taehwan Park
With the advent of a new drug class - the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, patients have another treatment option for lowering their high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in recent years. The objective of this study was to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of lipid-lowering agents such as statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9 inhibitors. Areas covered: Based on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, we identified a total of 29 relevant articles...
November 17, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148423/non-invasive-vascular-biomarkers-in-patients-with-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-review-of-the-data-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Athanase D Protogerou, Efthimia G Nasothimiou, Petros P Sfikakis, Athanasios G Tzioufas
Vascular inflammation in small to large veins and arteries contributes substantially to mortality above that of the general population in Behçet's disease. Recent data verified also the presence of accelerated classical subclinical arterial damage (atheromatosis, arteriosclerosis, arterial hypertrophy) even in patients free of overt vascular complications, and may be complementary to that of vasculitis. Early detection of such vascular damage might provide helpful pathophysiological insight and potentially even guide treatment management...
October 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146652/dynamic-treatment-selection-and-modification-for-personalised-blood-pressure-therapy-using-a-markov-decision-process-model-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#4
Sung Eun Choi, Margaret L Brandeau, Sanjay Basu
OBJECTIVE: Personalised medicine seeks to select and modify treatments based on individual patient characteristics and preferences. We sought to develop an automated strategy to select and modify blood pressure treatments, incorporating the likelihood that patients with different characteristics would benefit from different types of medications and dosages and the potential severity and impact of different side effects among patients with different characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We developed a Markov decision process (MDP) model to incorporate meta-analytic data and estimate the optimal treatment for maximising discounted lifetime quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) based on individual patient characteristics, incorporating medication adjustment choices when a patient incurs side effects...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145355/disparities-in-state-specific-adult-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-united-states-2015
#5
Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Latetia V Moore, Heidi M Blanck, Diane M Harris, Deb Galuska
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume more fruits and vegetables as part of an overall dietary pattern to reduce the risk for diet-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and obesity (1). Adults should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruits and 2.0-3.0 cups of vegetables per day.* Overall, few adults in each state met intake recommendations according to 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data; however, sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with fruit and vegetable consumption were not examined (2)...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140556/withdrawn-transcendental-meditation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Louise Hartley, Angelique Mavrodaris, Nadine Flowers, Edzard Ernst, Karen Rees
BACKGROUND: A major determinant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is stress. As transcendental meditation (TM) is thought to help in lowering negative stress indicators, it may be a beneficial strategy for the primary prevention of CVD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of TM for the primary prevention of CVD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 10); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to week three November 2013); EMBASE Classic and EMBASE (Ovid) (1947 to week 48 2013); ISI Web of Science (1970 to 28 November 2013); and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (November 2013)...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136331/risk-factor-management-in-a-contemporary-australian-population-at-increased-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#7
D J Campbell, J M Coller, F F Gong, M McGrady, D L Prior, U Boffa, L Shiel, D Liew, R Wolfe, A J Owen, H Krum, C M Reid
BACKGROUND: Effective management of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk factors offers longer, healthier lives and savings in health care. We examined risk factor management in participants of the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure (SCREEN-HF) study, a self-selected population at increased cardiovascular disease risk recruited from members of a health insurance fund in Melbourne and Shepparton, Australia. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported ischaemic or other heart disease, irregular or rapid heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment, or treatment for hypertension or diabetes for ≥2 years...
November 14, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131132/points-of-concern-in-post-acute-kidney-injury-management
#8
Jill Vanmassenhove, Raymond Vanholder, Norbert Lameire
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) will in the future remain high, partly due to an increase in comorbidities and other AKI favoring factors such as the rise in high-risk diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. AKI has emerged as a major public health concern with high human and financial costs. It has recently been demonstrated that patients surviving an AKI episode show increased all-cause mortality, chronic kidney disease (CKD), ESRD, cardiovascular events, and reduced quality of life. Although it is important to acknowledge that, after an AKI episode, the risk of dying by far exceeds the risk of developing incident or progressive CKD and/or entering a maintenance renal replacement therapy (RRT) program, currently only a minority of patients are referred for renal follow-up, even after AKI-requiring RRT...
November 2, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126499/economic-impact-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-adults-a-population-based-study-idea-study
#9
A Sicras-Mainar, R Navarro-Artieda, J M Carrascosa Carrillo
OBJECTIVE: To determine resource usage and costs associated with atopic dermatitis in adults according to severity and comorbid conditions in daily clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective study based on a review of registries of patients aged ≥18 years who sought health care in 2013 and 2014 in an area of Catalonia, Spain, with a population of 215,634 persons. We established 3 classes of severity depending on the treatment prescribed...
November 7, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125004/impact-of-the-automated-dose-dispensing-with-medication-review-on-geriatric-primary-care-patients-drug-use-in-finland-a-nationwide-cohort-study-with-matched-controls
#10
Juha Sinnemäki, Marja Airaksinen, Maria Valaste, Leena K Saastamoinen
OBJECTIVE: In an automated dose dispensing (ADD) service, medicines are dispensed in unit-dose bags according to administration times. When the service is initiated, the patient's medication list is reconciled and a prescription review is conducted. The service is expected to reduce drug use. The aim of this national controlled study was to investigate whether the ADD service with medication review reduces drug use among geriatric primary care patients. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: This is a nationwide cohort study with matched controls...
November 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122140/cardiac-tissue-characterization-and-imaging-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Petros P Sfikakis, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Genovefa Kolovou, George D Kitas
Inflammation, microvascular and macrovascular ischemia, valvular disease, and fibrosis are the main causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). The silent presentation and the high mortality and/or morbidity of CVD in ARDs necessitate a reliable tool for early diagnosis. Noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, including echocardiography, nuclear imaging, cardiovascular computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and hybrid imaging modalities, constitutes the main tool for monitoring of CVD in ARDs...
November 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121750/novel-ecg-parameters-are-strongly-associated-with-inflammatory-18-f-fdg-pet-findings-in-patients-with-suspected-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#12
Kalle Sipilä, Heikki Tuominen, Atte Haarala, Antti Tikkakoski, Mika Kähönen, Kjell Nikus
BACKGROUND: (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a feasible method to investigate the inflammatory activity of the myocardium in cardiac sarcoidosis. However, PET is costly and not as widely available as standard electrocardiogram (ECG). Current ECG findings related to cardiac sarcoidosis are highly non-specific. In this study, our aim was to determine whether novel ECG parameters are associated with pathological PET findings in patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117280/physical-activity-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-a-simple-low-cost-and-widely-applicable-approach-for-all-populations
#13
Scott A Lear, Salim Yusuf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110264/optimization-of-drug-prescription-and-medication-management-in-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-disease
#14
Nanette K Wenger, Caroline Lloyd Doherty, Jerry H Gurwitz, Glenn A Hirsch, Holly M Holmes, Matthew S Maurer, Michael D Murray
Cardiovascular disease increases incrementally with age and elderly patients concomitantly sustain multimorbidities, with resultant prescription of multiple medications. Despite conforming with disease-specific cardiovascular clinical practice guidelines, this polypharmacy predisposes many elderly individuals with cardiovascular disease to adverse drug events and non-adherence. Patient-centered care requires that the clinician explore with each patient his or her goals of care and that this shared decision-making constitutes the basis for optimization of medication management...
November 6, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110223/the-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-plant-sterol-or-stanol-enriched-functional-foods-as-a-primary-prevention-strategy-for-people-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-england-a-modeling-study
#15
Wei Yang, Heather Gage, Daniel Jackson, Monique Raats
This study appraises the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of consumption of plant sterol-enriched margarine-type spreads for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with hypercholesterolemia in England, compared to a normal diet. A nested Markov model was employed using the perspective of the British National Health Service (NHS). Effectiveness outcomes were the 10-year CVD risk of individuals with mild (4-6 mmol/l) and high (above 6 mmol/l) cholesterol by gender and age groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-85 years); CVD events avoided and QALY gains over 20 years...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108723/cardiovascular-respiratory-and-related-disorders-key-messages-from-disease-control-priorities-3rd-edition
#16
REVIEW
Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Shuchi Anand, David Watkins, Thomas Gaziano, Yangfeng Wu, Jean Claude Mbanya, Rachel Nugent
Cardiovascular, respiratory, and related disorders (CVRDs) are the leading causes of adult death worldwide, and substantial inequalities in care of patients with CVRDs exist between countries of high income and countries of low and middle income. Based on current trends, the UN Sustainable Development Goal to reduce premature mortality due to CVRDs by a third by 2030 will be challenging for many countries of low and middle income. We did systematic literature reviews of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to identify priority interventions...
November 3, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106978/coaching-patients-saves-lives-and-money
#17
Joshua Byrnes, Thomas Elliott, Margarite J Vale, Michael V Jelinek, Paul Scuffham
Background The Coaching on Achieving Cardiovascular Health (COACH) Program has been proven to improve biomedical and lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long term impact of The COACH Program on overall survival, hospital utilization and costs from the perspective of a private health insurer (payor), in patients with CVD. Methods A prospective parallel-group case-control study design with controls randomly matched to patients based on propensity score...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106632/cost-effectiveness-of-screening-type-2-diabetes-patients-for-chronic-kidney-disease-progression-with-the-ckd273-urinary-peptide-classifier-as-compared-to-urinary-albumin-excretion
#18
Elena Critselis, Antonia Vlahou, Vianda S Stel, Rachael L Morton
Background: In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression may occur without detectable changes in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate. A new urinary peptide classifier (CKD273) has exhibited greater ability to detect CKD progression, however, its cost-effectiveness remains unknown. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of screening for CKD progression with the CKD273 classifier, as compared to UAE, in diabetic patients. Methods: A decision-analytic Markov model was developed to estimate costs and health outcomes [including overall survival and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)] from a health system perspective for adopting a new annual screening strategy based on the CKD273 classifier as compared to annual UAE-based screening in a hypothetical cohort of T2DM patients...
July 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102035/impact-of-hypothyroidism-on-occurrence-and-outcome-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-from-the-national-inpatient-sample
#19
Rashmi Dhital, Sijan Basnet, Dilli Ram Poudel
Thyroid hormones have a profound effect on cardiovascular physiology. We utilized a large national inpatient database in the United States (National Inpatient Sample) to study hypothyroidism in relation to the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its impact on outcomes (mortality, the length of stay, and hospitalization cost) in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subgroup of CHD patients. We found that although hypothyroidism has an increased association with CHD (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101131/effectiveness-of-community-health-worker-training-programmes-for-cardiovascular-disease-management-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#20
Marwa Abdel-All, Barbara Putica, Deversetty Praveen, Seye Abimbola, Rohina Joshi
INTRODUCTION: Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being tasked to prevent and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in underserved populations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, little is known about the required training necessary for them to accomplish their role. This review aimed to evaluate the training of CHWs for the prevention and management of CVD and its risk factors in LMICs. METHODS: A search strategy was developed in line with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, and five electronic databases (Medline, Global Health, ERIC, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched to identify peer-reviewed studies published until December 2016 on the training of CHWs for prevention or control of CVD and its risk factors in LMICs...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
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