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Sara Silva Pereira, Andrew P Jackson
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp. are a major source of infectious disease in humans and domestic animals worldwide. Fundamental to the host-parasite interactions of these potent pathogens are their cell surfaces, which are highly decorated with glycosylated proteins and other macromolecules. Trypanosomatid genomes contain large multi-copy gene families encoding UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), the primary role of which is cell-surface decoration...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Longhai Dai, Can Liu, Jiao Li, Caixia Dong, Jiangang Yang, Zhubo Dai, Xueli Zhang, Yuanxia Sun
Ginsenosides, the major effective ingredients of Panax ginseng, exhibit various biological properties. UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glycosylation is the last biosynthetic step of ginsenosides and contributes to their immense structural and functional diversity. In this study, UGT Bs-YjiC from Bacillus subtilis 168 was demonstrated can transfer a glucosyl moiety to the free C3-OH and C12-OH of protopanaxadiol (PPD) and PPD-type ginsenosides to synthesize natural and unnatural ginsenosides. In vitro assays showed that unnatural ginsenoside F12 (3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-12-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) exhibited remarkable activity against diverse human cancer cell lines...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
XuXu Huang, Guo-Qing Zhu, Qian Liu, Lu Chen, Yan-Jie Li, Bing-Kai Hou
Salicylic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in plant innate immunity. The deployment of SA-associated immune responses is primarily affected by SA concentration, which is determined by a balance between SA biosynthesis and catabolism. However, the mechanisms regulating SA homeostasis are poorly understood. In this study, we characterized a unique UDP-glycosyltransferase, UGT76D1, which plays an important role in SA homeostasis and associated immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of UGT76D1 was induced by treatment with both the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv...
February 26, 2018: Plant Physiology
Jia Li, Qin Liang, Changfu Li, Mengdi Liu, Yansheng Zhang
Dioscorea zingiberensis is a perennial herb native to China. The rhizome of D. zingiberensis has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatic arthritis. Dioscin is the major bioactive ingredient conferring the medicinal property described in Chinese pharmacopoeia. Several previous studies have suggested cholesterol as the intermediate to the biosynthesis of dioscin, however, the biosynthetic steps to dioscin after cholesterol remain unknown. In this study, a comprehensive D. zingiberensis transcriptome derived from its leaf and rhizome was constructed...
February 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
S Wang, Y Liu, J-J Zhou, J-K Yi, Y Pan, J Wang, X-X Zhang, J-X Wang, S Yang, J-H Xi
It is difficult to control Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky with chemical insecticides due to the larvae's soil-living habit, thus the pest has caused great economic losses in agriculture. In addition, uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glycosylation process of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with sugars to produce water-soluble glycosides, and play multiple roles in detoxification, endobiotic modulation, and sequestration in an insect. Some UGTs were found specifically expressed in antennae of Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera littoralis, and glucurono-conjugated odorants could not elicit any olfactory signals, suggesting that the UGTs may play roles in odorant inactivation by biotransformation...
February 5, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Hafiz Mamoon Rehman, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Zahid Hussain Shah, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Gyuhwa Chung, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad, Seung Hwan Yang, Soo In Lee
In plants, UGTs (UDP-glycosyltransferases) glycosylate various phytohormones and metabolites in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Little is known about stress-responsive glycosyltransferases in plants. Therefore, it is important to understand the genomic and transcriptomic portfolio of plants with regard to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we identified 140, 154, and 251 putative UGTs in Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica napus, respectively, and clustered them into 14 major phylogenetic groups (A-N)...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun Lu, Jinxin Li, Shihui Wang, Lu Yao, Wenxia Liang, Juan Wang, Wenyuan Gao
In this paper, we reviewed the advances in ginsenoside biosynthesis and metabolic regulation. To begin with, the application of elicitors in ginsenoside biosynthesis was discussed. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) and analogues have the best effect on accumulation of ginsenoside compared with other elicitors, and few biotic elicitors are applied in Panax genus plants tissue culture. In addition, so far, more than 40 genes encoding ginsenoside biosynthesis related enzymes have been cloned and identified from Panax genus, such as UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT) genes UDPG, UGTAE2, UGT94Q2, UGTPg100 and UGTPg1...
January 29, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Lanfei Zhao, Xin Ma, Peisen Su, Wenyang Ge, Hongyan Wu, Xiuxiu Guo, Anfei Li, Hongwei Wang, Lingrang Kong
TaUGT5: can reduce the proliferation and destruction of F. graminearum and enhance the ability of FHB resistance in wheat. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important toxins produced by Fusarium species that enhances the spread of the pathogen in the host. As a defense, the UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) family has been deduced to transform DON into the less toxic form DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G), but the specific gene member in wheat that is responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance has been little investigated and proved...
January 25, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ha-Young Choi, Nguyen Van Minh, Jae Min Choi, Jae Yoon Hwang, Sang-Tae Seo, Seung-Kyu Lee, Won-Gon Kim
Avermectin produced by Streptomyces avermitilis is an anti-nematodal agent against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, its potential usage is limited by its poor water solubility. For this reason, continuous efforts are underway to produce new derivatives that are more water soluble. Here, the enzymatic glycosylation of avermectin was catalyzed by uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis with various UDP sugars. As a result, the following four avermectin B1a glycosides were produced: avermectin B1a 4″-β-D-glucoside, avermectin B1a 4″-β-D-galactoside, avermectin B1a 4″-β-L-fucoside, and avermectin B1a 4″-β-2-deoxy-D-glucoside...
January 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhigang Han, Jingjie Zhang, Shengguan Cai, Xiaohui Chen, Xiaoyan Quan, Guoping Zhang
BACKGROUND: The interest has been increasing on the phenolic compounds in plants because of their nutritive function as food and the roles regulating plant growth. However, their underlying genetic mechanism in barley is still not clear. RESULTS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (FLC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) in 67 cultivated and 156 Tibetan wild barley genotypes. Most markers associated with phenolic content were different in cultivated and wild barleys...
January 25, 2018: BMC Genomics
Wen Xie, Xin Yang, Chunhai Chen, Zezhong Yang, Litao Guo, Dan Wang, Jinqun Huang, Hailin Zhang, Yanan Wen, Jinyang Zhao, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Brad S Coates, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MED/Q and MEAM1/B, are two economically important invasive species that cause considerable damages to agriculture crops through direct feeding and indirect vectoring of plant pathogens. Recently, a draft genome of B. tabaci MED/Q has been assembled. In this study, we focus on the genomic comparison between MED/Q and MEAM1/B, with a special interest in MED/Q's genomic signatures that may contribute to the highly invasive nature of this emerging insect pest...
January 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
Dan-Dan Wang, Yan Jin, Chao Wang, Yeon-Ju Kim, Zuly Elizabeth Jimenez Perez, Nam In Baek, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Josua Markus, Deok-Chun Yang
Background: Ginsenoside F1 has been described to possess skin-whitening effects on humans. We aimed to synthesize a new ginsenoside derivative from F1 and investigate its cytotoxicity and melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16BL6 cells using recombinant glycosyltransferase enzyme. Glycosylation has the advantage of synthesizing rare chemical compounds from common compounds with great ease. Methods: UDP-glycosyltransferase (BSGT1) gene from Bacillus subtilis was selected for cloning...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Longhai Dai, Jiao Li, Jiangang Yang, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Yi Cai, Caixia Dong, Zhubo Dai, Xueli Zhang, Yuanxia Sun
Ginsenosides are the principally bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng and possess diverse notable pharmacological activities. UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glycosylation of C6-OH and/or C20-OH of protopanaxatriol (PPT) is the prominent biological modification that contributes to the immense structural and functional diversity of PPT-type ginsenosides. In this study, glycosylation of PPT and PPT-type ginsenosides was achieved using a promiscuous glycosyltransferase (Bs-YjiC) from Bacillus subtilis 168...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Eva Knoch, Satoko Sugawara, Tetsuya Mori, Ryo Nakabayashi, Kazuki Saito, Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara
UGT79B31 encodes flavonol 3- O -glycoside: 2″- O -glucosyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for the terminal modification of pollen-specific flavonols in Petunia hybrida. Flavonoids are known to be involved in pollen fertility in petunia (P. hybrida) and maize (Zea mays). As a first step toward elucidating the role of flavonoids in pollen, we have identified a glycosyltransferase that is responsible for the terminal modification of petunia pollen-specific flavonoids. An in silico search of the petunia transcriptome database revealed four candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes...
December 6, 2017: Planta
Bo Fan, Tianyi Chen, Sen Zhang, Bin Wu, Bingfang He
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xuecheng Zhao, Xinlong Dai, Liping Gao, Lina Guo, Juhua Zhuang, Yajun Liu, Xiubing Ma, Rui Wang, Tao Xia, Yunsheng Wang
Polyphenols are one of the largest groups of compounds that confer benefits to the health of plants and humans. Flavonol glycosides are a major ingredient of polyphenols in Camellia sinensis. Flavonol-3-O-glycosides are characteristic astringent taste compounds in tea infusion. A polyphenolic glycosyltransferase (CsUGT72AM1) belonging to cluster IIIb was isolated from the tea plant. The full-length cDNA of CsUGT72AM1 is 1416 bp. It encodes 472 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 50.92 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Karl M Wetterhorn, Kaitlyn Gabardi, Herbert Michlmayr, Alexandra Malachova, Mark Busman, Susan P McCormick, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam, Ivan Rayment
Family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) in plants primarily form glucose conjugates of small molecules and, besides other functions, play a role in detoxification of xenobiotics. Indeed, overexpression of a barley UGT in wheat has been shown to control Fusarium head blight, which is a plant disease of global significance that leads to reduced crop yields and contamination with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin, and many other structural variants. The UGT Os79 from rice has emerged as a promising candidate for inactivation of mycotoxins because of its ability to glycosylate DON, nivalenol, and hydrolyzed T-2 toxin (HT-2)...
December 19, 2017: Biochemistry
Jiang Xu, Yang Chu, Baosheng Liao, Shuiming Xiao, Qinggang Yin, Rui Bai, He Su, Linlin Dong, Xiwen Li, Jun Qian, Jingjing Zhang, Yujun Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Mingli Wu, Jie Zhang, Guozheng Li, Lei Zhang, Zhenzhan Chang, Yuebin Zhang, Zhengwei Jia, Zhixiang Liu, Daniel Afreh, Ruth Nahurira, Lianjuan Zhang, Ruiyang Cheng, Yingjie Zhu, Guangwei Zhu, Wei Rao, Chao Zhou, Lirui Qiao, Zhihai Huang, Yung-Chi Cheng, Shilin Chen
Ginseng, which contains ginsenosides as bioactive compounds, has been regarded as an important traditional medicine for several millennia. However, the genetic background of ginseng remains poorly understood, partly because of the plant's large and complex genome composition. We report the entire genome sequence of Panax ginseng using next-generation sequencing. The 3.5-Gb nucleotide sequence contains more than 60% repeats and encodes 42 006 predicted genes. Twenty-two transcriptome datasets and mass spectrometry images of ginseng roots were adopted to precisely quantify the functional genes...
November 1, 2017: GigaScience
Karel Miettinen, Sabrina Iñigo, Lukasz Kreft, Jacob Pollier, Christof De Bo, Alexander Botzki, Frederik Coppens, S Ren Bak, Alain Goossens
Triterpenes constitute a large and important class of plant natural products with diverse structures and functions. Their biological roles range from membrane structural components over plant hormones to specialized plant defence compounds. Furthermore, triterpenes have great potential for a variety of commercial applications such as vaccine adjuvants, anti-cancer drugs, food supplements and agronomic agents. Their biosynthesis is carried out through complicated, branched pathways by multiple enzyme types that include oxidosqualene cyclases, cytochrome P450s, and UDP-glycosyltransferases...
October 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Simon Snoeck, Robert Greenhalgh, Luc Tirry, Richard M Clark, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Wannes Dermauw
Synergists can counteract metabolic insecticide resistance by inhibiting detoxification enzymes or transporters. They are used in commercial formulations of insecticides, but are also frequently used in the elucidation of resistance mechanisms. However, the effect of synergists on genome-wide transcription in arthropods is poorly understood. In this study we used Illumina RNA-sequencing to investigate genome-wide transcriptional responses in an acaricide resistant strain of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae upon exposure to synergists such as S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), diethyl maleate (DEM), piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and cyclosporin A (CsA)...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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