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Emil Zeuthen, Michael J Gullans, Mohammad F Maghrebi, Alexey V Gorshkov
Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of a large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
F Arnold, A Isidori, E Kampert, B Yager, M Eschrig, J Saunders
Graphite is a model system for the study of three-dimensional electrons and holes in the magnetic quantum limit, in which the charges are confined to the lowest Landau levels. We report magneto-transport measurements in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T, which resolve the collapse of two charge density wave states in two, electron and hole, Landau levels at 52.3 and 54.2 T, respectively. We report evidence for a commensurate charge density wave at 47.1 T in the electron Landau level, and discuss the likely nature of the density wave instabilities over the full field range...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ely D Kovetz
Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been suggested as a candidate for making up some or all of the dark matter in the Universe. Most of the theoretically possible mass range for PBH dark matter has been ruled out with various null observations of expected signatures of their interaction with standard astrophysical objects. However, current constraints are significantly less robust in the 20  M_{⊙}≲M_{PBH}≲100  M_{⊙} mass window, which has received much attention recently, following the detection of merging black holes with estimated masses of ∼30  M_{⊙} by LIGO and the suggestion that these could be black holes formed in the early Universe...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Johan F Triana, Daniel Pelaez Ruiz, Jose Luis Sanz-Vicario
The quantum photodynamics of a simple diatomic molecule with a permanent dipole immersed within an optical cavity containing a quantized radiation field is studied in detail. The chosen molecule under study, lithium fluoride (LiF), is characterized by the presence of an avoided crossing between the two lowest 11Σ potential energy curves (covalent-ionic diabatic crossing). Without field, after prompt excitation from the ground state 11Σ, the excited nuclear wave packet moves back and forth in the upper 21Σ state, but in the proximity of the avoided crossing, the non-adiabatic coupling transfers part of the nuclear wave packet to the lower 11Σ state, which eventually leads to dissociation...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Naomi F Bramhall, Dawn Konrad-Martin, Garnett P McMillan
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave I amplitude is associated with measures of auditory perception in young people with normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and varying levels of noise exposure history. DESIGN: Tinnitus, loudness tolerance, and speech perception ability were measured in 31 young military Veterans and 43 non-Veterans (19 to 35 years of age) with normal pure-tone thresholds and DPOAEs. Speech perception was evaluated in quiet using Northwestern University Auditory Test (NU-6) word lists and in background noise using the words in noise (WIN) test...
January 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
James J Morrow, Ian Bayles, Alister P W Funnell, Tyler E Miller, Alina Saiakhova, Michael M Lizardo, Cynthia F Bartels, Maaike Y Kapteijn, Stevephen Hung, Arnulfo Mendoza, Gursimran Dhillon, Daniel R Chee, Jay T Myers, Frederick Allen, Marco Gambarotti, Alberto Righi, Analisa DiFeo, Brian P Rubin, Alex Y Huang, Paul S Meltzer, Lee J Helman, Piero Picci, Henri Versteeg, John Stamatoyannopolus, Chand Khanna, Peter C Scacheri
Metastasis results from a complex set of traits acquired by tumor cells, distinct from those necessary for tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate the contribution of enhancer elements to the metastatic phenotype of osteosarcoma. Through epigenomic profiling, we identify substantial differences in enhancer activity between primary and metastatic human tumors and between near isogenic pairs of highly lung metastatic and nonmetastatic osteosarcoma cell lines. We term these regions metastatic variant enhancer loci (Met-VELs)...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
Jeremy J Thaden, Joseph F Malouf, Vuyisile T Nkomo, Sorin V Pislaru, David R Holmes, Guy S Reeder, Charanjit S Rihal, Mackram F Eleid
BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation is a heterogeneous disease. Determining which patients derive optimal outcomes from transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TMVR) remains challenging. We sought to determine whether baseline mitral valve anatomic characteristics are predictive of left atrial pressure (LAP) changes during TMVR with MitraClip. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients with severe mitral regurgitation undergoing TMVR (n=112) underwent continuous intraprocedural LAP monitoring and retrospective echocardiographic analysis for specific mitral anatomic characteristics...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
E H Bos, M Ten Have, S van Dorsselaer, B F Jeronimus, R de Graaf, P de Jonge
BACKGROUND: The vulnerability hypothesis suggests that impairments after remission of depressive episodes reflect a pre-existing vulnerability, while the scar hypothesis proposes that depression leaves residual impairments that confer risk of subsequent episodes. We prospectively examined vulnerability and scar effects in mental and physical functioning in a representative Dutch population sample. METHODS: Three waves were used from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a population-based study with a 6-years follow-up...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
B Li, C Q Xu, W Zhou, W H Jiao, R Sankar, F M Zhang, H H Hou, X F Jiang, B Qian, B Chen, A F Bangura, Xiaofeng Xu
Superconductivity in noncentrosymmetric compounds has attracted sustained interest in the last decades. Here we present a detailed study on the transport, thermodynamic properties and the band structure of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor La 7 Ir 3 (T c  ~ 2.3 K) that was recently proposed to break the time-reversal symmetry. It is found that La7Ir3 displays a moderately large electronic heat capacity (Sommerfeld coefficient γ n  ~ 53.1 mJ/mol K2) and a significantly enhanced Kadowaki-Woods ratio (KWR ~32 μΩ cm mol2 K2 J-2) that is greater than the typical value (~10 μΩ cm mol2 K2 J-2) for strongly correlated electron systems...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Angelos Xomalis, Iosif Demirtzioglou, Eric Plum, Yongmin Jung, Venkatram Nalla, Cosimo Lacava, Kevin F MacDonald, Periklis Petropoulos, David J Richardson, Nikolay I Zheludev
Recently, coherent control of the optical response of thin films in standing waves has attracted considerable attention, ranging from applications in excitation-selective spectroscopy and nonlinear optics to all-optical image processing. Here, we show that integration of metamaterial and optical fibre technologies allows the use of coherently controlled absorption in a fully fiberized and packaged switching metadevice. With this metadevice, which controls light with light in a nanoscale plasmonic metamaterial film on an optical fibre tip, we provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of logical functions XOR, NOT and AND that are performed within a coherent fibre network at wavelengths between 1530 and 1565 nm...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
D F Agterberg, T Shishidou, J O'Halloran, P M R Brydon, M Weinert
Monolayer FeSe exhibits the highest transition temperature among the iron based superconductors and appears to be fully gapped, seemingly consistent with s-wave superconductivity. Here, we develop a theory for the superconductivity based on coupling to fluctuations of checkerboard magnetic order (which has the same translation symmetry as the lattice). The electronic states are described by a symmetry based k·p-like theory and naturally account for the states observed by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Han Jia, Lijun Lu, Yiqing Cao
A calculation program of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a fish-eye lens is developed with the autocorrelation method, in which the sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultra-wide-angle optical systems is used to simulate the wave aberration distribution at the exit pupil of the optical systems. The autocorrelation integral is processed with the Gauss-Legendre integral, and the magnification chromatic aberration is discussed to calculate polychromatic MTF. The MTF calculation results of a given example are then compared with those previously obtained based on the fourth-order wave aberration theory of plane-symmetrical optical systems and with those from the Zemax program...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Angel A Duran-Ledezma, Damián Jacinto-Méndez, Luis F Rojas-Ochoa
We present a combined experimental, theoretical, and numerical study of photon transport and microscopic dynamics in rigid and drying turbid thin films. Our setup is based in multispeckle diffusing wave spectroscopy and is adapted for frequency sweep of the illuminating source. We apply our approach to simultaneously monitor the changes in optical properties and microscopic dynamics of turbid thin films of rutile TiO2 powder dispersed in ethanol during the full drying process. Accordingly, we introduce an extension of the photon diffusion model for spectral speckle intensity correlations to account for system microscopic dynamics...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Thomas Lykke Christiansen, Imran Khan Niazi, Kelly Holt, Rasmus Wiberg Nedergaard, Jens Duehr, Kathryn Allen, Paul Marshall, Kemal S Türker, Jan Hartvigsen, Heidi Haavik
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation (SM) increases strength and cortical drive in the lower limb (soleus muscle) of elite Taekwondo athletes. METHODS: Soleus-evoked V-waves, H-reflex and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexors were recorded from 11 elite Taekwondo athletes using a randomized controlled crossover design. Interventions were either SM or passive movement control...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Dnyaneshwar B Gophane, Burkhard Endeward, Thomas F Prisner, Snorri Th Sigurdsson
A new isoindoline-derived benzimidazole nitroxide spin label, ImUm, was synthesized and incorporated into RNA oligoribonucleotides. ImUm is the first example of a conformationally unambiguous spin label for RNA, in which the nitroxide N-O bond lies on the same axis as the single bond used to attach the rigid isoindoline-based spin label to a uridine base. This results in minimal displacement of the nitroxide upon rotation of this single bond, which is a useful property for a label to be used for distance measurements...
January 12, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Nicole Larson, Ann F Haynos, Christina A Roberto, Katie A Loth, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that calorie information on restaurant menus does not similarly influence the ordering decisions of all population groups and may have unintended consequences for individuals who struggle with disordered eating or other weight-related concerns. OBJECTIVE: This study describes demographic patterns in the use of calorie information on restaurant menus and investigates relationships between using this information to limit calorie intake and measures of restaurant visit frequency and weight-related concerns and behavior...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Hester van Herk, Pieter C Schoonees, Patrick J F Groenen, Joost van Rosmalen
Values are central to public debates today. Human values convey broad goals that serve as guiding principles in a person's life and value priorities differ across people in society. Groups in society holding opposing values (e.g., universalism versus security) will make different choices when voting in an election. Whereas over time, values are relatively stable, the number and type of political parties as well as the political values they communicate and disseminate have been changing. Groups of people holding the same human values may therefore vote for another (new) party in a later election...
2018: PloS One
Shuyan Zhu, Hao Tian, Nan Wang, Bin Chen, Yiyong Mai, Xinliang Feng
This study develops a novel strategy, based on block copolymer self-assembly in solution, for preparing two-dimensional (2D) graphene-based mesoporous nanohybrids with well-defined large pores of tunable sizes, by employing polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) spherical micelles as the pore-creating template. The resultant 2D nanohybrids possess a sandwich-like structure with Fe2 O3 nanoparticle-embedded mesoporous polypyrrole (PPy) monolayers grown on both sides of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets (denoted as mPPy-Fe2 O3 @rGO)...
January 11, 2018: Small
L Elkrief, M Ronot, F Andrade, M Dioguardi Burgio, T Issoufaly, M Zappa, O Roux, J Bissonnette, A Payancé, D Lebrec, C Francoz, O Soubrane, D Valla, F Durand, V Vilgrain, L Castera, P-E Rautou
BACKGROUND: Two algorithms based on sequential measurements of liver and spleen stiffness using two-dimensional shearwave elastography (2D-SWE) have been recently proposed to estimate clinically significant portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] ≥10 mm Hg) in patients with cirrhosis, with excellent diagnostic accuracy. AIM: To validate externally these algorithms in a large cohort of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-one patients with stable cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A 39%, B 29% and C 31%) who underwent liver and spleen stiffness measurements using 2D-SWE at the time of HVPG measurement were included...
January 11, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zhanghan Wu, Maohan Su, Cheesan Tong, Min Wu, Jian Liu
Immune cells exhibit stimulation-dependent traveling waves in the cortex, much faster than typical cortical actin waves. These waves reflect rhythmic assembly of both actin machinery and peripheral membrane proteins such as F-BAR domain-containing proteins. Combining theory and experiments, we develop a mechanochemical feedback model involving membrane shape changes and F-BAR proteins that render the cortex an interesting dynamical system. We show that such cortical dynamics manifests itself as ultrafast traveling waves of cortical proteins, in which the curvature sensitivity-driven feedback always constrains protein lateral diffusion in wave propagation...
January 10, 2018: Nature Communications
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