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Thyrotropin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101489/correction-of-hypothyroidism-leads-to-change-in-lean-body-mass-without-altering-insulin-resistance
#1
Sangeetha Sirigiri, Suresh Vaikkakara, Alok Sachan, P V L N Srinivasarao, Sunil Epuri, Sailaja Anantarapu, Arun Mukka, Srinivasa Rao Chokkapu, Ashok Venkatanarasu, Ravi Poojari
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and abnormal body composition. This study assessed changes in body composition and insulin resistance after thyroxine (T4) replacement in overt hypothyroidism. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study carried out in a tertiary care center, adult nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism were rendered euthyroid on T4. Anthropometry including skinfold thickness (SFT) at the triceps and subscapularis was recorded...
December 2016: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100628/external-validation-of-the-great-score-to-predict-relapse-risk-in-graves-disease-results-from-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-with-741-patients
#2
Tristan Struja, Marina Kaeslin, Fabienne Boesiger, Rebecca Jutzi, Noemi Imahorn, Alexander Kutz, Luca Bernasconi, Esther Mundwiler, Beat Mueller, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Fabian Meienberg, Fahim Ebrahimi, Christoph Henzen, Stefan Fischli, Marius Kraenzlin, Christian Meier, Philipp Schuetz
CONTEXT: First line treatment in Graves' disease is often done with antithyroid agents (ATD) but relapse rates remain high making definite treatment necessary. Predictors for relapse risk help guiding initial treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to externally validate the prognostic accuracy of the recently proposed Graves' Recurrent Events After Therapy [GREAT] score to predict relapse risk in Graves` disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively analyzed data (2004-2014) of patients with a first episode of Graves' hyperthyroidism from four Swiss endocrine outpatient clinics...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099999/high-level-intrathymic-thyrotropin-receptor-expression-in-thyroiditis-prone-mice-protects-against-the-spontaneous-generation-of-pathogenic-thyrotropin-receptor-autoantibodies
#3
Sandra M McLachlan, Holly A Aliesky, Bianca Banuelos, Sylvie Lesage, Roxanne Collin, Basil Rapoport B
The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) A-subunit is the autoantigen targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies that cause Graves' hyperthyroidism, a common autoimmune disease in humans. Previously, we reported that pathogenic TSHR antibodies develop spontaneously in thyroiditis-susceptible NOD.H2(h4) mice bearing a human TSHR A-subunit transgene which is expressed at low levels in both the thyroid and thymus (Lo-expressor transgene). The present study tested recent evidence that high intrathymic TSHR expression protects against the development of pathogenic TSHR antibodies in humans...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073937/activity-of-tachykinin1-expressing-pet1-raphe-neurons-modulates-the-drive-to-breathe
#4
Morgan L Hennessy, Andrea Corcoran, Rachael D Brust, Eugene E Nattie, Susan Dymecki
: Homeostatic control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature relies on circuits within the brainstem modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Mounting evidence points to specialized neuronal subtypes within the 5-HT system, which have borne out in functional studies, including the modulation of distinct facets of homeostatic control. These functional differences, read out at the organismal level, are likely subserved by differences among 5-HT neuron subtypes at the cellular and molecular levels, including differences in the capacity to co-express other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and substance P encoded by the Tachykinin-1 (Tac1) gene...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073129/alternative-treatment-strategies-in-women-poorly-tolerating-moderate-doses-of-bromocriptine
#5
Robert Krysiak, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
Background: Metformin as well as dopaminergic agents exert a beneficial effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, often impaired in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare metabolic- and prolactin-lowering effects of low-dose bromocriptine/metformin combination therapy and cabergoline in patients with elevated prolactin levels. Methods: The study included 27 women with hyperprolactinemia and impaired glucose tolerance who were treated with moderate doses of bromocriptine but experienced adverse effects of this treatment...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073128/the-effect-of-vitamin-d-on-thyroid-autoimmunity-in-levothyroxine-treated-women-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-and-normal-vitamin-d-status
#6
Robert Krysiak, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
Background: Low vitamin D status is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. Oral vitamin D supplementation was found to reduce titers of thyroid antibodies in levothyroxine-treated women with postpartum thyroiditis and low vitamin D status. Methods: The study included 34 women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and normal vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL) who had been treated for at least 6 months with levothyroxine. On the basis of patient preference, women were divided into 2 groups, receiving (n=18) or not receiving (n=16) oral vitamin D preparations (2000 IU daily)...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065941/di2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-disrupts-thyroid-hormone-homeostasis-through-activating-the-ras-akt-trhr-pathway-and-inducing-hepatic-enzymes
#7
Hanfeng Ye, Mei Ha, Min Yang, Ping Yue, Zhengyuan Xie, Changjiang Liu
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widespread environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor, can disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs). In order to elucidate roles of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and hepatic enzymes in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage for 30 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP with NAC, k-Ras siRNA or inhibitors (U0126 and wortmannin). Results showed that DEHP led to histopathologic changes in rat thyroid and liver, such as the decrease in thyroid follicular cavity diameter, hepatocyte edema...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065164/plasma-proteome-and-metabolome-characterization-of-an-experimental-human-thyrotoxicosis-model
#8
Maik Pietzner, Beatrice Engelmann, Tim Kacprowski, Janine Golchert, Anna-Luise Dirk, Elke Hammer, K Alexander Iwen, Matthias Nauck, Henri Wallaschofski, Dagmar Führer, Thomas F Münte, Nele Friedrich, Uwe Völker, Georg Homuth, Georg Brabant
BACKGROUND: Determinations of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) represent the gold standard in evaluation of thyroid function. To screen for novel peripheral biomarkers of thyroid function and to characterize FT4-associated physiological signatures in human plasma we used an untargeted OMICS approach in a thyrotoxicosis model. METHODS: A sample of 16 healthy young men were treated with levothyroxine for 8 weeks and plasma was sampled before the intake was started as well as at two points during treatment and after its completion, respectively...
January 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063130/glucocorticoids-curtail-stimuli-induced-creb-phosphorylation-in-trh-neurons-through-interaction-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-with-the-catalytic-subunit-of-protein-kinase-a
#9
Israim Sotelo-Rivera, Antonieta Cote-Vélez, Rosa-María Uribe, Jean-Louis Charli, Patricia Joseph-Bravo
PURPOSE: Corticosterone prevents cold-induced stimulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh) expression in rats, and the stimulatory effect of dibutyryl cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (dB-cAMP) on Trh transcription in hypothalamic cultures. We searched for the mechanism of this interference. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analyses of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) were performed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of Wistar rats, and in cell cultures of 17-day old rat hypothalami, or neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061802/thyrotropin-producing-pituitary-adenoma-simultaneously-existing-with-graves-disease-a-case-report
#10
Nobuhiko Arai, Makoto Inaba, Takamasa Ichijyo, Hiroshi Kagami, Yutaka Mine
BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin-producing pituitary tumor is relatively rare. In particular, concurrent cases associated with Graves' disease are extremely rare and only nine cases have been reported so far. We describe a case of a thyrotropin-producing pituitary adenoma concomitant with Graves' disease, which was successfully treated. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old Japanese woman presented with mild signs of hyperthyroidism. She had positive anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057099/-the-surgery-of-thyrotropin-secreting-pituitary-adenomas-and-the-significance-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-level-in-follow-up
#11
Y Y Yang, H Liu, A Hu, Y Zou, B Xing, Y Yao, R Z Wang, W Lian
Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas and the effect of the transsphenoidal approach of procedure with/without drug treatment for thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas, and to investigate the correlation between the prognosis of thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas and the postoperative level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Methods: A total of 45 patients with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma who hospitalized in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2000 to 2015 were enrolled in the study...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054989/effects-of-long-term-in-vivo-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexylphthalate-on-thyroid-hormones-and-the-tsh-tshr-signaling-pathways-in-wistar-rats
#12
Xinwen Dong, Jin Dong, Yue Zhao, Jipeng Guo, Zhanju Wang, Mingqi Liu, Yunbo Zhang, Xiaolin Na
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a widely used chemical with human toxicity. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that DEHP-exposure may be associated with altered serum thyroid hormones (THs) levels, but the underlying molecular mechanisms were largely unknown. To explore the possible molecular mechanisms, 128 Wistar rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 3 months (M) and 6 M, respectively. After exposure, expression of genes and proteins in the thyroid, pituitary, and hypothalamus tissues of rats were analyzed by Q-PCR and western blot, while the sera and urine samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay and ELISA...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040402/subclinical-hypothyroidism-lipid-metabolism-and-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Alessandro P Delitala, Giuseppe Fanciulli, Margherita Maioli, Giuseppe Delitala
Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined by elevated serum thyrotropin in presence of normal free thyroid hormones. Lipid metabolism is influenced by thyroid hormone and many reports showed that lipids status worsen along with TSH level. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors such as alteration in blood pressure and increased atherosclerosis. Further evidences suggested that mild dysfunction of thyroid gland is associated with metabolic syndrome and heart failure. Thyrotropin level seems the best predictor of cardiovascular disease, in particular when its levels are above 10mU/L...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034692/vitamin-d-and-thyrotropin-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#14
José María Calvo-Romero, José Manuel Ramiro-Lozano
Vitamin D status and thyroid function may be related. Using our data from two previous studies in type 2 diabetic patients, we found slightly higher serum thyrotropin levels in patients with vitamin D deficiency (at the limit of statistical significance) and no effect of correction of vitamin D deficiency in serum thyrotropin levels.
December 13, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012610/secondary-to-excessive-melatonin-synthesis-the-consumption-of-tryptophan-from-outside-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-melatonin-over-signaling-in-the-pars-tuberalis-may-be-central-to-the-pathophysiology-of-winter-depression
#15
José Carlos Pereira, Márcia Pradella Hallinan, Rosana Cardoso Alves
Seasonal affective disorder is defined as recurrent episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania with seasonal onset and remission. In this class of mood disturbances, a unipolar major depressive disorder known as winter depression is common in populations living in northern latitudes far from the equator. Winter depression repeatedly occurs in the autumn or winter and remits in the spring or summer, and its etiopathogenesis is currently unknown. However, one can surmise that excessive melatonin production during the reduced duration of daily sunlight in the autumn and winter plays a role in its pathophysiology...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002738/construction-of-structural-mimetics-of-the-thyrotropin-receptor-intracellular-domain
#16
Olga Press, Tatiana Zvagelsky, Maria Vyazmensky, Gunnar Kleinau, Stanislav Engel
The signaling of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is dictated by the complementary responsiveness of interacting intracellular effectors such as G proteins. Many GPCRs are known to couple to more than one G protein subtype and induce a multitude of signaling pathways, although the in vivo relevance of particular pathways is mostly unrecognized. Dissecting GPCR signaling in terms of the pathways that are activated will boost our understanding of the molecular fundamentals of hormone action. The structural determinants governing the selectivity of GPCR/G protein coupling, however, remain obscure...
December 20, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990106/localization-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression-in-larvae-of-an-echinoderm-the-starfish-asterias-rubens
#17
Tatiana D Mayorova, Shi Tian, Weigang Cai, Dean C Semmens, Esther A Odekunle, Meet Zandawala, Yusef Badi, Matthew L Rowe, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s) that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987211/inhibiting-thyrotropin-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-crosstalk-to-treat-graves-ophthalmopathy-studies-in-orbital-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#18
Robert F Place, Christine C Krieger, Susanne Neumann, Marvin C Gershengorn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Crosstalk between the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) and the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) initiated by activation of TSHR may play a prominent role in the development of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Specifically, we have shown that TSHR activation alone is sufficient to stimulate hyaluronan (HA) secretion, a major component of GO, through both IGF-1R-dependent and -independent pathways. Although an anti-IGF-1R antibody is in clinical trial, its effectiveness hinges on the relative importance of IGF-1R versus TSHR signaling in GO pathogenesis...
December 17, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986127/irisin-and-myostatin-levels-in-patients-with-graves-disease
#19
Mehmet Muhittin Yalcin, Mujde Akturk, Yusuf Tohma, Ethem Turgay Cerit, Alev Eroglu Altinova, Emre Arslan, Ilhan Yetkin, Fusun Balos Toruner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Skeletal muscle system, which is one of the primary targets for thyroid hormones, has an important role in energy metabolism. Some myokines such as irisin and myostatin have considerable effects on energy metabolism in addition to the musculoskeletal system. Our aim was to investigate circulating irisin and myostatin levels in patients with Graves' Disease (GD). METHODS: This study included 41 patients with GD who were in overt hyperthyroid status and 44 healthy subjects...
August 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939247/salsalate-treatment-following-traumatic-brain-injury-reduces-inflammation-and-promotes-a-neuroprotective-and-neurogenic-transcriptional-response-with-concomitant-functional-recovery
#20
Mouna Lagraoui, Gauthaman Sukumar, Joseph R Latoche, Sean K Maynard, Clifton L Dalgard, Brian C Schaefer
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI induces rapid activation of astrocytes and microglia, infiltration of peripheral leukocytes, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. In the context of modest or severe TBI, such inflammation contributes to tissue destruction and permanent brain damage. However, it is clear that the inflammatory response is also necessary to promote post-injury healing. To date, anti-inflammatory therapies, including the broad class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have met with little success in treatment of TBI, perhaps because these drugs have inhibited both the tissue-damaging and repair-promoting aspects of the inflammatory response, or because inhibition of inflammation alone is insufficient to yield therapeutic benefit...
December 7, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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