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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777689/forever-young-endocrinology-of-paedomorphosis-in-the-mexican-axolotl-ambystoma-mexicanum
#1
REVIEW
Bert De Groef, Sylvia V H Grommen, Veerle M Darras
The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a salamander species that does not undergo metamorphosis, resulting in the retention of juvenile characteristics in the mature breeding stage (paedomorphosis). Here we review the endocrinological studies investigating the proximate cause of axolotl paedomorphosis with a focus on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. It is well established that axolotl paedomorphosis is a consequence of low activity of the HPT axis. The pituitary hormone thyrotropin (TSH) is capable of inducing metamorphosis in the axolotl, which indicates that all processes and interactions in the HPT axis below the pituitary level are functional, but that TSH release is impaired...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772544/antigen-specific-therapy-of-graves%C3%A2-disease-and-orbitopathy-by-induction-of-tolerance
#2
Martin Ungerer, Julia Fabbender, Hans-Peter Holthoff
Graves´ disease is an autoimmune disorder, which is characterized by stimulatory antibodies targeting the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR), resulting in hyperthyroidism and multiple organ damage. The disease can be modelled in mice using adenoviral immunizations with the extracellular A subunit of the TSHR, which induces a long-term stable disease state. TSHR binding cAMP-stimulatory antibodies, thyroid enlargement, elevated serum thyroxin levels, tachycardia, cardiac hypertrophy and orbitopathy are observed in these Ad-TSHR-immunized mice...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772543/functional-diagnostics-for-thyrotropin-hormone-receptor-autoantibodies-bioassays-prevail-over-binding-assays
#3
Simon David Lytton, Anke Schluter, Paul J Banga
Autoantibodies to the thyrotropin hormone receptor (TSH-R) are directly responsible for the hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease and mediate orbital manifestations in Graves' orbitopathy (otherwise known as thyroid eye disease). These autoantibodies are heterogeneous in their function and collectively referred to as TRAbs. Measurement of TRAbs is clinically important for diagnosis of a variety of conditions and different commercial assays with high sensitivity and specificity are available for diagnostic purposes...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771756/thyrotropin-receptor-antibodies-an-overview
#4
Anupam Kotwal, Marius Stan
PURPOSE: Thyroid autoimmunity affects approximately 5% of the population, and its investigation relies heavily on the use of autoantibodies. Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAb) play a central role in the evaluation of Graves disease (GD), Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) and pretibial myxedema (PTM). However, there is still controversy regarding overall TRAb assay diagnostic accuracy and their prognostic utility. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed the literature reporting TRAb assays and their clinical utility...
May 2, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759195/simultaneous-competitive-and-sandwich-formats-multiplexed-immunoassays-based-on-icp-ms-detection
#5
Yuqing Zhang, Gongwei Sun, Yi Zhang, Biao Huang, Zhi Xing, Sichun Zhang, Xinrong Zhang
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) based immunoassay method has been proposed in multiple immunoassays but has not been used in competitive and sandwich formats immunoassay simultaneously. The two immunoassays were usually conducted separately in clinical field depending on the size and the amount of binding sites of targets. We proposed an immunoassay method based on magnetic beads and ICP-MS detection that could be suitable for both small and large molecules. The functionalized magnetic beads were added to capture the immune complex after immune reaction...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757392/thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-child-iq-and-autistic-traits-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#6
Deborah Levie, Tim I M Korevaar, Sarah C Bath, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mario Murcia, Mercedes Espada, Mariana Dineva, Jesús M Ibarluzea, Jordi Sunyer, Henning Tiemeier, Marisa Rebagliato, Margaret P Rayman, Robin P Peeters, Mònica Guxens
Context: Low maternal free thyroxine (FT4) has been associated with poor child neurodevelopment in some single-centre studies. Evidence remains scarce for potential adverse effects of high FT4 and whether associations differ in countries with a different iodine status. Objective: To assess the association of maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy with child neurodevelopment in countries with a different iodine status. Design, Setting and Participants: Meta-analysis of individual-participant data compromising 9,036 mother-child pairs from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: INMA (Spain), Generation R (The Netherlands) and ALSPAC (United Kingdom)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754056/nitric-oxide-is-involved-in-the-hypothyroidism-with-significant-morphology-changes-in-female-wistar-rats-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-high-water-iodine-from-potassium-iodate
#7
Shengzhong Rong, Yanhui Gao, Yanmei Yang, Hanwen Shao, Akinkunmi Paul Okekunle, Chunpeng Lv, Yang Du, Hongna Sun, Yuting Jiang, Gottfried M Darko, Dianjun Sun
Epidemiological studies indicated that chronic exposure to high water iodine is associated with primary hypothyroidism (PH) and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). However, the mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we explored whether chronic exposure to high water iodine from potassium iodate (KIO3 ) can induce hypothyroidism in addition to determining if nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathogenesis. 96 female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control, I1000μg/L , I3000μg/L , I6000μg/L , N-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) and L-NAME+I6000μg/L ...
May 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752312/slit2-modulates-the-inflammatory-phenotype-of-orbit-infiltrating-fibrocytes-in-graves-disease
#8
Roshini Fernando, Ana Beatriz Diniz Grisolia, Yan Lu, Stephen Atkins, Terry J Smith
Human CD34+ fibrocytes, circulating monocyte lineage progenitor cells, have recently been implicated in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), the ocular manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). Fibrocytes express constitutive MHC class II (MHC-2) and, surprisingly, thyroglobulin (Tg) and functional thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR). Underlying expression of these thyroid proteins is the autoimmune regulator protein (AIRE). Fibrocytes respond robustly to TSH and thyroid-stimulating Igs by generating extremely high levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751401/exposure-to-pfdoa-causes-disruption-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#9
Shengnan Zhang, Xiaochun Guo, Shaoyong Lu, Nan Sang, Guangyu Li, Ping Xie, Chunsheng Liu, Liguo Zhang, Yi Xing
Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a kind of perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) with 12 carbon atoms, has an extensive industrial utilization and is widespread in both wildlife and the water environment, and was reported to have the potential to cause a disruption in the thyroid hormone system homeostasis. In this study, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to different concentrations of PFDoA (0, 0.24, 1.2, 6 mg/L) for 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). PFDoA exposure caused obvious growth restriction connected with the reduced thyroid hormones (THs) contents in zebrafish larvae, strengthening the interference effect on the growth of fish larvae...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744034/new-advances-in-understanding-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy-and-the-potential-role-for-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-receptor
#10
REVIEW
Terry J Smith
Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), a localized periocular manifestation of the autoimmune syndrome known as Graves' disease, remains incompletely understood. Discussions of its pathogenesis are generally focused on the thyrotropin receptor, the proposed role for which is supported by substantial evidence. Considerations of any involvement of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) in the disease are frequently contentious. In this brief, topically focused review, I have attempted to provide a balanced perspective based entirely on experimental results that either favor or refute involvement of IGF-IR in TAO...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742907/new-interfaces-of-thyroid-hormone-actions-with-blood-coagulation-and-thrombosis
#11
Paul J Davis, Shaker A Mousa, Geraldine P Schechter
Substantial clinical evidence indicates hyperthyroidism enhances coagulation and increases the risk of thrombosis. In vitro and clinical evidence implicate multiple mechanisms for this risk. Genomic actions of thyroid hormone as 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 ) via a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor have been implicated, but recent evidence shows that nongenomic mechanisms initiated at the receptor for L-thyroxine (T4 ) on platelet integrin αvβ3 are prothrombotic. The T4 -initiated mechanisms involve platelet activation and, in addition, cellular production of cytokines and chemokines such as CX3CL1 with procoagulatory activities...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741290/comparison-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-and-radioiodine-for-treating-toxic-thyroid-nodules
#12
Luca Giovanella, Arnoldo Piccardo, Cinzia Pezzoli, Fabiano Bini, Riccardo Ricci, Teresa Ruberto, Pierpaolo Trimboli
PURPOSE: We compared the effectiveness of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and radioiodine (RAI) to treat patients carrying toxic thyroid nodule (TTN). Normalization of serum thyrotropin (TSH) 1 year after treatment was the primary endpoint; concurrent changes in nodules' volume and scintigraphic pattern were also evaluated as secondary endpoints. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among patients ≥18 years old with TTN observed at our centre between January 1st , 2016 and December 31th , 2016 we prospectively enrolled 17 and 15 age and sex-matched patients treated with RAI and HIFU, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733815/gene-transcription-ontogeny-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-development-in-early-life-stage-fathead-minnow-and-zebrafish
#13
Lucia Vergauwen, Jenna E Cavallin, Gerald T Ankley, Chloé Bars, Isabelle J Gabriëls, Ellen D G Michiels, Krysta R Fitzpatrick, Jelena Periz-Stanacev, Eric C Randolph, Serina L Robinson, Travis W Saari, Anthony L Schroeder, Evelyn Stinckens, Joe Swintek, Steven J Van Cruchten, Evy Verbueken, Daniel L Villeneuve, Dries Knapen
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is known to play a crucial role in the development of teleost fish. However, knowledge of endogenous transcription profiles of thyroid-related genes in developing teleosts remains fragmented. We selected two model teleost species, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio), to compare the gene transcription ontogeny of the HPT axis. Control organisms were sampled at several time points during embryonic and larval development until 33 days post-fertilization...
May 4, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728200/thyroid-status-and-death-risk-in-us-veterans-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Connie M Rhee, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Vanessa Ravel, Elani Streja, Amy S You, Steven M Brunelli, Danh V Nguyen, Gregory A Brent, Csaba P Kovesdy
OBJECTIVE: Given that patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) have a disproportionately higher prevalence of hypothyroidism compared with their non-CKD counterparts, we sought to determine the association between thyroid status, defined by serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels, and mortality among a national cohort of patients with NDD-CKD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 227,422 US veterans with stage 3 NDD-CKD with 1 or more TSH measurements during the period October 1, 2004, to September 30, 2012, we first examined the association of thyroid status, defined by TSH categories of less than 0...
May 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727207/the-impact-of-autoimmunity-related-early-ovarian-aging-on-icsi-cycle-outcome
#15
Gulay Beydilli Nacak, Enis Ozkaya, Cigdem Yayla Abide, Bulent Emre Bilgic, Belgin Devranoglu, Reyyan Gokcen Iscan
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO) on the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcome in women with poor ovarian reserve but normal thyrotropin levels. A total of 300 patients with poor ovarian reserve undergoing ICSI cycle from April 2015 to December 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. Subjects were divided into two groups: Group 1: Women with early ovarian aging, Group 2: Women with age related poor ovarian reserve. All subjects underwent anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) analysis...
May 4, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725582/circulating-thyrotropin-is-upregulated-by-estradiol
#16
Salvatore Benvenga, Flavia Di Bari, Roberta Granese, Irene Borrielli, Grazia Giorgianni, Loredana Grasso, Maria Le Donne, Roberto Vita, Alessandro Antonelli
After encountering two women with serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels greater in periovulatory phase than in other days of the menstrual cycle, we hypothesized that TSH levels could be sensitive to changes in circulating estrogens in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum TSH increases after an induced acute increase of serum estradiol, and compare serum TSH increase with that of prolactin (PRL) which is a classic estradiol-upregulated pituitary hormone. In this retrospective study, we resorted to stored frozen sera from 55 women who had undergone the GnRH agonist (buserelin)-acute stimulation test of ovarian steroidogenesis...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724865/effects-of-intravenous-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-on-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake-in-human-brown-adipose-tissue-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Charlotte A Heinen, Zhi Zhang, Lars P Klieverik, Tim C de Wit, Edwin Poel, Maqsood Yaqub, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek, Peter H Bisschop, Paul van Trotsenburg, Hein Verberne, Jan Booij, Eric Fliers
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in humans is stimulated by cold and by a limited number of pharmacological agents, including β3-adrenergic agonists and bile acids. Although thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is known to activate BAT in several mammals, this has not been reported in humans. DESIGN: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, cross-over trial. METHODS: We investigated the effects of intravenous bolus administration of 400 µg TRH or 2 mL saline on BAT activity in healthy, lean men...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722836/adverse-effects-on-thyroid-of-chinese-children-exposed-to-long-term-iodine-excess-optimal-and-safe-tolerable-upper-intake-levels-of-iodine-for-7-to-14-y-old-children
#18
Wen Chen, Yixin Zhang, Yunmeng Hao, Wei Wang, Long Tan, Jiancao Bian, Elizabeth N Pearce, Michael B Zimmermann, Jun Shen, Wanqi Zhang
Background: The adverse effects of iodine excess on the thyroid in children are not well understood, and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for iodine in children is unclear. Objective: The aims of this study were to assess the effects of chronic long-term iodine excess on thyroid function in children and to explore the safe Tolerable Upper Intake Level of iodine in Chinese children. Design: A multistage cross-sectional study was conducted in 2224 children from areas with adequate to excessive iodine content in drinking water...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719374/clinical-course-of-thyroid-function-and-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy-in-patients-with-euthyroid-graves-disease
#19
Nami Suzuki, Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh, Toshiaki Kameda, Ai Yoshihara, Hidemi Ohye, Miho Suzuki, Masako Matsumoto, Yo Kunii, Kenji Iwaku, Natsuko Watanabe, Koji Mukasa, Ai Kozaki, Toshu Inoue, Kiminori Sugino, Koichi Ito
Background: Euthyroid Graves' disease (EGD) is a rare condition defined as the presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) in patients with normal thyroid function. Due to the rarity of this disease, only a limited number of studies and case reports are available for further evaluation of the characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the thyroid function, thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) and eye symptoms, and then determine whether TRAb is related to TAO in EGD patients...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716526/nkx2-5-is-expressed-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas-and-regulates-differentiation-in-thyroid-cells
#20
Ricardo Cortez Cardoso Penha, Luisa Aguirre Buexm, Fabiana Resende Rodrigues, Taciana Padilha de Castro, Maria Carolina S Santos, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato, Denise P Carvalho, Luciene C Cardoso-Weide, Andrea C F Ferreira
BACKGROUND: NKX2.5 is a transcription factor transiently expressed during thyroid organogenesis. Recently, several works have pointed out the oncogenic role of NKX2.5 in a variety of tumors. We therefore hypothesized that NKX2.5 could also play a role in thyroid cancer. METHODS: The validation of NKX2.5 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis in a Brazilian case series of 10 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. Then, the long-term prognostic value of NKX2...
May 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
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