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Juliana Maria de Mello Andrade, Natasha Maurmann, Patricia Pranke, Izabel Cristina Casanova Turatti, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Amélia T Henriques
OBJECTIVES: The hexane (HEX) and dichloromethane (DCM) fractions from Blechnum binervatum, Blechnum brasiliense and Blechnum occidentale were studied about phytochemicals and biological properties using multitarget approach. METHODS: The chemical composition was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) analysis. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated against free radicals and on lipid peroxidation. Monoamine oxidases (MAO) and cholinesterases enzymatic modulation, as well as effects on rat and human cells, were assessed...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Jacques Joubert, Germaine B Foka, Benjamin P Repsold, Douglas W Oliver, Erika Kapp, Sarel F Malan
A series of 7-substituted coumarin derivatives were designed and synthesised to display ChE and MAO-B inhibitory activity. The compounds consisted out of a coumarin structure (MAO-B inhibitor) and benzyl-, piperidine-, N-benzylpiperidine- or p-bromo-N-benzylpiperizine moiety, resembling the N-benzylpiperidine function of donepezil (ChE inhibitor), connected via an alkyl ether linkage at the 7 position. The biological assay results indicated that all the compounds (1-25) displayed selective inhibition to hMAO-B over hMAO-A, with the benzyloxy series (1-8, 10-13) showing nano-molar hMAO-B inhibition (IC50: 0...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Matic Poberznik, Miha Purg, Matej Repič, Janez Mavri, Robert Vianello
Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) A and B are flavoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of biogenic amines such as dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, which is why they have been extensively implicated in the etiology and course of various neurodegenerative disorders, and, accordingly, used as primary pharmacological targets to treat these debilitating cognitive diseases. The precise chemical mechanism through which MAOs regulate the amine concentration, which is vital for the development of novel inhibitors, is still not unambiguously determined in the literature...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Koichi Takao, Takayuki Saito, Daisuke Chikuda, Yoshiaki Sugita
A series of 2-azolylchromone derivatives were synthesized and their monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B inhibitory activities were evaluated. Of the synthesized compounds, compounds 1b, 2b, 4a-c, 5b and 7b showed potent inhibitory activities against MAO-A (IC50 values, 1b: 0.32 µM; 2b: 0.14 µM; 4a: 0.11 µM; 4b: 0.023 µM; 4c: 0.15 µM; 5b: 0.59 µM; 7b: 0.19 µM) and 4a, c, 5a, c, 6c and 8c for MAO-B (IC50 values, 4a: 0.028 µM; 4c: 0.019 µM; 5a: 0.73 µM; 5c: 0.28 µM; 6c: 0.28 µM; 8c: 0...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Cafer Saka
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were the first type of antidepressant developed. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, and several other disorders. Therefore, it is very important to develop efficient analytical methods for monitoring and management. There are two isoforms of monoamine oxidase, MAO-A and MAO-B. In this article, analyses of MAOIs in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids were reviewed from 2000 to the present, including all types of chromatographic, spectrophotometric, electrophoretic, and voltammetric techniques, focusing on isoniazid, tranylcypromine, moclobemide, rasagiline, and selegiline...
October 7, 2016: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Lucia Ferrazzano, Angelo Viola, Elena Lonati, Alessandra Bulbarelli, Rosario Musumeci, Clementina Cocuzza, Marco Lombardo, Alessandra Tolomelli
Among the different classes of antibiotics, oxazolidinone derivatives represent important drugs, since their unique mechanism of action overcomes commonly diffused multidrug-resistant bacteria. Anyway, the structural similarity of these molecules to monoamino oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, like toloxatone and blefoxatone, induces in many cases loss of selectivity as a major concern. A small library of compounds based on isoxazolidinone and dehydro-β-proline scaffold was designed with the aim to obtain antibacterial agents, evaluating at the same time the potential effects of structural features on MAO inhibitory behaviour...
September 4, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Wei Zhen Jia, Feng Cheng, Yin Jun Zhang, Jin Yan Ge, Shao Q Yao, Qing Zhu
A new library of flavone derivatives targeting two active sites of monoamine oxidases ("aromatic cage" and substrate cavity) were designed and synthesized using click chemistry (CuAAC reaction) between 6-N3 -2-phenyl chromones (Az1-Az2) and a series of alkynes (k1-k20). Their inhibitory activities against MAO isoforms (MAO-A and MAO-B) are evaluated. Compounds with fluorine, amide bonds, or amino bonds have shown better inhibition. The most potent flavone MAO inhibitor studied is Az2k19 (1.6 μm for MAO-A, 2...
September 26, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Magdalena S Nel, Anél Petzer, Jacobus P Petzer, Lesetja J Legoabe
In the present study a series of fifteen 2-heteroarylidene-1-indanone derivatives were synthesised and evaluated as inhibitors of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. These compounds are structurally related to series of heterocyclic chalcone derivatives which have previously been shown to act as MAO-B specific inhibitors. The results document that the 2-heteroarylidene-1-indanones are in vitro inhibitors of MAO-B, displaying IC50 values of 0.0044-1.53μM. Although with lower potencies, the derivatives also inhibit the MAO-A isoform with IC50 values as low as 0...
September 17, 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
Andreas Brunschweiger, Pierre Koch, Miriam Schlenk, Muhammad Rafehi, Hamid Radjainia, Petra Küppers, Sonja Hinz, Felipe Pineda, Michael Wiese, Jörg Hockemeyer, Jag Heer, Frédéric Denonne, Christa E Müller
Multitarget approaches, i.e., addressing two or more targets simultaneously with a therapeutic agent, are hypothesized to offer additive therapeutic benefit for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Validated targets for the treatment of Parkinson's disease are, among others, the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) and the enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Additional blockade of brain A1 ARs may also be beneficial. We recently described 8-benzyl-substituted tetrahydropyrazino[2,1-f]purinediones as a new lead structure for the development of such multi-target drugs...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Stefan Sturm, Anton Forsberg, Stephane Nave, Per Stenkrona, Nicholas Seneca, Andrea Varrone, Robert A Comley, Patrik Fazio, Candice Jamois, Ryuji Nakao, Zbigniew Ejduk, Nabil Al-Tawil, Ulrika Akenine, Christer Halldin, Niels Andreasen, Benedicte Ricci
PURPOSE: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), increased metabolism of monoamines by monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis. Inhibition of the MAO-B enzyme may restore brain levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters, reduce the formation of toxic ROS and reduce neuroinflammation (reactive astrocytosis), potentially leading to neuroprotection. Sembragiline (also referred as RO4602522, RG1577 and EVT 302 in previous communications) is a potent, selective and reversible inhibitor of MAO-B developed as a potential treatment for AD...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Kubra Cakir, Safiye Sag Erdem, Vildan Enisoglu Atalay
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of neurotransmitter amines and regulates their level. There are two forms of the enzyme with 70% similarity, known as MAO-A and MAO-B. MAO inhibitors are used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Therefore, understanding the chemical steps of MAO catalyzed amine oxidation is crucial for rational drug design. However, despite many experimental studies and recent computational efforts in the literature, the amine oxidation mechanism by MAO enzymes is still controversial...
October 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Juliana Maria de Mello Andrade, Renata Biegelmeyer, Roger Remy Dresch, Natasha Maurmann, Patrícia Pranke, Amélia T Henriques
BACKGROUND: Investigation of selected plant extracts on multi-targets related to neurodegeneration, such as monoamine oxidases (MAO), cholinesterase enzymes, and antioxidant activities (AOA) is a useful tool for identification of new scaffolds. OBJECTIVE: This work investigated biological effects of three Blechnum methanol extracts from Brazil and chemical profile of the most active sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AOA included scavenging of hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals, also lipid peroxidation inhibition...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Rona R Ramsay, Magdalena Majekova, Milagros Medina, Massimo Valoti
HIGHLIGHTS Compounds that interact with multiple targets but minimally with the cytochrome P450 system (CYP) address the many factors leading to neurodegeneration.Acetyl- and Butyryl-cholineEsterases (AChE, BChE) and Monoamine Oxidases A/B (MAO A, MAO B) are targets for Multi-Target Designed Ligands (MTDL).ASS234 is an irreversible inhibitor of MAO A >MAO B and has micromolar potency against the cholinesterases.ASS234 is a poor CYP substrate in human liver, yielding the depropargylated metabolite.SMe1EC2, a stobadine derivative, showed high radical scavenging property, in vitro and in vivo giving protection in head trauma and diabetic damage of endothelium...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Magdalena S Nel, Anél Petzer, Jacobus P Petzer, Lesetja J Legoabe
In the present study, a series of twenty-two 2-benzylidene-1-indanone derivatives were synthesised and evaluated as inhibitors of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. The 2-benzylidene-1-indanone derivatives are structurally related to a series of benzylideneindanone derivatives which has previously been found to be MAO-B inhibitors. This study finds that the 2-benzylidene-1-indanones are MAO-B specific inhibitors with IC50 values <2.74μM. Among the compounds evaluated, twelve compounds exhibited IC50<0...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Wolfgang Oertel, Jörg B Schulz
Over a period of more than 50 years, the symptomatic treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) has been optimized using pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation, and physiotherapy. The arsenal of pharmacotherapies includes L-Dopa, several dopamine agonists, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), and amantadine. In the later course of the disease, motor complications occur, at which stage different oral formulations of L-Dopa or dopamine agonists with long half-life, a transdermal application or parenteral pumps for continuous drug supply can be subscribed...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Hyun Woo Lee, Hyung Won Ryu, Myung-Gyun Kang, Daeui Park, Sei-Ryang Oh, Hoon Kim
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidation of monoamines and its two isoforms, MAO-A and MAO-B, break down neurotransmitter amines. Of the compounds isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens, (-)-maackiain (4), a pterocarpan, was found to potently and selectively inhibit human MAO-B, with an IC50 of 0.68μM, and to have a selectivity index of 126.2 for MAO-B. As compared with other herbal natural products, the IC50 value of 4 for MAO-B is one of the lowest reported to date. Genistein (1) highly, effectively and non-selectively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B with IC50 values of 3...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Mitchell Bacho, Eduardo Coelho-Cerqueira, Cristian Follmer, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Eugenio Uriarte, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez
A series of perimidinone derivatives (7H-benzo[e]perimidin-7-one) were synthesized and assessed by means of in vitro assays as human MAO inhibitors. These compounds inhibited reversibly the enzymes with inhibitory constants in the range of 2 to 20 μM. In addition, the selectivity of inhibition of the MAO isoforms seems to be significantly dependent on the presence either of heteroatom or electron donating and withdrawing groups on the perimidinone framework, which was verified by using molecular docking simulation with the crystallized MAO receptors...
August 24, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Tomás Herraiz
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium cation (MPP(+)) are selective dopaminergic neurotoxins producing Parkinsonism. MPTP is activated by monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) to MPP(+) that inhibits mitochondrial function. Molecules resembling MPTP which afford pyridinium cations are also neurotoxins. The herbicide paraquat (a bipyridinium dication) and the naturally-occurring β-carboline and isoquinoline alkaloids are structural analogues of MPTP/MPP(+). Paraquat generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing neurotoxicity by a mechanism that differs from MPTP/MPP(+)...
August 11, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Guili Huang, Fei Zhu, Yuhang Chen, Shiqiang Chen, Zhonghong Liu, Xin Li, Linlin Gan, Li Zhang, Yu Yu
A simple, rapid and reliable spectrophotometry was developed to determine monoamine oxidase (MAO). In this study, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), a classic derivatizing reagent, was used to detect MAO-dependent aldehyde production; and traditional DNPH spectrophotometry was simplified. Benzylamine and serotonin oxidation were catalyzed by MAO-B and MAO-A, respectively, to aldehydes. These were derivatized with DNPH, and the corresponding quinones were further formed by adding NaOH. These DNPH derivatives with large conjugated structures were directly measured spectrophotometrically at 465 nm and 425 nm, without the need for precipitating, washing and suspending procedures...
November 1, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Ling-Ling Li, Kun Li, Yan-Hong Liu, Hao-Ran Xu, Xiao-Qi Yu
Here we report two novel red emission fluorescent probes for the highly sensitive and selective detection of monoamine oxidase (MAO) with large Stokes shift (227 nm). Both of the probes possess solid state fluorescence and can accomplish the identification of MAO on test papers. The probe MAO-Red-1 exhibited a detection limit down to 1.2 μg mL(-1) towards MAO-B. Moreover, the cleavage product was unequivocally conformedby HPLC and LCMS and the result was in accordance with the proposed oxidative deamination mechanism...
2016: Scientific Reports
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