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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156370/a-novel-aerated-surface-flow-constructed-wetland-using-exhaust-gas-from-biological-wastewater-treatment-performance-and-mechanisms
#1
Xinwen Zhang, Zhen Hu, Jian Zhang, Jinlin Fan, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Chujun Zeng, Yiwen Wu, Siyuan Wang
In this study, a novel aerated surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) using exhaust gas from biological wastewater treatment was investigated. Compared with un-aerated SFCW, the introduction of exhaust gas into SFCW significantly improved NH4(+)-N, TN and COD removal efficiencies by 68.30 ± 2.06%, 24.92 ± 1.13% and 73.92 ± 2.36%, respectively. The pollutants removal mechanism was related to the microbial abundance and the highest microbial abundance was observed in the SFCW with exhaust gas because of the introduction of exhaust gas from sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and thereby optimizing nitrogen transformation processes...
September 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153650/performance-of-phosphogypsum-and-calcium-magnesium-phosphate-fertilizer-for-nitrogen-conservation-in-pig-manure-composting
#2
Yun Li, Wenhai Luo, Guoxue Li, Kun Wang, Xiaoyan Gong
This study investigated the performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation during pig manure composting with cornstalk as the bulking agent. Results show that phosphogypsum increased nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, but significantly reduced ammonia (NH3) emission and thus enhanced the mineral and total nitrogen (TN) contents in compost. Although N2O emission could be reduced by adding calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, NH3 emission was considerably increased, resulting in an increase in TN loss during composting...
August 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153528/modeling-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dairy-farms
#3
C Alan Rotz
Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH4 from the animals, CH4 and N2O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N2O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150782/nitrous-oxide-added-at-the-end-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-hastens-early-recovery-without-increasing-the-risk-for-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Boris Mraovic, Tatjana Simurina, Tong J Gan
BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2O) has been reported to increase the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of adding N2O at the end of isoflurane inhalational anesthesia on the recovery and incidence of PONV. Our hypothesis was that N2O would reduce the time to early recovery without increasing the incidence of PONV. METHODS: After obtaining ethics committee approval and written informed consent, 100 women at American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III and scheduled for laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy were randomized into two groups (G) according to the carrier gas: GO2 (air in 30% oxygen) and GN2O (the same mixture until the last 30 min of surgery, when 70% N2O in 30% oxygen was used)...
November 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148549/stanene-based-gas-sensors-effect-of-spin-orbit-coupling
#5
Priyanka Garg, Indrani Choudhuri, Biswarup Pathak
Density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the gas sensing properties (NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O) of pure and doped (B@, N@, and B-N@) stanene. Dispersion corrected (DFT-D3) density functional calculations show that doping improves the interaction between stanene and gas molecules. The extent of interaction between the system and gas molecules is further studied through charge density difference (CDD), electrostatic potential (ESP) and Bader charge analysis. The electronic properties of pure stanene + gases are studied with and without the effect of spin-orbit coupling...
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145764/plasma-corticosterone-epinephrine-and-norepinephrine-levels-increase-during-administration-of-nitrous-oxide-in-rats
#6
Salwa Al-Noori, Andreas Cimpan, Zoe Maltzer, Karl J Kaiyala, Douglas S Ramsay
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a gaseous drug with abuse potential. Despite its common clinical use, little is known about whether N2O administration activates the HPA axis and/or the sympathetic adrenomedullary system. The goal of this study was to determine whether 60% N2O alters plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CORT), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in male Long-Evans rats. A gas-tight swivel assembly in the lid of a gas administration chamber allowed the remote collection of blood samples from an indwelling jugular vein catheter at four time-points: baseline and at 30, 60, and 120 min during a two-hour administration of 60% N2O...
November 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145050/can-farmers-mitigate-environmental-impacts-through-combined-production-of-food-fuel-and-feed-a-consequential-life-cycle-assessment-of-integrated-mixed-crop-livestock-system-with-a-green-biorefinery
#7
Ranjan Parajuli, Tommy Dalgaard, Morten Birkved
This study evaluates environmental impacts of an integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery (GBR). System integration included production of feed crops and green biomasses (Sys-I) to meet the demand of a livestock system (Sys-III) and to process green biomasses in a GBR system (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV)...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144292/the-response-of-nitrous-oxide-emissions-to-different-operating-conditions-in-activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-southeastern-brazil
#8
Renato P Ribeiro, Rodrigo F Bueno, Roque P Piveli, Débora C Kligerman, William Z de Mello, Jaime L M Oliveira
The continuous measurements of N2O emissions from the aeration tanks of three activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated with biological nitrogen removal (BNR) and non-BNR were performed during the different operating conditions of several parameters, such as aeration, dissolved oxygen (DO) profiling and organic shock loading (with landfill leachate). The nitrification process is the main driving force behind N2O emission peaks. There are indications that the variation of the air flow rate influenced N2O emissions; high N2O emissions denote over-aeration conditions or incomplete nitrification, with accumulation of NO2(-) concentrations...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136531/long-term-effects-of-contrasting-tillage-on-soil-organic-carbon-nitrous-oxide-and-ammonia-emissions-in-a-mediterranean-vertisol-under-different-crop-sequences
#9
Giuseppe Badagliacca, Emilio Benítez, Gaetano Amato, Luigi Badalucco, Dario Giambalvo, Vito Armando Laudicina, Paolo Ruisi
This 2-year study aimed to verify whether the continuous application of no tillage (NT) for over 20years, in comparison with conventional tillage (CT), affects nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from a Vertisol and, if so, whether such an effect varies with crop sequence (continuous wheat, WW and wheat after faba bean, FW). To shed light on the mechanisms involved in determining N-gas emissions, soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), some carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and nitrous oxide reductase gene abundance (nosZ gene) were also assessed at 0-15 and 15-30cm soil depth...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128773/evaluation-of-potassium-thiosulfate-as-a-nitrification-inhibitor-to-reduce-nitrous-oxide-emissions
#10
Zejiang Cai, Suduan Gao, Minggang Xu, Bradley D Hanson
Potassium thiosulfate (KTS, K2S2O3) has been shown to function as a nitrification inhibitor, thus has the potential to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and play an important role in effective N management. The objective of this research was to determine the potential effects of KTS on N2O emissions and N transformation processes in comparison with commercial N transformation inhibitors (stabilizers). A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted using urea and ammonium nitrate (UAN) applied at 150mgNkg(-1) in a Hanford sandy loam soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Typic Xerorthents)...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128121/occurrence-of-greenhouse-gases-in-the-aquifers-of-the-walloon-region-belgium
#11
Anna Jurado, Alberto V Borges, Estanislao Pujades, Vivien Hakoun, Joël Otten, Kay Knöller, Serge Brouyère
This work aims to (1) identify the most conductive conditions for the generation of greenhouses gases (GHGs) in groundwater (e.g., hydrogeological contexts and geochemical processes) and (2) evaluate the indirect emissions of GHGs from groundwater at a regional scale in Wallonia (Belgium). To this end, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and the stable isotopes of nitrate (NO3(-)) and sulphate were monitored in 12 aquifers of the Walloon Region (Belgium). The concentrations of GHGs range from 0...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127796/effects-of-warming-on-n2o-fluxes-in-a-boreal-peatland-of-permafrost-region-northeast-china
#12
Qian Cui, Changchun Song, Xianwei Wang, Fuxi Shi, Xueyang Yu, Wenwen Tan
Climate warming is expected to increasingly influence boreal peatlands and alter their greenhouse gases emissions. However, the effects of warming on N2O fluxes and the N2O budgets were ignored in boreal peatlands. Therefore, in a boreal peatland of permafrost zone in Northeast China, a simulated warming experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of warming on N2O fluxes in Betula. Fruticosa community (B. Fruticosa) and Ledum. palustre community (L. palustre) during the growing seasons from 2013 to 2015...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126635/on-road-and-laboratory-emissions-of-no-no2-nh3-n2o-and-ch4-from-late-model-eu-light-utility-vehicles-comparison-of-diesel-and-cng
#13
Michal Vojtíšek-Lom, Vít Beránek, Vojtěch Klír, Petr Jindra, Martin Pechout, Tomáš Voříšek
Exhaust emissions of eight Euro 6 light duty vehicles - two station wagons and six vans - half powered by diesel fuel and half by compressed natural gas (CNG) were examined using both chassis dynamometer and on-road testing. A portable on-board FTIR analyzer was used to measure concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds - NO, NO2 and ammonia, of CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and greenhouse gases CO2, methane and N2O. Exhaust flow was inferred from engine control unit data. Total emissions per cycle were compared and found to be in good agreement with laboratory measurements of NOX, CO and CO2 during dynamometer tests...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122343/seasonal-variations-of-nitrous-oxide-fluxes-and-soil-denitrification-rates-in-subtropical-freshwater-and-brackish-tidal-marshes-of-the-min-river-estuary
#14
Xuming Wang, Minjie Hu, Hongchang Ren, Jiabing Li, Chuan Tong, Ronald S Musenze
Estuarine tidal marshes provide favorable conditions for nitrous oxide (N2O) production. Saltwater intrusion caused by sea-level rise would exert complex effects on the production and emission of N2O in estuarine tidal marshes; however, few studies have been conducted on its effects on N2O emissions. Salinity gradients are a common occurrence in estuarine tidal marshes. Studies on production and emission of N2O in tidal marshes with different salinities may elucidate the impact of saltwater intrusion on the emission of greenhouse gases...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117229/effects-of-tillage-practice-on-soil-structure-n2o-emissions-and-economics-in-cereal-production-under-current-socio-economic-conditions-in-central-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#15
Ognjen Žurovec, Bishal Kumar Sitaula, Hamid Čustović, Jasminka Žurovec, Peter Dörsch
Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116768/greenhouse-gas-dynamics-in-a-salt-wedge-estuary-revealed-by-high-resolution-cavity-ring-down-spectroscopy-observations
#16
Douglas R Tait, Damien Troy Maher, Wei Wen Wong, Isaac R Santos, Mahmood Sadat-Noori, Ceylena Holloway, Perran Louis Miall Cook
Estuaries are an important source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, but uncertainties remain in the flux rates and production pathways of greenhouse gases in these dynamic systems. This study performs simultaneous high resolution measurements of the three major greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane, above and below the pycnocline along a salt wedge estuary (Yarra River estuary, Australia). We identified distinct zones of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114412/methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase-deficiency-the-hidden-risk-in-paediatric-anaesthesia
#17
Zeynep Nur Orhon, Emine Nursen Koltka, Sevil Tüfekçi, Çiğdem Buldağ, Alperen Kısa, Çiğdem Ulukaya Durakbaşa, Melek Çelik
Objective: Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in increased homocysteine levels in the body. Hyperhomocysteinemia causes a predisposition to venous and arterial thrombosis and ischaemic insults. The incidence of the deficiency is around 40% in some countries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of anaesthetic agents in children with MTHFR deficiency. Methods: Twelve paediatric patients with an MTHFR enzyme deficiency who underwent surgery in a ten-month period in a single centre were retrospectively evaluated...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111244/can-conservation-tillage-reduce-n2o-emissions-on-cropland-transitioning-to-organic-vegetable-production
#18
Guihua Chen, Lauren Kolb, Michel A Cavigelli, Ray R Weil, Cerruti R R Hooks
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N2O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N2O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N2O emissions...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104694/health-effects-associated-with-exposure-to-anesthetic-gas-nitrous-oxide-n2o-in-clinical-hospital-shtip-personel
#19
Bilijana Eftimova, Marija Sholjakova, Dejan Mirakovski, Marija Hadzi-Nikolova
AIM: To show certain health effects associated with acute and chronic exposure to nitrous oxide of staff of the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care at the Clinical Hospital in Shtip. METHODS: A transversal study was conducted, that include 43 health workers (23 - exposed and 20 - unexposed). Personal exposure to nitrous oxide for this group members was assessed through continuous measurement over 8 hours shift within breathing zone of the subjects involved, using handheld electrochemical instrument with datalogging option direct...
October 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104306/-hot-spots-of-n-and-c-impact-nitric-oxide-nitrous-oxide-and-nitrogen-gas-emissions-from-a-uk-grassland-soil
#20
Nadine Loick, Elizabeth Dixon, Diego Abalos, Antonio Vallejo, Peter Matthews, Karen McGeough, Catherine Watson, Elizabeth M Baggs, Laura M Cardenas
Agricultural soils are a major source of nitric- (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O), which are produced and consumed by biotic and abiotic soil processes. The dominant sources of NO and N2O are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and emissions of NO and N2O generally increase after fertiliser application. The present study investigated the impact of N-source distribution on emissions of NO and N2O from soil and the significance of denitrification, rather than nitrification, as a source of NO emissions. To eliminate spatial variability and changing environmental factors which impact processes and results, the experiment was conducted under highly controlled conditions...
November 1, 2017: Geoderma
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