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Yili Liu, Weixin Sun, Jianguo Liu
Waste management is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and many opportunities exist to reduce these emissions. To identify the GHG emissions from waste management in China, the characteristics of MSW and the current and future treatment management strategies, five typical management scenarios were modeled by EaseTech software following the principles of life cycle inventory and analyzed based on the carbon and energy flows. Due to the high organic fraction (50-70%) and moisture content (>50%) of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW), the net GHG emissions in waste management had a significant difference from the developed countries...
June 19, 2017: Waste Management
Kang Song, Willie F Harper, Yuki Takeuchi, Masaaki Hosomi, Akihiko Terada
  This research used the detailed activated sludge model (ASM) to investigate the effect of parameter uncertainty on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from biological wastewater treatment systems. Monte Carlo simulations accounted for uncertainty in the values of the microbial growth parameters and in the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for dissolved oxygen (kLaDO), and the results show that the detailed ASM predicted N2O emission of less than 4% (typically 1%) of the total influent <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www...
July 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Jianhua Guo, Shu-Hong Gao, Ji Lu, Philip L Bond, Willy Verstraete, Zhiguo Yuan
The intensive use of metal-based nanoparticles results in their continuous release into the environment, leading to potential risks for human health and microbial ecosystems. Although previous studies have indicated that nanoparticles may be toxic to microorganisms, there is a scarcity of data available to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms of inhibitory and biocidal effects of nanoparticles on microorganisms. This study used physiological experiments, microscopy, Live/Dead staining and the genome-wide RNA sequencing to investigate the multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the exposure of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs)...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S F Balvert, J Luo, L A Schipper
New Zealand agriculture is predominantly comprised of pastoral grazing systems and deposition of animal excreta during grazing has been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Nitrification inhibitors have been shown to significantly reduce nitrous oxide emissions from grazing pastoral systems, and some plants have been identified as having nitrification inhibiting properties. Brassica crops are one such example as they contain the secondary metabolite glucosinolate (GLS) whose hydrolysis products are thought to slow soil nitrogen cycling...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rameet H Singh, Maria Montoya, Eve Espey, Lawrence Leeman
OBJECTIVES: To compare nitrous oxide with oxygen (N2O/O2) to oral hydrocodone/acetaminophen and lorazepam (oral) for analgesia during first-trimester surgical abortion. STUDY DESIGN: This double-blind randomized trial assigned women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at<11weeks' gestation to inhaled N2O/O2 vs. oral sedation for pain management. The N2O/O2 group received up to 70:30 ratio during the procedure and placebo pills pre-procedure; the oral group received inhaled oxygen during the procedure and oral hydrocodone/acetaminophen 5mg/325mg and lorazepam 1mg pre-procedure...
June 16, 2017: Contraception
Sumaraj, Lokesh P Padhye
Inorganic nitrogen contaminants (INC) (NH4(+), NO3(-), NO2(-), NH3, NO, NO2, and N2O) pose a growing risk to the environment, and their remediation methods are highly sought after. Application of carbon materials (CM), such as biochar and activated carbon, to remediate INC from agricultural fields and wastewater treatment plants has gained a significant interest since past few years. Understanding the role of surface chemistry of CM in adsorption of various INC is highly critical to increase adsorption efficiency as well as to assess the long term impact of using these highly recalcitrant CM for remediation of INC...
June 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Johannes Harter, Mohamed El-Hadidi, Daniel H Huson, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
Microbial nitrogen transformation processes such as denitrification represent major sources of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Soil biochar amendment has been shown to significantly decrease N2O emissions in various soils. However, the effect of biochar on the structure and function of microbial communities that actively perform nitrogen redox transformations has not been studied in detail yet. To analyse the community composition of actively denitrifying and N2O-reducing microbial communities, we collected RNA samples at different time points from a soil microcosm experiment conducted under denitrifying conditions and performed Illumina amplicon sequencing targeting nirK, typical nosZ and atypical nosZ mRNA transcripts...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
D Denysenko, D Volkmer
The cubic metal-organic framework MFU-4l ([Zn5Cl4(BTDD)3], H2-BTDD = bis(1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b],[4',5'-i])dibenzo[1,4]dioxin) featuring large pore apertures can be modified post-synthetically via partial or complete substitution of peripheral metal sites and chloride side-ligands, thus opening a route towards a large variety of functionalized MOFs. In this way, Ni-MFU-4l-nitrite (or Ni-MFU-4l-NO2) with an analytically determined chemical composition [Zn2.6Ni2.4(NO2)2.9Cl1.1(BTDD)3], containing accessible Ni-NO2 units, was prepared...
June 13, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Xiaopeng Chen, Genxu Wang, Tao Zhang, Tianxu Mao, Da Wei, Chunlin Song, Zhaoyong Hu, Kewei Huang
Uncertainties in the seasonal changes of greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes in wetlands limit our accurate understanding of the responses of permafrost ecosystems to future warming and increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Therefore, in an alpine swamp meadow in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a simulated warming with N fertilization experiment was conducted to investigate the key GHG fluxes (ecosystem respiration [Re], CH4 and N2O) in the early (EG), mid (MG) and late (LG) growing seasons. Results showed that warming (6...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hyun-Hwoi Ku, Keiichi Hayashi, Ruth Agbisit, Gina Villegas-Pangga
Intensively double cropping rice increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in tropical countries, and hence, finding better management practices is imperative for reducing global warming potential (GWP), while sustaining rice yield. This study demonstrated an efficient fertilizer and water management practice targeting seasonal weather conditions effects on rice productivity, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), GWP, and GHG intensity (GHGI). Two-season experiments were conducted with two pot-scale experiments using urea and urea+cattle manure (CM) under continuous flooding (CF) during the wet season (2013WS), and urea with/without CaSiO3 application under alternate wetting and drying (AWD) during the dry season (2014DS)...
June 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Naohiro Ohshita, Shoko Gamoh, Masahiko Kanazumi, Masahiro Nakajima, Yoshihiro Momota, Yasuo M Tsutsumi
A 54-year-old woman diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) at the age of 19 years was scheduled to undergo temporomandibular joint mobilization. She was currently in a remission phase from her MS but with persistent sequelae, including impaired eyesight and muscle weakness of the limbs. In addition, the blood vessels in her upper limbs were compromised by the formation of internal shunts secondary to vascular prosthesis replacements for plasma exchange therapy in MS. After a previous joint mobilization surgery, her temporomandibular joint developed adhesions with resultant trismus...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
Juan Wu, Shengzhou He, Ying Liang, Guoxue Li, Song Li, Shili Chen, Faisal Nadeem, Jingwei Hu
Previous studies revealed that phosphate, as an additive to composting, could significantly reduce NH3 emission and nitrogen loss through change of pH and nitrogen fixation to form ammonium phosphate. However, few studies have explored the influence of pH change and phosphate additive on NO x(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, NH3, and N2O, which are dominate forms of nitrogen in composting. In this study, the equimolar H3PO4, H2SO4, and K2HPO4 were added into pig manure composting to evaluate the effect of H(+) and PO4(3-) on nitrogen transformation...
June 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yimin Zhang, Longmian Wang, Wei Han, Xu Wang, Zhaobing Guo, Fuquan Peng, Fei Yang, Ming Kong, Yuexiang Gao, Jianying Chao, Dan Wu, Bin Xu, Yueming Zhu
Nitrate treatment performance and denitrification activity were compared between denitrifying biological filters (DNBFs) based on dewatered alum sludge (DAS) and neutralized used acid (NUA). The spatiotemporal distribution of denitrifying genes and the genetic potential associated with denitrification activity and nitrate removal in both DNBFs were also evaluated. The removal efficiency of NUA-DNBF increased by 8% compared with that of DAS-DNBF, and the former NUA-DNBF emitted higher amount of N2O. Analysis of abundance and composition profiles showed that denitrifying gene patterns varied more or less in two matrices with different depths at three sampling times...
June 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Shusong Zhang, Xingbin Sun, Yueting Fan, Tianlei Qiu, Min Gao, Xuming Wang
A new strain of Diaphorobacter polyhydroxybutyrativorans (strain SL-205) was recently isolated and identified. SL-205 can utilize nitrate and nitrite for denitrification and ammonium for nitrification using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the carbon source under aerobic conditions. SL-205 removed 99.11% of NH4(+)-derived N (83.90mg/L), 95.02% of NO3(-)-N (308.24mg/L), and 84.13% of NO2(-)-N (211.70mg/L), with average removal rates of 1.73mg NH4(+)-N/(L·h), 6.10mg NO3(-)-N/(L·h), and 4...
May 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Robrecht De Medts, Rik Carette, Andre M De Wolf, Jan F A Hendrickx
AGC(®) (Automatic Gas Control) is the FLOW-i's automated low flow tool (Maquet, Solna, Sweden) that target controls the inspired O2 (FIO2) and end-expired desflurane concentration (FAdes) while (by design) exponentially decreasing fresh gas flow (FGF) during wash-in to a maintenance default FGF of 300 mL min(-1). It also offers a choice of wash-in speeds for the inhaled agents. We examined AGC performance and hypothesized that the use of lower wash-in speeds and N2O both reduce desflurane usage (Vdes). After obtaining IRB approval and patient consent, 78 ASA I-II patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 13 each), depending on carrier gas (O2/air or O2/N2O) and wash-in speed (AGC speed 2, 4, or 6) of desflurane, resulting in groups air/2, air/4, air/6, N2O/2, N2O/4, and N2O/6...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Haoran Duan, Liu Ye, Dirk Erler, Bing-Jie Ni, Zhiguo Yuan
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and an ozone-depleting substance which can be emitted from wastewater treatment systems (WWTS) causing significant environmental impacts. Understanding the N2O production pathways and their contribution to total emissions is the key to effective mitigation. Isotope technology is a promising method that has been applied to WWTS for quantifying the N2O production pathways. Within the scope of WWTS, this article reviews the current status of different isotope approaches, including both natural abundance and labelled isotope approaches, to N2O production pathways quantification...
May 29, 2017: Water Research
Yuichi Saeki, Misato Nakamura, Maria Luisa T Mason, Tsubasa Yano, Sokichi Shiro, Reiko Sameshima-Saito, Manabu Itakura, Kiwamu Minamisawa, Akihiro Yamamoto
We investigated the effects of the water status (flooded or non-flooded) and presence of the nosZ gene in bradyrhizobia on the bradyrhizobial community structure in a factorial experiment that examined three temperature levels (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) and two soil types (andosol and gray lowland soil) using microcosm incubations. All microcosms were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA6(T), B. japonicum USDA123, and B. elkanii USDA76(T), which do not possess the nosZ gene, and then half received B...
June 8, 2017: Microbes and Environments
Kirsten Oswald, Jon S Graf, Sten Littmann, Daniela Tienken, Andreas Brand, Bernhard Wehrli, Mads Albertsen, Holger Daims, Michael Wagner, Marcel Mm Kuypers, Carsten J Schubert, Jana Milucka
Methane-oxidizing bacteria represent a major biological sink for methane and are thus Earth's natural protection against this potent greenhouse gas. Here we show that in two stratified freshwater lakes a substantial part of upward-diffusing methane was oxidized by filamentous gamma-proteobacteria related to Crenothrix polyspora. These filamentous bacteria have been known as contaminants of drinking water supplies since 1870, but their role in the environmental methane removal has remained unclear. While oxidizing methane, these organisms were assigned an 'unusual' methane monooxygenase (MMO), which was only distantly related to 'classical' MMO of gamma-proteobacterial methanotrophs...
June 6, 2017: ISME Journal
Devrim Coskun, Dev T Britto, Weiming Shi, Herbert J Kronzucker
The nitrogen (N)-use efficiency of agricultural plants is notoriously poor. Globally, about 50% of the N fertilizer applied to cropping systems is not absorbed by plants, but lost to the environment as ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrous oxide (N2O, a greenhouse gas with 300 times the heat-trapping capacity of carbon dioxide), raising agricultural production costs and contributing to pollution and climate change. These losses are driven by volatilization of NH3 and by a matrix of nitrification and denitrification reactions catalysed by soil microorganisms (chiefly bacteria and archaea)...
June 6, 2017: Nature Plants
Egle Köster, Kajar Köster, Frank Berninger, Heidi Aaltonen, Xuan Zhou, Jukka Pumpanen
Forest fires are one of the most important natural disturbances in boreal forests, and their occurrence and severity are expected to increase as a result of climate warming. A combination of factors induced by fire leads to a thawing of the near-surface permafrost layer in subarctic boreal forest. Earlier studies reported that an increase in the active layer thickness results in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. We studied changes in CO2, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in this study, and the significance of several environmental factors that influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at three forest sites that last had fires in 2012, 1990 and 1969, and we compared these to a control area that had no fire for at least 100years...
June 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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