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Yunxi Yao, Konstantinos P Giapis
For over 90 years, nitroxyl (HNO) has been postulated to be an important reaction intermediate in the catalytic oxidation of ammonia to NO and its by-products (N2, N2O), but never proven to form or exist on catalytic surfaces. Here we show evidence from reactive ion beam experiments that HNO can form directly on the surface of polycrystalline Pt exposed to NH3via Eley-Rideal abstraction reactions of adsorbed NH by energetic O(+) and O2(+) projectiles. The dynamic formation of HNO in a single collision followed up by prompt rebound from the surface prevents subsequent reactive interactions with other surface adsorbates and enables its detection...
October 19, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jasjeet Bhullar, Veena M Bhopale, Ming Yang, Kinjal Sethuraman, Stephen R Thom
This investigation explored the mechanism for microparticles (MPs) production by human and murine platelets exposed to high pressures of inert gases. Results demonstrate that MPs production occurs via an oxidative stress response in a dose-dependent manner and follows the potency series N2 > Ar > He. Gases with higher van der Waals volumes or polarizability such as SF6 and N2O, or hydrostatic pressure, do not cause MPs production. Singlet O2 is generated by N2, Ar and He, which is linked to NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity...
October 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Xia Zhu-Barker, Shannon K Bailey, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Martin Burger, William R Horwath
The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH4 emission of 254±76gCday(-1) dry weight (DW) Mg(-1) and lowest average N2O emission of 152±21mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N2O emissions (342±41mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Xiang Liu, Quan Wang, Zhiming Qi, Jiangang Han, Lanhai Li
In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have reported that soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can be reduced by adding biochar. However, the effect of biochar amendment on soil N2O emissions during freeze-thaw cycle (FTC) is still unknown. In this laboratory study, biochar (0%, 2% and 4%, w/w) was added into a cultivated sandy loam soil and then treated with 15 times of FTC (each FTC consisted of freeze at -5/-10 °C for 24 h and thaw at 5/10 °C for 24 h), to test whether biochar can mitigate soil N2O emissions during FTC, and estimate the relationships between N2O emissions and soil inorganic nitrogen contents/microbial biomass content/enzyme activities...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Reshma B Muniyappa, Geetha C Rajappa, Suresh Govindswamy, Prathima P Thamanna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various adjuvants have been introduced to decrease the dose of volatile agents and their side effects. Dexmedetomidine a potent alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is one such agent. Our objective is to assess the effect of preanesthetic dexmedetomidine on isoflurane consumption and its effect on intraoperative hemodynamic stability and recovery profile. SETTING AND DESIGN: This prospective, randomized controlled, double-blind study was done in a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Yun-Feng Duan, Xian-Wang Kong, Andreas Schramm, Rodrigo Labouriau, Jørgen Eriksen, Søren O Petersen
: Grassland cultivation can mobilize large pools of N in the soil, with a potential for N leaching and N2O emissions. Spraying with the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) before cultivation was simulated with soil columns where residue distribution corresponded to ploughing or rotovation, to study effects of soil-residue contact on N transformations. DMPP was sprayed on above-ground parts of ryegrass and white clover before incorporation. During a 42-day incubation, soil mineral N dynamics, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), nitrifier and denitrifier populations, and N2O emissions were investigated...
October 14, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Figen Sisman Nayal, Aydin Mammadov, Nilgun Ciliz
While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Min Kyoung Kim, Myung Sub Yi, Hyun Kang, Geun-Joo Choi
Remifentanil and nitrous oxide (N2O) are 2 commonly used anesthetic agents. Both these agents are known risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, remifentanil and N2O have not been directly compared in a published study. Remifentanil can induce acute tolerance or hyperalgesia, thus affecting postoperative pain. The objective of this retrospective study is to compare the effects of remifentanil and N2O on PONV and pain in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after thyroidectomy...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Mohd Sayeed Akhtar, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad
Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer...
October 13, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Guochun Xu, Xin Liu, Qiangsheng Wang, Xichen Yu, Yuhao Hang
Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM)...
October 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Philip B Pedros, Omid Askari, Hameed Metghalchi
During the last decade municipal wastewater treatment plants have been regulated with increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements including nitrogen. Typically biological treatment processes are employed to meet these limits. Although the nitrogen in the wastewater stream is reduced, certain steps in the biological processes allow for the release of gaseous nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas (GHG). A comprehensive study was conducted to investigate the potential to mitigate N2O emissions from biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes by means of thermal decomposition...
October 4, 2016: Water Research
Yanlong Zhang, Haiyuan Ma, Qigui Niu, Rong Chen, Toshimasa Hojo, Yu-You Li
The accumulation of soluble microbial production (SMP) in an anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) and its effect on the reactor performance were investigated in this study. During the long-term experiment, an extended HRT resulted in the accumulation of SMP and the change of treatment performance. When the SMP increased from 10.5±1.5mgL(-1) to 31.7±6.4mgL(-1) with the increase of influent TN concentration from 313mgL(-1) to 2500mgL(-1), the TN removal efficiency was stable. However, when the influent TN concentration was 3500mgL(-1), the SMP concentration increased higher than 100mgL(-1), the reactor soon became inhibited...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Hujun Xie, Yang Li, Lvtao Huang, Fangli Nong, Gerui Ren, Ting Fan, Qunfang Lei, Wenjun Fang
The detailed mechanisms of the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol with N2O as the hydrogen acceptor catalyzed by the rhodium(i) carbene complex for the formation of the corresponding carboxylic acid or ester have been investigated via density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the M06 level of theory. Three cycles were considered for the formation of benzaldehyde, benzyl benzoate and benzoic acid. On the basis of the calculations, the rate-determining step for these three cycles is involved in N2O activation by the rhodium ammine hydride complex with an activation barrier of only 22...
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Abebe Nigussie, Sander Bruun, Thomas W Kuyper, Andreas de Neergaard
Municipal waste is usually composted with an N-rich substrate, such as manure, to increase the N content of the product. This means that a significant amount of nitrogen can be lost during composting. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation...
January 2017: Chemosphere
K W T Goulding
Soil acidification is caused by a number of factors including acidic precipitation and the deposition from the atmosphere of acidifying gases or particles, such as sulphur dioxide, ammonia and nitric acid. The most important causes of soil acidification on agricultural land, however, are the application of ammonium-based fertilizers and urea, elemental S fertilizer and the growth of legumes. Acidification causes the loss of base cations, an increase in aluminium saturation and a decline in crop yields; severe acidification can cause nonreversible clay mineral dissolution and a reduction in cation exchange capacity, accompanied by structural deterioration...
September 2016: Soil Use Manag
Elyn Remy, Rainer Gasche, Ralf Kiese, Karen Wuyts, Kris Verheyen, Pascal Boeckx
Forest ecosystems may act as sinks or sources of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) compounds, such as the climate relevant trace gases nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and methane (CH4). Forest edges, which catch more atmospheric deposition, have become important features in European landscapes and elsewhere. Here, we implemented a fully automated measuring system, comprising static and dynamic measuring chambers determining N2O, NO and CH4 fluxes along an edge-to-interior transect in an oak (Q. robur) and a pine (P...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Alexander J Schmithausen, Manfred Trimborn, Wolfgang Büscher
Trace gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are climate-related gases, and their emissions from agricultural livestock barns are not negligible. Conventional measurement systems in the field (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); photoacoustic system (PAS)) are not sufficiently sensitive to N2O. Laser-based measurement systems are highly accurate, but they are very expensive to purchase and maintain. One cost-effective alternative is gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), but this is not suitable for field applications due to radiation...
October 3, 2016: Sensors
Júlia Barabás, Tibor Höltzl
Highly active catalytic clusters are observed during the reaction mechanism study of the copper cluster Cux (x = 4-15) catalyzed N2O + CO → N2 + CO2 reaction. It was shown that N2O adsorbs on the copper cluster without an activation barrier and the nitrogen-oxygen bond is broken during the next step. The analysis of the chemical bonding showed that the oxide ion formation is an important driving force of the reaction. Among the different clusters Cu12 was the most active as the nitrogen-oxygen bond is cleaved without an energy barrier, while the nitrogen molecule is eliminated...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Martin Reli, Pengwei Huo, Marcel Šihor, Nela Ambrožová, Ivana Troppová, Lenka Matějová, Jaroslav Lang, Ladislav Svoboda, Piotr Kuśtrowski, Michal Ritz, Petr Praus, Kamila Kočí
TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts with the ratio of TiO2 to g-C3N4 ranging from 0.3/1 to 2/1 were prepared by simple mechanical mixing of pure g-C3N4 and commercial TiO2 Evonik P25. All the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen physisorption. The prepared mixtures along with pure TiO2 and g-C3N4 were tested for the photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide and photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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