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R A O Nunes, M C M Alvim-Ferraz, F G Martins, S I V Sousa
In the last few years, ship emissions have attracted growing attention in the scientific community. The main reason is the constant increase of marine emissions over the last twenty years due to the intensification of port traffic. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate ship emissions (PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, CO, CO2, N2O CH4, NMVOC, and HC) through the activity-based methodology in four of the main ports of Portugal (Leixões, Setúbal, Sines and Viana do Castelo) during 2013 and 2014. The analysis was performed according to ship types (bulk carrier, container, general cargo, passenger, Ro-Ro cargo, tanker and others) and operational modes (manoeuvring, hotelling and during cruising)...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Carlos Domingo-Félez, Maria Calderó-Pascual, Gürkan Sin, Benedek G Plósz, Barth F Smets
The NDHA model comprehensively describes nitrous oxide (N2O) producing pathways by both autotrophic ammonium oxidizing and heterotrophic bacteria. The model was calibrated via a set of targeted extant respirometric assays using enriched nitrifying biomass from a lab-scale reactor. Biomass response to ammonium, hydroxylamine, nitrite and N2O additions under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were tracked with continuous measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) and N2O. The sequential addition of substrate pulses allowed the isolation of oxygen-consuming processes...
September 7, 2017: Water Research
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
It has previously been demonstrated that emissions of the agricultural pollutant, nitrous oxide (N2O), may be a confounder to the relationship between herbicide use and psychiatric impairments, including ADHD. This report attempts to extend this hypothesis by testing whether annual use of anthropogenic nitrogen-based fertilizers in U.S. agriculture (thought to be the most reliable indicator of environmental N2O emissions) is associated with per capita ethanol consumption patterns, a behavior often comorbid with ADHD...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Zhili Li, Zhen Wang, Fan Yang, Wei Jin, Wei Ren
We demonstrate mid-infrared photothermal interferometry (PTI) in a hollow-core fiber (HCF) for trace gas detection. Compared with free-space PTI, the optical intensity could be increased by orders of magnitude by confining the pump and probe lights in the hollow core. We coupled the pump light at 4.46 μm from a quantum cascade laser and the 1555.14 nm probe light into the HCF with a bore size of 200 μm. The HCF was filled with nitrous oxide (N2O) which has strong absorption at the pump wavelength. The probe light detects the N2O absorption-induced phase change in the HCF via a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
P V Samir, Srinivas Namineni, P Sarada
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of nitrous oxide (N2O)-oxygen (O2) inhalation sedation by rapid induction technique using preadjusted mix of 30% N2O and 70% O2 in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty children with a treatment plan which included pulp therapy were recruited for the study. Children categorized 3 and 4 of Frankl behavior rating scale and American Society of Anesthesiologists health status I and II were included for the study. Children were distributed into study group (Group-I) and control group (Group-II) by fishbowl randomization...
October 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
María J Torres, Emilio Bueno, Andrea Jiménez-Leiva, Juan J Cabrera, Eulogio J Bedmar, Socorro Mesa, María J Delgado
The powerful greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) has a strong potential to drive climate change. Soils are the major source of N2O and microbial nitrification and denitrification the main processes involved. The soybean endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is considered a model to study rhizobial denitrification, which depends on the napEDABC, nirK, norCBQD, and nosRZDYFLX genes. In this bacterium, the role of the regulatory cascade FixLJ-FixK2-NnrR in the expression of napEDABC, nirK, and norCBQD genes involved in N2O synthesis has been previously unraveled...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stefano Longo, Nicola Frison, Daniele Renzi, Francesco Fatone, Almudena Hospido
The environmental and economic benefits and burdens of including the first Short Cut Enhanced Nutrient Abatement (SCENA) into a real municipal wastewater treatment plant were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC). The implications of accomplishing nitrogen (N) removal and phosphorus (P) recovery via nitrite in the side stream were assessed taking into account the actual effluent quality improvement, the changes in the electricity and chemical consumption, N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions and the effects of land application of biosolids, among others...
September 6, 2017: Water Research
Ju Min, Weiming Shi
Discharge of nitrogen (N) from fertilizers applied to vegetables is becoming a serious environmental problem. In a field experiment involving a celery-tomato-fallow-lettuce rotation, leaching was the primary pathway of N loss (56.1±0.4% of the total), followed, in descending order, by runoff (11.7±0.3%), N2O emissions (1.6±0.1%), and volatilization of ammonia (0.5±0.1%). Decreasing the traditional dose of N by 40% in each growth season decreased N leaching by 22.3±4.5, 39.8±6.7, 40.3±2.9 and 27.4±3...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Seung Tak Jeong, Gil Won Kim, Hyun Young Hwang, Pil Joo Kim, Sang Yoon Kim
Livestock manure application can stimulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially methane (CH4) in rice paddy. The stabilized organic matter (OM) is recommended to suppress CH4 emission without counting the additional GHG emission during the composting process. To evaluate the effect of compost utilization on the net global warming potential (GWP) of a rice cropping system, the fluxes of GHGs from composting to land application were calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The model framework was composed of GHG fluxes from industrial activities and biogenic GHG fluxes from the composting and rice cultivation processes...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Cong Xu, Xiao Han, Roland Bol, Pete Smith, Wenliang Wu, Fanqiao Meng
Requirements for mitigation of the continued increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are much needed for the North China Plain (NCP). We conducted a meta-analysis of 76 published studies of 24 sites in the NCP to examine the effects of natural conditions and farming practices on GHG emissions in that region. We found that N2O was the main component of the area-scaled total GHG balance, and the CH 4 contribution was <5%. Precipitation, temperature, soil pH, and texture had no significant impacts on annual GHG emissions, because of limited variation of these factors in the NCP...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Beibei Hu, Dongqi Wang, Jun Zhou, Weiqing Meng, Chongwei Li, Zongbin Sun, Xin Guo, Zhongliang Wang
Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Angela Hanna, Joshua Blechle, Ellen R Fisher
Understanding energy distributions and kinetic processes in NxOy plasma systems is vital to realizing their potential in a range of applications, including pollution abatement. Energy partitioning between degrees of freedom and multiple molecules formed within NxOy plasma systems (N2, N2O, N2/O2) was investigated using both optical emission and broadband absorption spec-troscopies. Specifically, we have determined electron temperatures (Te), as well as rotational (TR) and vibrational (TV) temperatures for various N2 (B(3)Πg and C(3)Πu) and NO (X(2)Π and A(2) Σ(+)) states...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Zhisheng Yao, Xunhua Zheng, Yanan Zhang, Chunyan Liu, Rui Wang, Shan Lin, Qiang Zuo, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
Ground cover rice production system (GCRPS), i.e., paddy soils being covered by thin plastic films with soil moisture being maintained nearly saturated status, is a promising technology as increased yields are achieved with less irrigation water. However, increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may cause pollution swapping in greenhouse gas (GHG) from CH4 to N2O emissions. A 2-year experiment was performed, taking traditional rice cultivation as a reference, to assess the impacts of N-fertilizer placement methods on CH4, N2O and NO emissions and rice yields under GCRPS...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Syed Faiz-Ul Islam, Jan Willem van Groenigen, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Bjoern Ole Sander, Andreas de Neergaard
Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation in rice production. Whereas several studies have focused on mid-season drainage (MD) to mitigate GHG emissions, early-season drainage (ED) varying in timing and duration has not been extensively studied. However, such ED periods could potentially be very effective since initial available C levels (and thereby the potential for methanogenesis) can be very high in paddy systems with rice straw incorporation...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yingke Fang, Zhen Hu, Yina Zou, Jian Zhang, Zhuoran Zhu, Jianda Zhang, Lichao Nie
Aquaponics is a promising technology combining aquaculture with hydroponics. In this study, algal-bacterial consortia were introduced into aquaponics, i.e., algal-bacterial based aquaponics (AA), to improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) of aquaponics. The results showed that the NUE of AA was 13.79% higher than that of media-based aquaponics (MA). In addition, higher NO3(-) removal by microalgae assimilation led to better water quality in AA, which made up for the deficiencies of poor aquaponic management of nitrate...
August 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Co Thi Kinh, Shohei Riya, Masaaki Hosomi, Akihiko Terada
A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) provides a counter-current substrate diffusion geometry in which oxygen is supplied from a gas-permeable membrane on which a biofilm is grown. This study hypothesized that an MABR would mitigate NO and N2O emissions compared with those from a conventional biofilm reactor (CBR). Two laboratory-scale reactors, representing an MABR and CBR, were operated by feeding synthetic industrial wastewater. The surficial nitrogen removal rate for the MABR [4.51±0.52g-N/(m(2)day)] was higher than that for the CBR [3...
August 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Xueqin He, Longjian Chen, Lujia Han, Ning Liu, Ruxiu Cui, Hongjie Yin, Guangqun Huang
This study investigated the effects of biochar powder on oxygen supply efficiency and global warming potential (GWP) in the large-scale aerobic composting pattern which includes cyclical forced-turning with aeration at the bottom of composting tanks in China. A 55-day large-scale aerobic composting experiment was conducted in two different groups without and with 10% biochar powder addition (by weight). The results show that biochar powder improves the holding ability of oxygen, and the duration time (O2>5%) is around 80%...
August 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Xingcheng Yan, Xiaoguang Xu, Mingyue Wang, Guoxiang Wang, Songjun Wu, Zhichun Li, Hao Sun, Ao Shi, Yunhao Yang
Climate warming and eutrophication are regarded as two important contributors to the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic ecosystems. However, the feedback of cyanobacteria blooms to climate warming and eutrophication is not fully clear. In this study, a microcosm system was established to simulate the decomposition processes of cyanobacteria blooms. It was observed that a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus was released into the overlying water, and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were increased with the amount of added cyanobacteria bloom biomass addition...
September 6, 2017: Water Research
Ranjana Venkatachalapathy, Anusha Cherian, Sakthirajan Panneerselvam
INTRODUCTION: Low flow anaesthesia utilising Oxygen (O2) and Nitrous Oxide (N2O) mixture carries a risk of hypoxia, but avoiding N2O results in increased analgesic and volatile anaesthetic agent requirement. AIM: This study attempted to find the lowest Fraction of inspired Oxygen (FiO2) levels achieved with a mixture of 300 mL/min each of O2 and medical air over two hours and to compare the overall analgesic requirement and cost while using similar flows of N2O and O2, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Wanlin Lyu, Lei Huang, Guangquan Xiao, Yucheng Chen
A set of constructed wetlands under two different carbon sources, namely, glucose (CW) and sodium acetate (YW), was established at a laboratory scale with influent COD/N ratios of 20:1, 10:1, 7:1, 4:1, and 0 to analyze the influence of carbon supply on nitrous oxide emissions. Results showed that the glucose systems generated higher N2O emissions than those of the sodium acetate systems. The higher amount of N2O-releasing fluxes in the CWs than in the YWs was consistent with the higher NO2(-)-N accumulation in the former than in the latter...
August 13, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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