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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340454/pea-cultivar-and-wheat-residues-affect-carbon-nitrogen-dynamics-in-pea-triticale-intercropping-a-microcosms-approach
#1
Antonella Scalise, Valentini A Pappa, Antonio Gelsomino, Robert M Rees
The underlying mechanisms by which legume cultivars contribute to nitrous oxide (N2O) generation are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of two pea cultivars (Zero4 and Nitouche) intercropped with triticale, with or without wheat (Triticum aestivum) residues incorporation, on soil C and N dynamics, on bacterial community structure and their links with N2O emissions. Monocrops and bare soil (no plant) treatments were used as an additional control in order to account for the level of mineralisation between treatments...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333044/effects-of-c-n-ratio-on-nitrous-oxide-production-from-nitrification-in-a-laboratory-scale-biological-aerated-filter-reactor
#2
Qiang He, Yinying Zhu, Leilei Fan, Hainan Ai, Xiaoliu Huangfu, Mei Chen
Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) during biological wastewater treatment is of growing concern. This paper reports findings of the effects of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio on N2O production rates in a laboratory-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor, focusing on the biofilm during nitrification. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and microelectrode technology were utilized to evaluate the mechanisms associated with N2O production during wastewater treatment using BAF...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331551/environmental-costs-and-benefits-of-growing-miscanthus-for-bioenergy-in-the-uk
#3
REVIEW
Jon P McCalmont, Astley Hastings, Niall P McNamara, Goetz M Richter, Paul Robson, Iain S Donnison, John Clifton-Brown
Planting the perennial biomass crop Miscanthus in the UK could offset 2-13 Mt oil eq. yr(-1), contributing up to 10% of current energy use. Policymakers need assurance that upscaling Miscanthus production can be performed sustainably without negatively impacting essential food production or the wider environment. This study reviews a large body of Miscanthus relevant literature into concise summary statements. Perennial Miscanthus has energy output/input ratios 10 times higher (47.3 ± 2.2) than annual crops used for energy (4...
March 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328223/an-organic-gelatin-free-nanocomposite-fricke-gel-dosimeter
#4
Takuya Maeyama, Nobuhisa Fukunishi, Kenichi L Ishikawa, Kazuaki Fukasaku, Shigekazu Fukuda
We report a nanocomposite Fricke gel (NC-FG) dosimeter prepared using only Fe(2+) and nano-clay in water, without any organic gelling agents. This dosimeter gels due to its thixotropic properties and exhibits linear energy transfer (LET)-independent radiological properties under carbon ion beam irradiation. The radiation sensitivity of this dosimeter was 1.8 [s(-1)kGy(-1)], which is three times higher than that reported previously (0.6 [s(-1)kGy(-1)]) for a similar dosimeter containing gelatin. The Fe(3+) yield was determined to be 0...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326843/characteristics-of-the-new-atricure-cryoform%C3%A2-cryoablation-probe-for-the-surgical-treatment-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#5
Thomas Schroeter, Martin Misfeld
Atrial fibrillation has a significant impact on patient mortality and morbidity. In particular, stroke is a frequent complication associated with atrial fibrillation. In recent years, various treatment options have been developed that are based on the elimination of atypical electrically active atrial areas. Areas covered:This manuscript presents a new cryoablation probe from AtriCure Inc. In addition to describing the characteristics of the probe, we also discuss atrial fibrillation and its surgical therapy options as well as the basics of cryosurgery...
March 22, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326437/steady-state-oxygen-isotope-effects-of-n2o-production-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#6
Carol Barford, Joseph Montoya, Mark Altabet, Ralph Mitchell
Knowledge of isotopic discrimination, or fractionation, by denitrifying bacteria can benefit agricultural fertilizer management, wastewater treatment, and other applications. However, the complexity of N transformation pathways in the environment and the sensitivity of denitrification to environmental conditions warrant better isotopic distinction between denitrification and other processes, especially for oxygen isotopes. Here, we present a dataset of δ(18)O measurements in continuous culture of Paracoccus denitrificans...
March 21, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324826/nitrogen-removal-by-the-enhanced-floating-treatment-wetlands-from-the-secondary-effluent
#7
Lei Gao, Weili Zhou, Jungchen Huang, Shengbing He, Yijia Yan, Wenying Zhu, Suqing Wu, Xu Zhang
Three novel floating treatment wetlands, including autotrophic enhanced floating treatment wetland (AEFTW), heterotrophic enhanced floating treatment wetland (HEFTW) and enhanced floating treatment wetland (EFTW) were developed to remove nitrogen from the secondary effluent. Results showed that the analogously excellent nitrogen removal performance was achieved in AEFTW and HEFTW. About 89.4% of the total nitrogen (TN) was removed from AEFTW at a low S/N of 0.9 and 88.5% from HEFTW at a low C/N of 3.5 when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 1d in summer...
March 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324256/legacy-effects-of-simulated-short-term-climate-change-on-ammonia-oxidisers-denitrifiers-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-an-acid-soil
#8
Xiaoya Xu, Xiaorui Liu, Yong Li, Yu Ran, Yapeng Liu, Qichun Zhang, Zheng Li, Yan He, Jianming Xu, Hongjie Di
Although the effect of simulated climate change on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and on associated microbial communities has been reported, it is not well understood if these effects are short-lived or long-lasting. Here, we conducted a field study to determine the interactive effects of simulated warmer and drier conditions on nitrifier and denitrifier communities and N2O emissions in an acidic soil and the longevity of the effects. A warmer (+2.3 °C) and drier climate (-7.4% soil moisture content) was created with greenhouses...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322322/global-temperature-change-potential-of-nitrogen-use-in-agriculture-a-50-year-assessment
#9
R K Fagodiya, H Pathak, A Kumar, A Bhatia, N Jain
Nitrogen (N) use in agriculture substantially alters global N cycle with the short- and long-term effects on global warming and climate change. It increases emission of nitrous oxide, which contributes 6.2%, while carbon dioxide and methane contribute 76% and 16%, respectively of the global warming. However, N causes cooling due to emission of NOx, which alters concentrations of tropospheric ozone and methane. NOx and NH3 also form aerosols with considerable cooling effects. We studied global temperature change potential (GTP) of N use in agriculture...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318700/effects-of-warming-and-nitrogen-deposition-on-ch4-co2-and-n2o-emissions-in-alpine-grassland-ecosystems-of-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#10
Zhenzhen Zhao, Shikui Dong, Xiaoman Jiang, Shiliang Liu, Hanzhong Ji, Yu Li, Yuhui Han, Wei Sha
Increases in nitrogen (N) deposition along with climate warming can change the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in the soil, and alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) fluxes. To examine how N deposition and warming affect GHGs (CH4, CO2 and N2O) fluxes in alpine grasslands, we conducted experiments in an alpine meadow (AM), alpine-steppe (AS), and alpine cultivated grassland (CG) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). We simulated N deposition by treating soil with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) (8kgNha(-1)year(-1)), a warming treatment using an open top chamber (OTC) was carried out, and a combined treatment of warming and N deposition (8kgNha(-1)year(-1)) was conducted...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318241/mitigating-greenhouse-gas-and-ammonia-emissions-from-swine-manure-management-a-system-analysis
#11
Yue Wang, Hongmin Dong, Zhiping Zhu, Pierre J Gerber, Hongwei Xin, Pete Smith, Carolyn Opio, Henning Steinfeld, Dave Chadwick
Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems is urgently needed to help mitigate climate change and to improve atmospheric air quality. This study presents a meta-analysis and an integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for NH3, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) (direct and indirect) losses from four typical swine manure management systems (MMSs)...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316826/silver-i-nitrate-complexes-of-three-tetra-kis-thio-ether-substituted-pyrazine-ligands-metal-organic-chain-network-and-framework-structures
#12
Tokouré Assoumatine, Helen Stoeckli-Evans
The reaction of the ligand 2,3,5,6-tetra-kis-[(methyl-sulfanyl)-meth-yl]pyrazine (L1) with silver(I) nitrate led to {[Ag(C12H20N2S4)](NO3)} n , (I), catena-poly[[silver(I)-μ-2,3,5,6-tetra-kis-[(methyl-sulfan-yl)meth-yl]pyrazine] nitrate], a compound with a metal-organic chain structure. The asymmetric unit is composed of two half ligands, located about inversion centres, with one ligand coordinating to the silver atoms in a bis-tridentate manner and the other in a bis-bidentate manner. The charge on the metal atom is compensated for by a free nitrate anion...
March 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298780/effects-of-inhaled-nitrous-oxide-on-the-induction-dose-and-time-requirements-of-propofol-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-study
#13
Kavita Jain, Surendra Kumar Sethi, Mamta Damor, Neena Jain
CONTEXT: Propofol is a commonly used induction agent during general anesthesia. As a sole agent, it does not provide any strong analgesic effect. The nitrous oxide (N2O) used along with propofol for induction of anesthesia augments the induction characteristics and reduces the dose of propofol. AIMS: To study the effects of inhaled N2O on the induction dose and time of propofol during general anesthesia and also its hemodynamic response and adverse effects. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present research is a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparative study...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291346/n2o-formation-via-reductive-disproportionation-of-no-by-mononuclear-copper-complexes-a-mechanistic-dft-study
#14
Sebastian Metz
The mechanism of the copper(I)-mediated reductive disproportionation reaction of NO to form N2O was investigated for five different 3,5-substituted tris(pyrazolyl)borate copper complexes (CuTp(R1)(,R2)) by means of DFT calculations. A thorough search of the potential surface was performed, using the B3LYP functional with the def2-SVP basis set for optimization purposes and def2-TZVP single-point calculations for constructing the potential energy surface for two of these complexes. The results can be condensed into six competing reaction mechanisms, two of which were more closely investigated using full def2-TZVP optimized potential and free energies...
March 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288805/humoral-immunity-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Keith Fluegge
Abnormal immune activation, particularly of a humoral nature, has consistently been described in the etiopathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this journal, Mead and Ashwood (2015) reviewed immune abnormalities in autism and linked them to severity of classic autistic symptoms. However, there remains a lack of clarity as to how environmental risk factors in ASD may contribute to such immunophenotypes. The evidence presented herein highlights these immune deficits of a humoral nature in ASD. Moreover, aligned with prior research showing a link between chronic air pollution and suppression of humoral immunity, the author of this commentary has proposed that environmental exposure to pervasive air pollutants, particularly nitrous oxide (N2O), may target several anti-inflammatory biomarkers, including alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) inhibition and stimulation of kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activity...
March 10, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287666/cationic-pcp-iridaepoxide-and-carbene-complexes-for-facile-water-elimination-and-activation-processes
#16
Lauren E Doyle, Warren E Piers, David W Bi
Iridaepoxide dihydride complexes of a PCP ligand bearing benzo[b]thiophene linkers are synthesized through ligand coopertive N2O and H2 activations. These neutral complexes also eliminate water at elevated temperatures to form the corresponding PCcarbeneP complexes which results in the formal hydrogenation of N2O to water. The synthesis of cationic iridaepoxide dihydride complexes are reported herein where the room temperature elimination of water is observed when a donating solvent is used. This supports a previously proposed mechanism for this water elimination where hydrides cis to the epoxide are required...
March 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281637/direct-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-tropical-and-sub-tropical-agricultural-systems-a-review-and-modelling-of-emission-factors
#17
Fabrizio Albanito, Ulrike Lebender, Thomas Cornulier, Tek B Sapkota, Frank Brentrup, Clare Stirling, Jon Hillier
There has been much debate about the uncertainties associated with the estimation of direct and indirect agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in developing countries and in particular from tropical regions. In this study, we report an up-to-date review of the information published in peer-review journals on direct N2O emissions from agricultural systems in tropical and sub-tropical regions. We statistically analyze net-N2O-N emissions to estimate tropic-specific annual N2O emission factors (N2O-EFs) using a Generalized Additive Mixed Model (GAMM) which allowed the effects of multiple covariates to be modelled as linear or smooth non-linear continuous functions...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281565/changes-in-land-use-driven-by-urbanization-impact-nitrogen-cycling-and-the-microbial-community-composition-in-soils
#18
Haitao Wang, Christopher W Marshall, Minying Cheng, Huijuan Xu, Hu Li, Xiaoru Yang, Tianling Zheng
Transition of populations from rural to urban living causes landscape changes and alters the functionality of soil ecosystems. It is unclear how this urbanization disturbs the microbial ecology of soils and how the disruption influences nitrogen cycling. In this study, microbial communities in turfgrass-grown soils from urban and suburban areas around Xiamen City were compared to microbial communities in the soils from rural farmlands. The potential N2O emissions, potential denitrification activity, and abundances of denitrifiers were higher in the rural farmland soils compared with the turfgrass soils...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281071/effect-of-foliar-application-of-plant-growth-regulators-on-nitrous-oxide-n2o-emission-and-grain-yield-in-wheat
#19
Nirmali Bordoloi, Kushal Kumar Baruah
Agricultural soils are the major source of global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, and more than two thirds of N2O emission originate from soil. Recent studies have identified that green plants contribute to transport of N2O to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of foliar application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and growth stimulating chemicals on N2O emission and wheat grain yield for 2 years. The PGRs' abscisic acid (ABA) and cytozyme (20 mg L(-1)), kinetin (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) and wet tea extract (1:20 w/w) along with distilled water as control were sprayed on wheat canopy at the tillering and panicle initiation stages...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279912/enhancement-of-the-complete-autotrophic-nitrogen-removal-over-nitrite-process-in-a-modified-single-stage-subsurface-vertical-flow-constructed-wetland-effect-of-saturated-zone-depth
#20
Menglu Huang, Zhen Wang, Ran Qi
This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox...
February 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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