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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782525/impact-of-agronomy-practices-on-the-effects-of-reduced-tillage-systems-on-ch4-and-n2o-emissions-from-agricultural-fields-a-global-meta-analysis
#1
Jinfei Feng, Fengbo Li, Xiyue Zhou, Chunchun Xu, Long Ji, Zhongdu Chen, Fuping Fang
The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782399/frozen-in-time-a-history-of-the-synthesis-of-nitrous-oxide-and-how-the-process-remained-unchanged-for-over-2-centuries
#2
Alexander Buslov, Matthew Carroll, Manisha S Desai
Three major factors have contributed to the unrivaled popularity of nitrous oxide (N2O) among anesthetists in the 20th century and beyond: its impressive safety profile, its affordability, and its rapid induction and emergence times. These 3 characteristics of N2O have been discussed and written about extensively throughout the medical literature. Nonetheless, the characteristic that contributed most to N2O's initial discovery-the elegance and simplicity of its synthesis-has received substantially less attention...
May 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770405/a-synthetic-no-reduction-cycle-on-a-bis-pyrazolato-bridged-dinuclear-ruthenium-complex-including-photo-induced-transformation
#3
Yasuhiro Arikawa, Junko Hiura, Chika Tsuchii, Mika Kodama, Naoki Matsumoto, Keisuke Umakoshi
A synthetic NO reduction cycle (2NO + 2H+ + 2e- → N2O + H2O) on a dinuclear platform {(TpRu)2(μ-pz)2} (Tp = HB(pyrazol-1-yl)3) was achieved, where an unusual N-N coupling complex was included. Moreover, an interesting photo-induced conversion of the N-N coupling complex to an oxido-bridged complex was revealed.
May 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768896/tio%C3%A2-and-nitrogen-doped-tio%C3%A2-prepared-by-different-methods-on-the-micro-structure-and-photocatalytic-activity-in-co%C3%A2-reduction-and-n%C3%A2-o-decomposition
#4
Lenka Matějová, Kamila Kočí, Ivana Troppová, Marcel Šihor, Miroslava Edelmannová, Jaroslav Lang, Libor Čapek, Zdeněk Matěj, Piotr Kuśtrowski, Lucie Obalová
TiO2 as nanostructured powders were prepared by (1) sol-gel process and (2) hydrothermal method in combination with (A) the processing by pressurized hot water and methanol or (B) calcination. The subsequent synthesis step was the modification of prepared nanostructured TiO2 with nitrogen using commercial urea. Textural, structural, surface and optical properties of prepared TiO2 and N/TiO2 were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and DR UV-vis spectroscopy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756576/improving-feed-protein-utilization-rate-in-cattle-through-nutritional-approaches
#5
Guangyong Zhao
Cattle supply important amounts of nutritious products such as beef and milk for human consumption. However, cattle excrete large amounts of feces and urine with low utilization rate of dietary crude protein (CP). These not only negatively affect the global environment by emission of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and N bleaching the soil and underground water, but also increase the feed cost. The low nitrogen (N) utilization rate of cattle could possibly result from the activity of rumen microorganisms degrading feed protein...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750509/microbial-nitrogen-cycle-hotspots-in-the-plant-bed-ditch-system-of-a-constructed-wetland-with-n2o-mitigation
#6
Shanyun Wang, Weidong Wang, Lu Liu, Linjie Zhuang, Siyan Zhao, Yu Su, Yixiao Li, Mengzi Wang, Cheng Wang, Liya Xu, Guibing Zhu
Artificial microbial nitrogen (N) cycle hotspots in the plant-bed/ditch system were developed and investigated based on intact core and slurry assays measurement using isotopic tracing technology, quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. By increasing hydraulic retention time and periodically fluctuating water level in heterogeneous riparian zones, hotspots of anammox, nitrification, denitrification, ammonium (NH4+) oxidation, nitrite (NO2-) oxidation, nitrate (NO3-) reduction and DNRA were all stimulated at the interface sediments, with the abundance and activity being about 1-3 orders higher than that in non-hotspot zones...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702684/a-50-50-mixture-of-nitrous-oxide-oxygen-in-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-a-randomized-and-prospective-clinical-trial
#7
Gabriel da Silva Cazarim, Nubia Verçosa, Leonel Carneiro, Rachel Pastor, Elizabeth Fernandes Vaz da Silva, Louis Barrucand, Ismar Lima Cavalcanti
INTRODUCTION: Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TUSPB) is the standard method of diagnosis for prostate cancer, and although it is well tolerated by some patients, it presents a discomfort rate of 65 to 90%, which may be associated with pain. For convenience, it is agreed that a method of analgesia and sedation is necessary. For this purpose, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of inhalation of a 50-50% N2O-O2 gas mixture on pain intensity in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized, double-blinded clinical trial, conducted at Antônio Pedro University Hospital (Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro), Niterói, RJ, Brazil, containing two groups of 42 patients: a control (C) group, which received 100% oxygen inhalation, and a nitrous oxide (NO) group, which received inhalation of the 50-50% N2O-O2 mixture, self-administered during TUSPB...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692767/biokinetic-characterization-and-activities-of-n-2-o-reducing-bacteria-in-response-to-various-oxygen-levels
#8
Toshikazu Suenaga, Shohei Riya, Masaaki Hosomi, Akihiko Terada
Nitrous oxide (N2 O)-reducing bacteria, which reduce N2 O to nitrogen in the absence of oxygen, are phylogenetically spread throughout various taxa and have a potential role as N2 O sinks in the environment. However, research on their physiological traits has been limited. In particular, their activities under microaerophilic and aerobic conditions, which severely inhibit N2 O reduction, remain poorly understood. We used an O2 and N2 O micro-respirometric system to compare the N2 O reduction kinetics of four strains, i...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692128/-effects-of-warming-and-precipitation-exclusion-on-soil-n2o-fluxes-in-subtropical-forests
#9
Cai di Tang, Zheng Zhang, Xiao Zhen Cai, Jian Fen Guo, Yu Sheng Yang
In order to explore how soil warming and precipitation exclusion influence soil N2O fluxes, we used related functional genes as markers, and four treatments were set up, i.e. , control (CT), soil warming (W, 5 ℃ above the ambient temperature of the control), 50% precipitation reduction (P), soil warming plus 50% precipitation reduction (WP). The results showed that precipitation exclusion reduced soil ammonium nitrogen concentration significantly. Soil warming decreased soil N2O flux and soil denitrification potential significantly...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672605/concentration-related-metabolic-rate-and-behavioral-thermoregulatory-adaptations-to-serial-administrations-of-nitrous-oxide-in-rats
#10
Karl J Kaiyala, Douglas S Ramsay
BACKGROUND: Initial administration of ≥60% nitrous oxide (N2O) to rats evokes hypothermia, but after repeated administrations the gas instead evokes hyperthermia. This sign reversal is driven mainly by increased heat production. To determine whether rats will behaviorally oppose or assist the development of hyperthermia, we previously performed thermal gradient testing. Inhalation of N2O at ≥60% causes rats to select cooler ambient temperatures both during initial administrations and during subsequent administrations in which the hyperthermic state exists...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672548/water-and-nitrogen-management-effects-on-semiarid-sorghum-production-and-soil-trace-gas-flux-under-future-climate
#11
Benjamin D Duval, Rajan Ghimire, Melannie D Hartman, Mark A Marsalis
External inputs to agricultural systems can overcome latent soil and climate constraints on production, while contributing to greenhouse gas emissions from fertilizer and water management inefficiencies. Proper crop selection for a given region can lessen the need for irrigation and timing of N fertilizer application with crop N demand can potentially reduce N2O emissions and increase N use efficiency while reducing residual soil N and N leaching. However, increased variability in precipitation is an expectation of climate change and makes predicting biomass and gas flux responses to management more challenging...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668272/development-of-an-extended-asm3-model-for-predicting-the-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-a-full-scale-wastewater-treatment-plant
#12
Kati Blomberg, Pascal Kosse, Anna Mikola, Anna Kuokkanen, Tommi Fred, Mari Heinonen, Michela Mulas, Manfred Luebken, Marc Wichern, Riku Vahala
An Activated Sludge Model #3 (ASM3)-based, pseudo-mechanistic model describing nitrous oxide (N2O) production was created in this study to provide more insight into the dynamics of N2O production, consumption, and emissions at a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). N2O emissions at the studied WWTP are monitored throughout the plant with an FT-IR analyzer, while the developed model encountered N2O production in the biological reactors via both ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) nitrification and heterotrophic denitrifiers...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659281/theoretical-and-experimental-study-on-the-reaction-of-tert-butylamine-with-oh-radicals-in-the-atmosphere
#13
Wen Tan, Liang Zhu, Tomas Mikoviny, Claus Jørgen Nielsen, Armin Wisthaler, Philipp Eichler, Markus Muller, Barbara D'Anna, Naomi J Farren, Jacqueline F Hamilton, Jan B C Pettersson, Mattias Hallquist, Simen Antonsen, Yngve Stenstrøm
The OH-initiated atmospheric degradation of tert-butylamine (tBA), (CH3)3CNH2, was investigated in a detailed quantum chemistry study and in laboratory experiments at the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) in Spain. The reaction was found to mainly proceed via hydrogen abstraction from the amino group, which in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx), generates tert-butylnitramine, (CH3)3CNHNO2, and acetone as the main reaction products. Acetone is formed via the reaction of tert-butylnitrosamine, (CH3)3CNHNO, and/or its isomer tert-butylhydroxydiazene, (CH3)3CN=NOH, with OH radicals, which yield nitrous oxide (N2O) and the (CH3)3Ċ radical...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629959/baseline-cerebral-metabolic-rate-is-a-critical-determinant-of-the-cerebral-vasodilating-potency-of-volatile-anesthetic-agents
#14
John C Drummond
Halothane is commonly viewed as a more potent cerebral vasodilator than isoflurane. It was speculated that the lesser vasodilation caused by isoflurane might be the result of the greater reduction in cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) that it causes, and that the relative vasodilating potencies of halothane and isoflurane would be similar if the two agents were administered in a situation that precluded volatile-agent-induced depression of CMR. To test this hypothesis, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) were measured in two groups of rabbits before and after the administration of 0...
April 9, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628088/managed-grassland-alters-soil-n-dynamics-and-n-2-o-emissions-in-temperate-steppe
#15
Lijun Xu, Xingliang Xu, Xuejuan Tang, Xiaoping Xin, Liming Ye, Guixia Yang, Huajun Tang, Shijie Lv, Dawei Xu, Zhao Zhang
Reclamation of degraded grasslands as managed grasslands has been increasingly accelerated in recent years in China. Land use change affects soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, it remains unclear how large-scale grassland reclamation will impact the grassland ecosystem as a whole. Here, we investigated the effects of the conversion from native to managed grasslands on soil N dynamics and N2O emissions by field experiments in Hulunber in northern China. Soil (0-10cm), nitrate (NO3 - ), ammonium (NH4 + ), and microbial N were measured in plots in a temperate steppe (Leymus chinensis grassland) and two managed grasslands (Medicago sativa and Bromus inermis grasslands) in 2011 and 2012...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603803/estimating-n-2-o-processes-during-grassland-renewal-and-grassland-conversion-to-maize-cropping-using-n-2-o-isotopocules
#16
C Buchen, D Lewicka-Szczebak, H Flessa, R Well
RATIONALE: Enhanced nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions can occur following grassland break-up for renewal or conversion to maize cropping, but knowledge about N2 O production pathways and N2 O reduction to N2 is very limited. A promising tool to address this is the combination of mass spectrometric analysis of N2 O isotopocules and an enhanced approach for data interpretation. METHODS: The isotopocule mapping approach was applied to field data using a δ15 Nsp N2O and δ18 ON2O map to simultaneously determine N2 O production pathways contribution and N2 O reduction for the first time...
March 30, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543289/facet-dependent-photocatalytic-decomposition-of-n-2-o-on-the-anatase-tio-2-a-dft-study
#17
Lu Wang, Weiyu Song, Jianlin Deng, Huiling Zheng, Jian Liu, Zhen Zhao, Manglai Gao, Yuechang Wei
The photocatalytic N2O dissociation on anatase TiO2 is an attractive reaction and the mechanism of the photocalytic process, the role of excited electrons, and the favorable facet for higher activity need a more detailed study at the molecular level. Using DFT + U calculations, we investigate the dissociation process of N2O into N2 with and without photoexcited electrons on anatase TiO2 (001) and (101) facets to unravel such puzzles. The optical absorption properties of TiO2 (001) and (101) facets are compared in combination with electronic analysis...
March 29, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528367/past-present-and-future-of-nitrous-oxide
#18
V Lew, E McKay, M Maze
Introduction: For a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxide's (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: The analgesic and anaesthetic advantages of N2O remain despite a plethora of newer agents...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510054/pulse-radiolysis-and-computational-studies-on-a-pyrrolidinium-dicyanamide-ionic-liquid-detection-of-the-dimer-radical-anion
#19
Laboni Das, Rahul Kumar, Dilip K Maity, Soumyakanti Adhikari, Surajdevprakash B Dhiman, James F Wishart
A pulse radiolysis study on pyrrolidinium cation based ionic liquids is presented herein. Time-resolved absorption spectra for 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (DCA) at 500 ns after the electron pulse show broad absorption bands at wavelengths below 440 nm and at 640 nm. In pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2 ) and tris(perfluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (FAP) ILs, the transient absorption below 440 nm is much weaker. The absorption at 500 ns, which increases with wavelength from 500 nm to beyond 800 nm, was assigned to the tail of the solvated electron NIR absorption spectrum, since it disappears in the presence of N2 O...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509404/real-time-gas-mixture-analysis-using-mid-infrared-membrane-microcavities
#20
Tiening Jin, Junchao Zhou, Zelun Wang, Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna, Charles Ahn, Wonjun Hwang, Ken Park, Pao Tai Lin
Real-time gas analysis on-a-chip was demonstrated using a mid-infrared (mid-IR) microcavity. Optical apertures for the microcavity were made of ultrathin silicate membranes embedded in a silicon chip using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows that the silicate membrane is transparent in the range of 2.5-6.0 μm, a region that overlaps with multiple characteristic gas absorption lines and therefore enables gas detection applications...
April 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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