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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340863/effects-of-urease-and-nitrification-inhibitors-on-the-soil-mineral-nitrogen-dynamics-and-nitrous-oxide-n2o-emissions-on-calcareous-soil
#1
Rui Tao, Jun Li, Yu Guan, Yongchao Liang, Baowei Hu, Jun Lv, Guixin Chu
Urease inhibitors and nitrification inhibitors can reduce nitrogen (N) loss in agriculture soil. However, the effect of inhibitors on soil N2O emissions under the drip irrigation system remains unclear. A pot and a field experiment with two inhibitors were conducted to explore how inhibitors regulate soil nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions. In the pot experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT, urease inhibitor). In the field experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + NBPT + 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine (nitrapyrin, nitrification inhibitor)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339617/characteristics-of-n2o-production-and-hydroxylamine-variation-in-short-cut-nitrification-sbr-process
#2
Bo Hu, Junhong Ye, Jianqiang Zhao, Xiaoqian Ding, Liwei Yang, Xiaolei Tian
In order to study the characteristics of nitrous oxide (N2O) production and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) variation under oxic conditions, concentrations of NH2OH and N2O were simultaneously monitored in a short-cut nitrification sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated with different influent ammonia concentrations. In the short-cut nitrification process, N2O production was increased with the increasing of ammonia concentration in influent. The maximum concentrations of dissolved N2O-N in the reactor were 0.11 mg/L and 0...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335439/net-global-warming-potential-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-as-affected-by-different-water-management-strategies-in-chinese-double-rice-cropping-systems
#3
Xiaohong Wu, Wei Wang, Xiaoli Xie, Chunmei Yin, Haijun Hou, Wende Yan, Guangjun Wang
This study provides a complete account of global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in relation to a long-term water management experiment in Chinese double-rice cropping systems. The three strategies of water management comprised continuous (year-round) flooding (CF), flooding during the rice season but with drainage during the midseason and harvest time (F-D-F), and irrigation only for flooding during transplanting and the tillering stage (F-RF). The CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured with the static chamber method...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333979/effect-of-anoxic-to-aerobic-duration-ratios-on-nitrogen-removal-and-nitrous-oxide-emission-in-the-multiple-anoxic-aerobic-process
#4
Huoqing Wang, Yuepeng Sun, Guangxue Wu, Yuntao Guan
Characteristics of nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in the multiple anoxic/aerobic (AO) process were examined in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with different anoxic durations (50 min, SBRH; 40 min, SBRM; 30 min, SBRL) and a fixed aerobic duration of 30 min. The highest total inorganic nitrogen removal percentage of 85.8% was obtained in SBRH, while a minimum N2O emission factor of 1.9% was obtained in SBRL. During nitrification batch experiments, the N2O emission factor and emission rate were both lower in SBRH than SBRL...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333559/oxidation-of-a-cu2s-complex-by-n2o-and-co2-insights-into-a-role-of-tetranuclearity-in-the-cuz-site-of-nitrous-oxide-reductase
#5
Sharareh Bagherzadeh, Neal P Mankad
Oxidation of a [Cu2(μ-S)] complex by N2O or CO2 generated a [Cu2(μ-SO4)] product. In the presence of a sulfur trap, a [Cu2(μ-O)] species also formed from N2O. A [Cu2(μ-CS3)] species derived from CS2 modeled initial reaction intermediates. These observations indicate that one role of tetranuclearity in the CuZ catalytic site of nitrous oxide reductase is to protect the crucial S2- ligand from oxidation.
January 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331895/reduction-in-soil-n2o-emissions-by-ph-manipulation-and-enhanced-nosz-gene-transcription-under-different-water-regimes
#6
Muhammad Shaaban, Yupeng Wu, Muhammad Salman Khalid, Qi-An Peng, Xiangyu Xu, Lei Wu, Aneela Younas, Saqib Bashir, Yongliang Mo, Shan Lin, Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye, Muhammad Abid, Ronggui Hu
Several studies have been carried out to examine nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils in the past. However, the emissions of N2O particularly during amelioration of acidic soils have been rarely studied. We carried out the present study using a rice-rapeseed rotation soil (pH 5.44) that was amended with dolomite (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 soil) under 60% water filled pore space (WFPS) and flooding. N2O emissions and several soil properties (pH, NH4+N, NO3--N, and nosZ gene transcripts) were measured throughout the study...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330647/absence-of-the-nitrous-oxide-reductase-gene-cluster-in-commercial-alfalfa-inoculants-is-probably-due-to-the-extensive-loss-of-genes-during-rhizobial-domestication
#7
Silvina Brambilla, Romina Frare, Gabriela Soto, Cintia Jozefkowicz, Nicolás Ayub
As other legume crops, alfalfa cultivation increases the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Since legume-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria play a crucial role in this emission, it is important to understand the possible impacts of rhizobial domestication on the evolution of denitrification genes. In comparison with the genomes of non-commercial strains, those of commercial alfalfa inoculants exhibit low total genome size, low number of ORFs and high numbers of both frameshifted genes and pseudogenes, suggesting a dramatic loss of genes during bacterial domestication...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330532/methanobactin-from-methylosinus-trichosporium-ob3b-inhibits-n2o-reduction-in-denitrifiers
#8
Jin Chang, Wenyu Gu, Doyoung Park, Jeremy D Semrau, Alan A DiSpirito, Sukhwan Yoon
Methanotrophs synthesize methanobactin, a secondary metabolite that binds copper with an unprecedentedly high affinity. Such a strategy may provide methanotrophs a "copper monopoly" that can inhibit the activity of copper-containing enzymes of other microbes, e.g., copper-dependent N2O reductases. Here, we show that methanobactin from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b inhibited N2O reduction in denitrifiers. When Pseudomonas stutzeri DCP-Ps1 was incubated in cocultures with M. trichosporium OB3b or with purified methanobactin from M...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327196/biochar-amendment-with-fertilizers-increases-peanut-n-uptake-alleviates-soil-n2o-emissions-without-affecting-nh3-volatilization-in-field-experiments
#9
Guangcai Tan, Hongyuan Wang, Nan Xu, Hongbin Liu, Limei Zhai
Biochar application to soil is currently widely advocated for a variety of reasons related to sustainability. However, the synergistic effects of biochar combined with mineral or organic fertilizer on soil N2O emissions, NH3 volatilization, and plant N uptake are poorly documented. Field plot experiments planted with peanut were conducted under the application of biochar (derived from rice husk and cottonseed husk, 50 t ha-1) with organic or mineral fertilizer. It was found that biochar increased soil nutrient availability and decreased surface soil bulk density, demonstrating that biochar could improve the soil quality especially in the 0-20-cm profile...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316499/electrochemical-study-of-enhanced-nitrate-removal-in-wastewater-treatment-using-biofilm-electrode
#10
Xuan Jiang, Diwen Ying, Dian Ye, Runqiu Zhang, Qingbin Guo, Yalin Wang, Jinping Jia
Bioelectrochemical enhanced nitrate removal in wastewater with high total nitrogen and low organic carbon was electrochemically investigated focusing on the relationship between biochemical and electrochemical nitrogen cycles. Under optimized external voltage of -0.6 V, apparent nitrate removal rate of bioelectrochemical denitrification was 76% higher than normal biofilm denitrification. And with the introduction of biofilm on the electrode, new reduction peak of N2O, much larger current density, and 0.4 V positively shift of on-set potential of nitrate reduction reaction were observed, suggesting a synergy of electrochemical reaction and biological reaction through enhanced electrochemical reduction of intermediate products from biological process...
December 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315308/mac-sparing-effect-of-nitrous-oxide-in-sevoflurane-anesthetized-sheep-and-its-reversal-with-systemic-atipamezole-administration
#11
Lauren Duffee, Nicolò Columbano, Antonio Scanu, Valentino Melosu, Giovanni Mario Careddu, Giovanni Sotgiu, Bernd Driessen
INTRODUCTION: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an anesthetic gas with antinociceptive properties and reduces the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for volatile anesthetic agents, potentially through mechanisms involving central alpha2-adrenoceptors. We hypothesized that 70% N2O in the inspired gas will significantly reduce the MAC of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in sheep, and that this effect can be reversed by systemic atipamezole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were initially anesthetized with SEVO in oxygen (O2) and exposed to an electrical current as supramaximal noxious stimulus in order to determine MACSEVO (in duplicates)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313551/fate-of-nitrogen-in-overlying-water-with-biochar-addition-to-sediment-in-planted-ditches
#12
Qianding Cheng, Hongguang Cheng, Lu Lu, Xiao Pu, Zhenzhen Wu, Haixu Sun
Best management practice (BMP) in drainage ditch systems is of high concern due to its importance in intercepting and removing pollution. Biochar has recently become an interesting option for agricultural pollution elimination, but knowledge is still limited on the fate of nitrogen (N) in drainage ditch systems with biochar added into the sediment. This isotope tracer study examined the effects of biochar addition into the sediment on the fate of inorganic N (15N-NO3- and 15N-NH4+) in sediment microcosms through a 93 day incubation experiment...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310314/determination-of-silicon-in-biomass-and-products-of-pyrolysis-process-via-high-resolution-continuum-source-atomic-absorption-spectrometry
#13
Flávio V Nakadi, Caroline Prodanov, Wiliam Boschetti, Maria Goreti R Vale, Bernhard Welz, Jailson B de Andrade
Thermochemical processes can convert the biomass into fuels, such as bio-oil. The biomass submitted to pyrolysis process, such as fibers, are generally rich in silicon, an element that can lead to damages in an engine when there is high concentration in a fuel. High-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) is an interesting alternative for Si determination in the products and byproducts of the pyrolysis process because, besides the flame (F) and graphite furnace (GF) atomizers, it has enhanced the application of direct analysis of solid samples (SS) within GF...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306831/annual-n2o-emissions-from-conventionally-grazed-typical-alpine-grass-meadows-in-the-eastern-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#14
Han Zhang, Zhisheng Yao, Kai Wang, Xunhua Zheng, Lei Ma, Rui Wang, Chunyan Liu, Wei Zhang, Bo Zhu, Xiangyu Tang, Zhenghua Hu, Shenghui Han
Annual nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from high-altitude alpine meadow grasslands have not been effectively characterized because of the scarcity of whole-year measurements. The authors performed a year-round measurement of N2O fluxes from three conventionally grazed alpine meadows that represent the typical meadow landscape in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The results showed that annual N2O emissions averaged 0.123±0.053 (2SD, i.e., the double standard deviation indicating the 95% confidence interval) kgNha-1yr-1 across the three meadow sites...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306201/optical-technologies-applied-alongside-on-site-and-remote-approaches-for-climate-gas-emission-quantification-at-a-wastewater-treatment-plant
#15
Jerker Samuelsson, Antonio Delre, Susanne Tumlin, Safa Hadi, Brian Offerle, Charlotte Scheutz
Plant-integrated and on-site gas emissions were quantified from a Swedish wastewater treatment plant by applying several optical analytical techniques and measurement methods. Plant-integrated CH4 emission rates, measured using mobile ground-based remote sensing methods, varied between 28.5 and 33.5 kg CH4 h-1, corresponding to an average emission factor of 5.9% as kg CH4 (kg CH4production) -1, whereas N2O emissions varied between 4.0 and 6.4 kg h-1, corresponding to an average emission factor of 1.5% as kg N2O-N (kg TN influent) -1...
December 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303256/high-precision-measurement-of-n2o-concentration-in-ice-cores
#16
Yeongjun Ryu, Jinho Ahn, Ji-Woong Yang
Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance whose emissions are substantially perturbed by current human activities. Although air trapped in polar ice cores can provide direct information about N2O evolution, analytical precision was not previously sufficient for high temporal resolution studies. In this work, we present a highly improved analytical technique with which to study N2O concentrations in ancient-air-trapped ice cores. We adopt a melt-refreezing method to extract air and use a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to determine N2O concentrations...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302193/management-of-trauma-pain-in-the-emergency-setting-low-dose-methoxyflurane-or-nitrous-oxide-a-systematic-review-and-indirect-treatment-comparison
#17
REVIEW
Keith M Porter, Mohd Kashif Siddiqui, Ikksheta Sharma, Sara Dickerson, Alice Eberhardt
Background: Low-dose methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide (N2O; 50:50 with oxygen) are both self-administered, self-titrated, rapid-acting, nonnarcotic, and noninvasive inhalational agents with similar onset times of pain relief. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these analgesics in emergency care. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search and review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were performed using Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Library, several clinical trial registers, and emergency-medicine conference material...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297760/silk-fibroin-porous-scaffolds-by-n2o-foaming
#18
Devid Maniglio, Walter Bonani, Claudio Migliaresi, Antonella Motta
Silk fibroin has acquired increasing interest for biomedical applications, and namely for the fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering, because of its highly positive biological interaction and the possibility to adapt the material to several application requirements by adopting different fabrication methods, in order to make films, sponges, fibers, nets or gels with predictable degradation times. For tissue engineering, in most cases porous scaffolds are required, in some cases possibly in situ forming and therefore fabricated in mild body-compatible conditions...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291489/bedding-additives-reduce-ammonia-emission-and-improve-crop-n-uptake-after-soil-application-of-solid-cattle-manure
#19
Ghulam Abbas Shah, Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid, Jeroen C J Groot, Bouba Traore, Egbert A Lantinga
This study examined the influences of three potential additives, i.e., lava meal, sandy soil top-layer and zeolite (used in animal bedding) amended solid cattle manures on (i) ammonia (NH3), dinitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and (ii) maize crop or grassland apparent N recovery (ANR). Diffusion samplers were installed at 20 cm height on grassland surface to measure the concentrations of NH3 from the manures. A photoacoustic gas monitor was used to quantitate the fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 after manures' incorporation into the maize-field...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289876/insight-into-effects-of-mature-compost-recycling-on-n2o-emission-and-denitrification-genes-in-sludge-composting
#20
Ke Wang, Yiqi Wu, Weiguang Li, Chuandong Wu, Zhiqiang Chen
Mature compost recycling is widely used to reduce the dosage of organic bulking agent in actual composting process. In this study, the effects of mature compost amendment on N2O emission and denitrification genes were investigated in 47 days composting of sewage sludge and rice husks. The results showed that mature compost amendment dramatically augmented N2O emission rate in mesophilic phase and CO2 emission rate in thermophilic phase of composting, respectively. The cumulative amount of N2O emission increased by more than 23 times compared to the control...
December 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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