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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726270/equimolar-mixture-of-nitroux-oxyde-and-oxygen-during-post-operative-physiotherapy-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#1
A Delafontaine, A Presedo, D Mohamed, D Lopes, C Wood, C Alberti
BACKGROUND: The administration of an equimolar mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen (N2O) is recommended during painful procedures. However, the evaluation of its use during physiotherapy after surgery has not been reported, although pain may hamper physiotherapy efficiency. This study investigated whether the use of N2O improves the efficacy of post-operative physiotherapy after multilevel surgery in patients with cerebral palsy. METHOD: It was a randomized 1:1, double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726125/nitrogen-assimilation-in-denitrifier-bacillus-azotoformans-lmg-9581-t
#2
Yihua Sun, Paul De Vos, Anne Willems
Until recently, it has not been generally known that some bacteria can contain the gene inventory for both denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate (NO3(-))/nitrite (NO2(-)) reduction to ammonium (NH4(+)) (DNRA). Detailed studies of these microorganisms could shed light on the differentiating environmental drivers of both processes without interference of organism-specific variation. Genome analysis of Bacillus azotoformans LMG 9581(T) shows a remarkable redundancy of dissimilatory nitrogen reduction, with multiple copies of each denitrification gene as well as DNRA genes nrfAH, but a reduced capacity for nitrogen assimilation, with no nas operon nor amtB gene...
July 19, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725573/determination-of-nitrogen-balance-in-agroecosystems
#3
Upendra M Sainju
Nitrogen balance in agroecosystems provides a quantitative framework of N inputs and outputs and retention in the soil that examines the sustainability of agricultural productivity and soil and environmental quality. Nitrogen inputs include N additions from manures and fertilizers, atmospheric depositions including wet and dry depositions, irrigation water, and biological N fixation. Nitrogen outputs include N removal in crop grain and biomass and N losses through leaching, denitrification, volatilization, surface runoff, erosion, gas emissions, and plant senescence...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724102/impact-of-biochar-organic-and-inorganic-carbon-on-soil-co2-and-n2o-emissions
#4
Rivka B Fidel, David A Laird, Timothy B Parkin
Biochar has been shown to influence soil CO and NO emissions following application to soil, but the presence of carbonates in biochars has largely confounded efforts to differentiate among labile and recalcitrant C pools in biochar and establish their timeframe of influence. Understanding the mechanism, magnitude, and duration of biochar C pools' influence on C and N dynamics is imperative to successful implementation of biochar for C sequestration. Here we therefore aim to assess biochar organic and inorganic C pool impacts on CO and NO emissions from soil amended with two untreated biochars, inorganic carbon (as NaCO), acid (HCl) and bicarbonate (NaHCO) extracts of the biochars, and acid and bicarbonate/acid-washed biochars during a 140-d soil incubation...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723161/phosphines-as-efficient-dioxygen-scavengers-in-nitrous-oxide-sensors
#5
Steffen Gralert Sveegaard, Michael Nielsen, Mikkel Holmen Andersen, Kurt Vesterager Gothelf
A current challenge for development of amperometric sensors for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) is their sensitivity toward dioxygen and trace water. The need for aqueous dioxygen scavengers in front of the sensor implies a background signal from penetrating water vapor. In this paper, we introduce substituted phosphines as dioxygen scavengers and demonstrate the application in a dioxygen-insensitive N2O sensor. Suitably substituted phosphines have been synthesized to achieve good solubility properties in the electrochemically inert solvent propylene carbonate...
May 26, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716929/nitric-oxide-is-an-obligate-bacterial-nitrification-intermediate-produced-by-hydroxylamine-oxidoreductase
#6
Jonathan D Caranto, Kyle M Lancaster
Ammonia (NH3)-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) emit substantial amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which contribute to the harmful environmental side effects of large-scale agriculture. The currently accepted model for AOB metabolism involves NH3 oxidation to nitrite (NO2(-)) via a single obligate intermediate, hydroxylamine (NH2OH). Within this model, the multiheme enzyme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of NH2OH to NO2(-) We provide evidence that HAO oxidizes NH2OH by only three electrons to NO under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716411/genetic-mitigation-strategies-to-tackle-agricultural-ghg-emissions-the-case-for-biological-nitrification-inhibition-technology
#7
REVIEW
G V Subbarao, J Arango, K Masahiro, A M Hooper, T Yoshihashi, Y Ando, K Nakahara, S Deshpande, I Ortiz-Monasterio, M Ishitani, M Peters, N Chirinda, L Wollenberg, J C Lata, B Gerard, S Tobita, I M Rao, H J Braun, V Kommerell, J Tohme, M Iwanaga
Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713224/low-frequency-aeration-of-pig-slurry-affects-slurry-characteristics-and-emissions-of-greenhouse-gases-and-ammonia
#8
Salvador Calvet, John Hunt, Tom H Misselbrook
Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m(3) of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m(3) h(-1)), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control...
July 2017: Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710732/economic-growth-and-environmental-pollution-in-myanmar-an-analysis-of-environmental-kuznets-curve
#9
Thiri Shwesin Aung, Behnaz Saboori, Ehsan Rasoulinezhad
This empirical study examines the short- and long-run relationship between GDP as an economic growth indicator and CO2 emissions as an environmental pollution indicator in Myanmar by using annual time series data over the period of 1970-2014. It also carefully considered other proxies, such as trade openness, financial openness and urbanization, and structural breaks in the country. The fundamental objective of this study is to test the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the context of Myanmar...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704665/effect-of-temperature-on-n2o-emissions-from-a-highly-enriched-nitrifying-granular-sludge-performing-partial-nitritation-of-a-low-strength-wastewater
#10
Clara Reino, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Julián Carrera, Julio Pérez
In the race to achieve a sustainable urban wastewater treatment plant, not only the energy requirements have to be considered but also the environmental impact of the facility. Thus, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are a key-factor to pay attention to, since they can dominate the total greenhouse gases emissions from biological wastewater treatment. In this study, N2O production factors were calculated during the operation of a granular sludge airlift reactor performing partial nitritation treating a low-strength synthetic influent, and furthermore, the effect of temperature on N2O production was assessed...
July 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702012/community-composition-of-nitrous-oxide-consuming-bacteria-in-the-oxygen-minimum-zone-of-the-eastern-tropical-south-pacific
#11
Xin Sun, Amal Jayakumar, Bess B Ward
The ozone-depleting and greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), is mainly consumed by the microbially mediated anaerobic process, denitrification. N2O consumption is the last step in canonical denitrification, and is also the least O2 tolerant step. Community composition of total and active N2O consuming bacteria was analyzed based on total (DNA) and transcriptionally active (RNA) nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes using a functional gene microarray. The total and active nosZ communities were dominated by a limited number of nosZ archetypes, affiliated with bacteria from marine, soil and marsh environments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700590/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dung-pats-vary-with-dung-beetle-species-and-with-assemblage-composition
#12
Irene Piccini, Fabrizio Arnieri, Enrico Caprio, Beatrice Nervo, Simone Pelissetti, Claudia Palestrini, Tomas Roslin, Antonio Rolando
Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species), we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed) and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696424/phenotypic-and-genotypic-richness-of-denitrifiers-revealed-by-a-novel-isolation-strategy
#13
Pawel Lycus, Kari Lovise Bøthun, Linda Bergaust, James Peele Shapleigh, Lars Reier Bakken, Åsa Frostegård
Present-day knowledge on the regulatory biology of denitrification is based on studies of selected model organisms. These show large variations in their potential contribution to NO2(-), NO, and N2O accumulation, attributed to lack of genes coding for denitrification reductases, but also to variations in their transcriptional regulation, as well as to post-transcriptional phenomena. To validate the relevance of these observations, there is a need to study a wider range of denitrifiers. We designed an isolation protocol that identifies all possible combinations of truncated denitrification chains (NO3(-)/NO2(-)/NO/N2O/N2)...
July 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690623/achieving-lower-nitrogen-balance-and-higher-nitrogen-recovery-efficiency-reduces-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-north-america-s-maize-cropping-systems
#14
Rex A Omonode, Ardell D Halvorson, Bernard Gagnon, Tony J Vyn
Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N) uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE) will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency parameters can help inform crop N management recommendations for both efficiency and environmental goals. Analyses were conducted to determine which of several commonly used crop N uptake-derived parameters related most strongly to growing season N2O emissions under varying N management practices in North American maize systems...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689131/a-novel-fuzzy-logic-control-strategy-minimizing-n2o-emissions
#15
Riccardo Boiocchi, Krist V Gernaey, Gürkan Sin
A novel control strategy for achieving low N2O emissions and low effluent NH4(+) concentration is here proposed. The control strategy uses the measurements of ammonium and nitrate concentrations in inlet and outlet of the aerobic zone of a wastewater treatment plant to calculate a ratio indicating the balance among the microbial groups. More specifically, the ratio will indicate if there is a complete nitrification. In case nitrification is not complete, the controller will adjust the aeration level of the plant in order to inhibit the production of N2O from AOB and HB denitrification...
June 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689127/low-nitrous-oxide-production-through-nitrifier-denitrification-in-intermittent-feed-high-rate-nitritation-reactors
#16
Qingxian Su, Chun Ma, Carlos Domingo-Félez, Anne Sofie Kiil, Bo Thamdrup, Marlene Mark Jensen, Barth F Smets
Nitrous oxide (N2O) production from autotrophic nitrogen conversion processes, especially nitritation systems, can be significant, requires understanding and calls for mitigation. In this study, the rates and pathways of N2O production were quantified in two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors operated with intermittent feeding and demonstrating long-term and high-rate nitritation. The resulting reactor biomass was highly enriched in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and converted ∼93 ± 14% of the oxidized ammonium to nitrite...
June 24, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688256/temporal-and-spatial-variation-of-n2o-production-from-estuarine-and-marine-shallow-systems-of-cadiz-bay-sw-spain
#17
Macarena Burgos, Teodora Ortega, Jesús M Forja
There is still much uncertainty regarding the global oceanic emissions of N2O, and particularly emissions from coastal regions, because spatio-temporal datasets have limited coverage. The concentration of dissolved N2O in surface waters and the associated fluxes to the atmosphere have been studied in three coastal systems located near Cadiz Bay (southwestern coast of Spain) over different time scales. The three systems present different hydrodynamic characteristics (an estuary and two marine systems) that influence the distribution of N2O in the water column...
July 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684772/low-oxygen-eddies-in-the-eastern-tropical-north-atlantic-implications-for-n2o-cycling
#18
D S Grundle, C R Löscher, G Krahmann, M A Altabet, H W Bange, J Karstensen, A Körtzinger, B Fiedler
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a climate relevant trace gas, and its production in the ocean generally increases under suboxic conditions. The Atlantic Ocean is well ventilated, and unlike the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, dissolved oxygen and N2O concentrations in the Atlantic OMZ are relatively high and low, respectively. This study, however, demonstrates that recently discovered low oxygen eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) can produce N2O concentrations much higher (up to 115 nmol L(-1)) than those previously reported for the Atlantic Ocean, and which are within the range of the highest concentrations found in the open-ocean OMZs of the Pacific and Indian Oceans...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681639/development-of-a-field-deployable-method-for-simultaneous-real-time-measurements-of-the-four-most-abundant-n2o-isotopocules
#19
Erkan Ibraim, Eliza Harris, Simon Eyer, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Johan Six, Joachim Mohn
Understanding and quantifying the biogeochemical cycle of N2O is essential to develop effective N2O emission mitigation strategies. This study presents a novel, fully automated measurement technique that allows simultaneous, high-precision quantification of the four main N2O isotopocules ((14)N(14)N(16)O, (14)N(15)N(16)O, (15)N(14)N(16)O and (14)N(14)N(18)O) in ambient air. The instrumentation consists of a trace gas extractor (TREX) coupled to a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer, designed for autonomous operation at remote measurement sites...
July 6, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681292/biochars-mitigate-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-bioaccumulation-of-potentially-toxic-elements-and-arsenic-speciation-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-l
#20
Muhammad Ibrahim, Gang Li, Sardar Khan, Qiaoqiao Chi, Yaoyang Xu
Anthropogenic and natural activities can lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions and discharge of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into soil environment. Biochar amendment to soils is a cost-effective technology and sustainable approach used to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, improve phytoremediation, and minimize the health risks associated with consumption of PTE-contaminated vegetables. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of peanut shell biochar (PNB) and sewage sludge biochar (SSB) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, plant growth, PTE bioaccumulation, and arsenic (As) speciation in bean plants...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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