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Brendan Francis Abrahams, David Dharma, Paul Stephen Donnelly, Timothy Adam Hudson, Cameron J Kepert, Richard Robson, Peter D Southon, Keith Forrest White
The uptake of inhalation anesthetics by three topologically identical frameworks is described. The 3D network materials, which possess square channels of different dimensions, are formed from the relatively simple combination of Zn(II) centres and dianionic ligands that contain a phenolate and a carboxylate group at opposite ends. All three framework materials are able to adsorb N2O, Xe and isoflurane. Whilst the framework with the widest channels is able to adsorb large quantities of the various guests from the gas phase, the frameworks with the narrower channels have superior binding enthalpies and exhibit higher levels of retention...
April 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Theoni Maria Massara, Simos Malamis, Albert Guisasola, Juan Antonio Baeza, Constantinos Noutsopoulos, Evina Katsou
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important pollutant which is emitted during the biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes of wastewater treatment. Since it has a greenhouse effect which is 265 times higher than carbon dioxide, even relatively small amounts can result in a significant carbon footprint. Biological nitrogen (N) removal conventionally occurs with nitrification/denitrification, yet also through advanced processes such as nitritation/denitritation and completely autotrophic N-removal. The microbial pathways leading to the N2O emission include hydroxylamine oxidation and nitrifier denitrification, both activated by ammonia oxidizing bacteria, and heterotrophic denitrification...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Peipei Ai, Minghui Tan, Noriyuki Yamane, Guoguo Liu, Ronggang Fan, Guohui Yang, Yoshiharu Yoneyama, Ruiqin Yang, Noritatsu Tsubaki
Heteroatom doping is a promising approach to improve the properties of carbon material for customized applications. Herein, a series of boron-doped carbon nanotubes supported Cu catalysts (Cu/xB-CNTs) were prepared for the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate to ethanol. The structure and chemical properties of boron doped catalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, N2O pulse adsorption, CO chemisorption, H2-TPR and NH3-TPD, which revealed that doping boron into CNTs support improved the Cu dispersion, strengthened the interaction of Cu species with CNTs support, introduced more surface acid sites and elevated surface area of both Cu0 and Cu+ sites, especially the surface area of Cu+ sites...
April 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Hui Liu, Kaisong Xiang, Bentao Yang, Xiaofeng Xie, Dongli Wang, Cong Zhang, Zhilou Liu, Shu Yang, Cao Liu, Jianping Zou, Liyuan Chai
Converting the NO from gaseous pollutant into NH4(+) through electrocatalytical reduction using cost-effective materials holds great promise for pollutant purifying and resources recycling. In this work, we developed a highly selective and stable catalyst CoSe2 nanoparticle hybridized with carbon nanotubes (CoSe2@CNTs). The CoSe2@CNTs hybrid catalysts performed an extraordinary high selectivity for NH4(+) formation in NO electroreduction with minimal N2O production and H2 evolution. The specific spatial structure of CoSe2 is conductive to the predominant formation of N-H bond between the N from adsorbed NO and H and inhibition of N-N formation from adjacent adsorbed NO...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhi-Feng Zhou, Yan-Hong Yao, Ming-Xia Wang, Xiao-Hu Zuo
It has previously been confirmed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be degraded by soil microbes coupling with denitrification, but the relationships among soil denitrifiers, PAHs, and nitrate under obligate anaerobic condition are still unclear. Here, co-effects of pyrene and nitrate on the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers were investigated through a 45-day incubation experiment. Two groups of soil treatments with (N30) and without (N0) nitrate (30 mg kg(-1) dry soil) amendment were conducted, and each group contained three treatments with different pyrene concentrations (0, 30, and 60 mg kg(-1) dry soil denoted as P0, P30, and P60, respectively)...
April 18, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Marika Truu, Ivika Ostonen, Jens-Konrad Preem, Krista Lõhmus, Hiie Nõlvak, Teele Ligi, Katrin Rosenvald, Kaarin Parts, Priit Kupper, Jaak Truu
Soil microbes play a fundamental role in forest ecosystems and respond rapidly to changes in the environment. Simultaneously with the temperature increase the climate change scenarios also predict an intensified hydrological cycle for the Baltic Sea runoff region. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated air humidity on the top soil microbial community structure of a silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stand by using a free air humidity manipulation facility (FAHM). The bacterial community structures of bulk soil and birch rhizosphere were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of bacteria-specific16S rRNA gene fragments and quantification of denitrification related genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiong Yi, Shuanghu Tang, Xiaolin Fan, Mu Zhang, Yuwan Pang, Xu Huang, Qiaoyi Huang
Globally, vegetable fields are the primary source of greenhouse gas emissions. A closed-chamber method together with gas chromatography was used to measure the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in typical vegetable fields planted with four vegetables sequentially over time in the same field: endive, lettuce, cabbage and sweet corn. Results showed that N2O fluxes occurred in pulses with the N2O emission peak varying greatly among the crops. In addition, N2O emissions were linearly associated with the nitrogen (N) application rate (r = 0...
2017: PloS One
Lingqian Meng, Xiaochun Zhu, Emiel J M Hensen
Fe/ZSM-5 nanosheet zeolites of varying thickness were synthesized with di- and tetraquaternary ammonium structure directing agents and extensively characterized for their textural, structural, and catalytic properties. Introduction of Fe(3+) ions in the framework of nanosheet zeolites was slightly less effective than in bulk ZSM-5 zeolite. Steaming was necessary to activate all catalysts for N2O decomposition and benzene oxidation. The higher the Fe content, the higher the degree of Fe aggregation was after catalyst activation...
April 7, 2017: ACS Catalysis
Xiaojun Wang, Mingsheng Jia, Chengliang Zhang, Shaohua Chen, Zucong Cai
The importance of methane (CH4) emissions from landfills has been extensively documented, while the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from landfills are considered negligible. In this study, three landfills were selected to measure CH4 and N2O emissions using the static chamber method. Dongbu (DB) and Dongfu (DF) landfills, both located in Xiamen city, Fujian Province, were classified as sanitary. The former started to receive solid waste from Xiamen city in 2009, and the latter was closed in 2009. Nanjing (NJ) landfill, located in Nanjing county, Fujian Province, was classified as managed...
April 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hui Mao, Teng Zhang, Ronghua Li, Bingnian Zhai, Zhaohui Wang, Quan Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, the effects of apple pomace (AP) addition (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% on a dry weight basis, named as control, AP1, AP2, and AP3) and citric acid (CA) addition on nitrogen conservation were investigated during aerobic composting of pig manure. Gaseous emissions of NH3 and N2O were inhibited by AP and CA addition, with AP's effect greater. The inhibition improved with increasing AP addition. The AP3 treatment was the most effective on NH3 adsorption and transformation to [Formula: see text]-N, improved with subsequent transformation to [Formula: see text]-N, and inhibition of N2O and [Formula: see text] production...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carmen Leix, Jörg E Drewes, Liu Ye, Konrad Koch
Deammonification's performance and associated nitrous oxide emissions (N2O) depend on operational conditions. While studies have investigated factors for high performances and low emissions separately, this study investigated optimizing deammonification performance while simultaneously reducing N2O emissions. Using a design of experiment (DoE) method, two models were developed for the prediction of the nitrogen removal rate and N2O emissions during single-stage deammonification considering three operational factors (i...
April 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Rong Zeng, Moran Feller, Yehoshoa Ben-David, David Milstein
Due to its significant contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion and its potent greenhouse effect, nitrous oxide has stimulated much research interest regarding its reactivity modes and its transformations, which can lead to its abatement. We report the homogeneously catalyzed reaction of nitrous oxide (N2O) with H2. The reaction is catalyzed by a PNP pincer ruthenium complex, generating efficiently only dinitrogen and water, under mild conditions, thus providing a green, mild methodology for removal of nitrous oxide...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ran An, Qian-Yun Pang, Bo Chen, Hong-Liang Liu
BACKGROUND: Postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) are the main cause of postoperative mortality, and controversies exist regarding the effects of anesthesia methods on postoperative MACEs and mortality in high-risk cardiac patients after non-cardiac surgeries. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A Meta-analysis about the effect of anesthesia methods on postoperative MACEs and mortality in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing intermediate- or high-risk non-cardiac surgeries was conducted; Chinese databases (SinoMed, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP) and English databases (Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, Springer, Ovid, the Cochrane Library, and Google scholar) were searched...
April 11, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
Yong Wang, Yoshitaka Uchida, Yumi Shimomura, Hiroko Akiyama, Masahito Hayatsu
Agricultural soil is often subjected to waterlogging after heavy rainfalls, resulting in sharp and explosive increases in the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas primarily released from agricultural soil ecosystems. Previous studies on waterlogged soil examined the abundance of denitrifiers but not the composition of denitrifier communities in soil. Also, the PCR primers used in those studies could only detect partial groups of denitrifiers. Here, we performed pyrosequencing analyses with the aid of recently developed PCR primers exhibiting high coverage for three denitrification genes, nirK, nirS, and nosZ to examine the effect of short-term waterlogging on denitrifier communities in soil...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alessandra Marzadri, Martha M Dee, Daniele Tonina, Alberto Bellin, Jennifer L Tank
Riverine environments, such as streams and rivers, have been reported as sources of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide ([Formula: see text]) to the atmosphere mainly via microbially mediated denitrification. Our limited understanding of the relative roles of the near-surface streambed sediment (hyporheic zone), benthic, and water column zones in controlling [Formula: see text] production precludes predictions of [Formula: see text] emissions along riverine networks. Here, we analyze [Formula: see text] emissions from streams and rivers worldwide of different sizes, morphology, land cover, biomes, and climatic conditions...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yun Cheng, Yang Zhang, Qiuxuan Shen, Jie Gao, Guoqiang Zhuang, Xuliang Zhuang
N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) serve as quorum-sensing signals, which control a number of bacterial processes in many proteobacteria. Here we report the effects of exogenous short-chain AHL on the denitrifying process of Paracoccus denitrificans, which are capable of aerobic and anaerobic growth by utilizing nitrate. The denitrification activity of these cells was monitored by measuring denitrification products (including nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide), and the individual messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide reductases...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Chun Tu, Fadong Li
Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas (GHG, such as N2O, CH4 and CO2) feedbacks to climate change represents the major environmental issue. However, little information is available on how warming effects on GHG fluxes in farmland of North China Plain (NCP). An infrared warming simulation experiment was used to assess the responses of N2O, CH4 and CO2 to warming in wheat season of 2012-2014 from conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) systems. The results showed that warming increased cumulative N2O emission by 7...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Bihuang Xie, Xuchun Li, Xianfeng Huang, Zhe Xu, Weiming Zhang, Bingcai Pan
Halogenated aromatic compounds have attracted increasing concerns due to their toxicity and persistency in the environment, and dehalogenation is one of the promising treatment and detoxification methods. Herein, we systematically studied the debromination efficiency and mechanism of para-bromophenol (4-BP) by a recently developed UV/sulfite process. 4-BP underwent rapid degradation with the kinetics accelerated with the increasing sulfite concentration, pH (6.1-10) and temperature, whereas inhibited by dissolved oxygen and organic solvents...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Jiangxin Gu, Mengxuan Yuan, Jixuan Liu, Yaoxu Hao, Yingtian Zhou, Dong Qu, Xueyun Yang
The primary aims of this study were to (i) quantify the variations in nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates under winter wheat-summer maize cropping systems in Guanzhong Plain and (ii) evaluate the impact of organic amendments on greenhouse gas mitigation over a long-term period. We measured N2O fluxes during the maize season in 2015 under four fertilizer regimes in a long-term fertilization experiment. Soil was treated with only synthetic fertilizers in the maize season and with synthetic fertilizers, synthetic fertilizers plus crop residues and synthetic fertilizers plus low and high levels of dairy manure in the winter wheat season from 1990...
April 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Doyoung Park, Hayeon Kim, Sukhwan Yoon
N2O-reducing organisms with nitrous oxide reductases (NosZ) are known as the only biological sink of N2O in the environment. Among the most abundant nosZ genes found in the environment are nosZ genes affiliated to the understudied Gemmatimonadetes phylum. In this study, a unique regulatory mechanism of N2O reduction in Gemmatimonas aurantiaca strain T-27, an isolate affiliated to Gemmatimonadetes phylum, was examined. Strain T-27 was incubated with N2O and/or O2 as the electron acceptor. Significant N2O reduction was observed only when O2 was initially present...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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