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Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#1
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527254/-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-community-acquired-pneumonia-score-questionnaire-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-pneumonia-in-colombia
#2
Mónica Alejandra Bernal-Vargas, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ricardo Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: One of the strategies for the rational use of antibiotics is the use of the score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP Score). This instrument clinically evaluates patients with community-acquired pneumonia, thereby facilitating decision making regarding the early and safe withdrawal of antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To generate a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire in Spanish. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Authorization for cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire was obtained; the recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) were carried out through the following stages: forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, harmonization, obtaining a provisional questionnaire, and applying the questionnaire in a pilot test...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526799/acquired-resistance-to-macrolides-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#3
Muhammad-Hariri Mustafa, Shaunak Khandekar, Michael M Tunney, J Stuart Elborn, Barbara C Kahl, Olivier Denis, Patrick Plésiat, Hamidou Traore, Paul M Tulkens, Francis Vanderbist, Françoise Van Bambeke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive chronic treatment with macrolides for their antivirulence and anti-inflammatory properties. We, however, previously showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, considered as naturally resistant to macrolides, becomes susceptible when tested in a eukaryotic medium rather than a conventional broth.We therefore looked for specific macrolide resistance determinants in 333 CF isolates from four European CF centres in comparison with 48 isolates from patients suffering from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524255/enablers-and-barriers-to-the-use-of-antibiotic-guidelines-in-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-qualitative-study-of-clinicians-perspectives
#4
Antoine Sedrak, Mahesan Anpalahan, Karen Luetsch
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition and a number of guidelines have been developed for its assessment and treatment. Adherence to guidelines by clinicians varies and particularly the prescribing of antibiotics often remains suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate potential barriers and enablers to the adherence to antibiotic guidelines by clinicians treating CAP in an Australian hospital. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively recruited senior prescribers who regularly treat CAP in an Australian hospital...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520948/relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-outcomes-among-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
Anna M Bramley, Carrie Reed, Lyn Finelli, Wesley H Self, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Evan J Anderson, Chris Stockmann, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Robert Balk, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Seema Jain
Background: The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear. Methods: We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes [hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation] in hospitalized CAP patients from the CDC Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516828/impact-on-the-medical-decision-making-process-of-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-respiratory-pathogens
#6
A Guillon, S Aymeric, C Gaudy-Graffin, J Sonke, M P Deblonde, J Capsec, P Diot, D Garot, A Goudeau, L Grammatico-Guillon
The objective of this study was to determine how clinicians make use of the modern multiplex PCR assays (MPAs) to manage patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We studied the use of MPAs in 1648 patients hospitalized for CAP over a 3-year period at the moment of the setup of the new PCR assay. We observed that the use of MPAs for the identification of multiple respiratory pathogens marks a radical change in the investigation of CAP etiology. Surprisingly, the contribution of MPAs to the medical decision-making process varies drastically according to the units of care...
May 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516132/life-threatening-hypercalcemia-during-prodrome-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-an-immunocompetent-infant
#7
Judith Sebestyen VanSickle, Tarak Srivastava, Uri S Alon
Severe hypercalcemia in infants is usually attributed to genetic etiologies and less commonly to acquired ones. An 8-week-old girl presented with failure to thrive, mild respiratory distress, and life-threatening hypercalcemia (23.5 mg/dL). Serum 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D (1,25(OH)2-D) level was elevated and parathyroid hormone undetectable. Evaluation for genetic mutations and malignant etiologies of hypercalcemia was negative. Treatment with intravenous hydration, loop diuretic, and calcitonin failed to correct the hypercalcemia, which was subsequently controlled with bisphosphonate therapy...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515580/infectious-pneumonia-in-the-immunocompetent-host-what-the-radiologist-should-know
#8
Rohini G Ghasi, Sunil K Bajaj
Lung infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly because of the rising antimicrobial resistance. According to the clinical setting, they can be categorized as community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Radiological patterns of lung infections are lobar consolidation, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pattern, and nodular pattern. In addition, typical imaging features of several infections serve as "red flag signs" in reaching a diagnosis or altering the management...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513919/functional-status-and-mortality-prediction-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Kyeongman Jeon, Hongseok Yoo, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Hye Yun Park, Won-Jung Koh, Gee Young Suh, Eliseo Guallar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor functional status (FS) has been suggested as a poor prognostic factor in both pneumonia and severe pneumonia in elderly patients. However, it is still unclear whether FS is associated with outcomes and improves survival prediction in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the general population. METHODS: Data on hospitalized patients with CAP and FS, assessed by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scale were prospectively collected between January 2008 and December 2012...
May 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511383/study-on-mics-of-tigecycline-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#10
Vineeta Khare, Prashant Gupta, Fareya Haider, Rehana Begum
INTRODUCTION: Members of family Enterobacteriaceae are the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples. Those Enterobacteriaceae which have acquired resistance to all β-lactams antibiotics including the carbapenems are considered as Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). These CRE isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. Tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resistant bacteria...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510994/improved-detection-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-from-non-blood-clinical-specimens-using-enrichment-culture-and-pcr-narrowing-diagnostic-gap-in-resource-constrained-settings
#11
Chaitanya Tellapragada, Tushar Shaw, Annet D'Souza, Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of enrichment culture and PCR for improved case detection rates of non-bacteremic form of melioidosis in limited resource settings. METHODS: Clinical specimens (n=525) obtained from patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of south India with clinical symptoms suggestive of community-acquired pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infections, superficial or internal abscesses, chronic skin ulcers and bone or joint infections were tested for the presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei using conventional culture (CC), enrichment culture (EC) and PCR...
May 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506958/enhancing-comparative-effectiveness-research-with-automated-pediatric-pneumonia-detection-in-a-multi-institutional-clinical-repository-a-phis-pilot-study
#12
Stephane Meystre, Ramkiran Gouripeddi, Joel Tieder, Jeffrey Simmons, Rajendu Srivastava, Samir Shah
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity. Administrative data are often used to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) with sufficient sample sizes to enhance detection of important outcomes. However, such studies are prone to misclassification errors because of the variable accuracy of discharge diagnosis codes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated, scalable, and accurate method to determine the presence or absence of pneumonia in children using chest imaging reports...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503879/impact-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-appropriateness-of-prescribing-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-an-australian-regional-hospital
#13
Stuart E Bond, Craig S Boutlis, Wilfred W Yeo, Spiros Miyakis
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the second commonest indication for antibiotic use in Australian hospitals and is therefore a frequent target for antimicrobial stewardship. A single-centre prospective study was conducted in a regional referral hospital comparing management of adult patients with CAP before and after an educational intervention. We demonstrated a reduction in duration of therapy and reduced inappropriate use of ceftriaxone-based regimens for non-severe CAP.
May 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503496/prevalence-of-acquired-carbapenemase-genes-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-by-multiplex-pcr-in-isfahan
#14
Farzin Khorvash, Mohammed Reza Yazdani, Ali Asghar Soudi, Shiva Shabani, Nirvana Tavahen
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has been considered as a serious global threat. This study was done to investigate carbapenemase producing genomes among K. pneumoniae isolates in Isfahan, Central Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2012, 29 carbapenem resistant (according to disc diffusion method) carbapenemase producing (according to modified Hodge test) K. pneumoniae strains were collected from Intensive Care Unit (ICUs) of Al-Zahra referral Hospital...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502330/three-decades-of-follow-up-of-adults-after-recovery-from-invasive-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#15
Oluwadamilare O Ajayi, Nancy B Norton, Todd W Gress, Ronald J Stanek, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) carries a high case fatality rate. We investigated the lifespan of adults who recovered from IPD during a 32-year follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined whether adults discharged after an episode of IPD from hospitals affiliated with the Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine in Huntington, West Virginia from 1983-2003 were alive on June 30, 2014...
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502325/long-term-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
EDITORIAL
Paula Peyrani, Julio Ramirez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501761/improving-the-quality-of-the-intensive-care-follow-up-of-ventilated-patients-during-a-national-registration-program
#17
P Reper, D Dicker, P Damas, W Aelvoet, L Huyghens, M Haelterman
OBJECTIVES: The Belgian Public Health Organization is concerned with rates of hospital-acquired infections like ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Implementing best practice guidelines for these nosocomial infections has variable success in the literature. This retrospective study was undertaken to see whether implementation of the evidence-based practices as a bundle was feasible, would influence compliance, and could reduce the rates of VAP. STUDY DESIGN: We utilized easily collectable data about regular care to rapidly assess whether interventions already in place were effectively successfully applied...
May 11, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497295/assessing-the-risk-and-disease-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-patients-with-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-at-a-university-hospital-in-central-china
#18
Chunhui Li, Juping Duan, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Chenchao Fu, Cui Zeng, Anhua Wu
PURPOSE: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) remains one of the major hospital-acquired infections in China. Antibiotic treatment of HAP may lead to subsequent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Baseline data on the occurrence of CDI among HAP patients in China are currently unavailable. This study examines the risk and disease burden of CDI among HAP hospitalized patients (HAP-CDI). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among ICU patients with HAP and hospital-onset diarrhea from January 2014 to December 2014 in a teaching hospital in China...
May 11, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496015/determining-the-possible-etiology-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-using-a-clone-library-analysis-in-japan
#19
Kazuhiro Yatera, Shingo Noguchi, Kei Yamasaki, Toshinori Kawanami, Kazumasa Fukuda, Keisuke Naito, Kentaro Akata, Takashi Kido, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Noriho Sakamoto, Hatsumi Taniguchi, Hiroshi Mukae
Obtaining precise etiological information regarding causative bacteria is important for the proper use of antimicrobials in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which is associated with a high rate of mortality. The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the bacterial diversity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in Japanese patients with HAP by the clone library method using the 16S rRNA gene. This study included Japanese patients with HAP who were treated at our hospital and referring hospitals...
May 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494435/impact-of-respiratory-viruses-in-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#20
Paul Loubet, Guillaume Voiriot, Nadhira Houhou-Fidouh, Mathilde Neuville, Lila Bouadma, Francois-Xavier Lescure, Diane Descamps, Jean-François Timsit, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Benoit Visseaux
BACKGROUND: Data on the frequency and role of respiratory viruses (RVs) in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) are still scarce. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the proportion of RVs and their impact on the outcome of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in the intensive care unit (ICU). STUDY DESIGN: Cases of HAP were retrospectively selected among patients who underwent screening for RVs by multiplex PCR (mPCR) in the ICU of a French tertiary care hospital from May 2014 to April 2016...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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