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Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431414/intratracheal-instillation-of-neutrophils-rescues-bacterial-overgrowth-initiated-by-trauma-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#1
Kiyoshi Itagaki, Ingred Riça, Jing Zhang, Dave Gallo, Melissa DePrato, Leo E Otterbein, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonias are common in trauma patients and so interventions to prevent and treat nosocomial pneumonia may improve outcomes. Our prior work strongly suggests that tissue injury predisposes to infections like nosocomial pneumonia because mitochondrial debris originating from injured cells contains damage-associated molecular patterns that can reduce neutrophil (PMN) migration into the airway and diminish PMN function in response to bacterial inoculation of the airway...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427381/penicillin-treatment-for-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-denmark-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Gertrud Baunbæk Egelund, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Stine Bang Andersen, Pelle Trier Petersen, Bjarne Ørskov Lindhardt, Christian von Plessen, Gernot Rohde, Pernille Ravn
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high mortality. Antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of CAP in Denmark and evaluate the prognosis of patients empirically treated with penicillin-G/V monotherapy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including hospitalized patients with x-ray confirmed CAP. We calculated the population-based incidence, reviewed types of empiric antibiotics and duration of antibiotic treatment...
April 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424077/plasma-metabolomics-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-h1n1-influenza-pneumonia
#3
Mohammad M Banoei, Hans J Vogel, Aalim M Weljie, Anand Kumar, Sachin Yende, Derek C Angus, Brent W Winston
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a tool that has been used for the diagnosis and prognosis of specific diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine if metabolomics could be used as a potential diagnostic and prognostic tool for H1N1 pneumonia. Our hypothesis was that metabolomics can potentially be used early for the diagnosis and prognosis of H1N1 influenza pneumonia. METHODS: (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to profile the metabolome in 42 patients with H1N1 pneumonia, 31 ventilated control subjects in the intensive care unit (ICU), and 30 culture-positive plasma samples from patients with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia drawn within the first 24 h of hospital admission for diagnosis and prognosis of disease...
April 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422471/-epidemiological-surveillance-for-multidrug-resistant-microorganisms-in-a-general-icu
#4
A Fernández-Verdugo, J Fernández, D Escudero, L Cofiño, L Forcelledo, M Telenti, E García-Prieto, R Rodríguez-García, L Álvarez-García, A Pérez-García, C Rodríguez-Lucas, F Vazquez
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms represent a threat for patients admitted in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The objective of the present study is to analyse the results of epidemiological surveillance cultures for these microorganisms in one of these units. METHODS: General ICU. Retrospective analysis, descriptive statistics. Analysis of epidemiological surveillance cultures for MDR microorganisms in 2015. Studied microorganisms: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL-and/or carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CESBL-KP) and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB)...
April 5, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419820/community-acquired-infections-among-the-refugees-leading-to-intensive-care-unit-admissions-in-turkey
#5
Mediha Turktan, Oznur Ak, Hakan Erdem, Dilek Ozcengiz, Sally Hargreaves, Safak Kaya, Emre Karakoc, Ozlem Ozkan-Kuscu, Gunay Tuncer-Ertem, Recep Tekin, Handan Birbicer, Gul Durmus, Canan Yilmaz, Funda Kocak, Edmond Puca, Jordi Rello
OBJECTIVES: Data on the impact of refugees on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are lacking in the literature, in particular for community-acquired (CA) infectious diseases, for which they are known to be at higher risk. We did a descriptive, multicenter study to analyze CA infections among refugee patients requiring ICU admission. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were adult refugee patients admitted to an ICU due to CA infections. Anonymized data were collected between January 1, 2010 and December 30, 2015 across 10 referral centers...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417242/combined-use-of-the-multidimensional-prognostic-index-mpi-and-procalcitonin-serum-levels-in-predicting-1-month-mortality-risk-in-older-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-cap-a-prospective-study
#6
Alberto Pilotto, Simone Dini, Julia Daragjati, Manuela Miolo, Monica Maria Mion, Andrea Fontana, Mario Lo Storto, Martina Zaninotto, Alberto Cella, Paolo Carraro, Filomena Addante, Massimiliano Copetti, Mario Plebani
BACKGROUND: Several scores and biomarkers, i.e., procalcitonin (PCT), were proposed to stratify the mortality risk in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). AIM: Evaluating prognostic accuracy of PCT and Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) for 1-month mortality risk in older patients with CAP. METHODS: At hospital admission and at discharge, patients were evaluated by a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment to calculate MPI. Serum PCT was measured at admission and 1, 3, and 5 days after hospital admission...
April 17, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416961/predictive-factors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-elderly-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia
#7
Hyeyoung Jwa, Jong Wook Beom, Jong Hoo Lee
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a severe and life-threatening disease in patients with community-onset (CO) pneumonia. However, the current guidelines lack specificity for a screening test for MRSA infection. METHODS: This study was retrospectively conducted in elderly patients aged ≥65 years, who had contracted CO-pneumonia during hospitalization at the Jeju National University Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414567/disease-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-y-old-in-china-a-population-based-survey
#8
Yan Li, Zhijie An, Dapeng Yin, Yanmin Liu, Zhuoying Huang, Yujie Ma, Hui Li, Qi Li, Huaqing Wang
BACKGROUND: To obtain the baseline data on the incidence and cost of community acquired pneumonia among under-5 children for future studies, and provide evidence for shaping China's strategies regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). METHODS: Three townships from Heilongjiang, Hebei and Gansu Province and one community in Shanghai were selected as study areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on incidence and cost of pneumonia among children under 5 y old in 2012...
April 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408931/drug-induced-pneumonitis-secondary-to-treatment-with-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-and-dasabuvir-viekira-pak%C3%A2-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-case-report-of-an-unexpected-life-threatening-adverse-reaction
#9
Shih Yea Sylvia Wu, Bridget Faire, Edward Gane
VIEKIRA PAK (ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir) is an approved treatment for compensated patients with genotype 1 (GT1) chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This oral regimen has minimal adverse effects and is well tolerated. Cure rates are 97% in patients infected with HCV GT 1a and 99% in those with HCV GT 1b. We report the first case of life-threatening allergic pneumonitis associated with VIEKIRA PAK. This unexpected serious adverse event occurred in a 68-year-old Chinese female with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C and Child-Pugh A cirrhosis...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407209/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-an-emerging-marker-predicting-prognosis-in-elderly-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#10
Emanuela Cataudella, Chiara M Giraffa, Salvatore Di Marca, Alfredo Pulvirenti, Salvatore Alaimo, Marcella Pisano, Valentina Terranova, Thea Corriere, Maria L Ronsisvalle, Rosario Di Quattro, Benedetta Stancanelli, Mauro Giordano, Carlo Vancheri, Lorenzo Malatino
OBJECTIVES: To explore the performance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an index of systemic inflammation that predicts prognosis of several diseases, in a cohort of elderly adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). DESIGN: Prospective clinical study from January 2014 to July 2016. SETTING: Unit of Internal Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Elderly adults admitted for CAP (N = 195)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407054/procalcitonin-as-a-marker-of-etiology-in-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#11
Wesley H Self, Robert A Balk, Carlos G Grijalva, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Evan J Anderson, Grant W Waterer, D Mark Courtney, Anna M Bramley, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Anne J Blaschke, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink
Background: Recent trials suggest procalcitonin-based guidelines can reduce antibiotic use for respiratory infections. However, the accuracy of procalcitonin to discriminate between viral and bacterial pneumonia requires further dissection. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum procalcitonin concentration at hospital admission with pathogens detected in a multicenter prospective surveillance study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403050/ceftaroline-activity-tested-against-bacterial-isolates-causing-community-acquired-respiratory-tract-infections-and-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-in-pediatric-patients-from-united-states-hospitals-2012-2014
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones, Helio S Sader
Ceftaroline fosamil has recently received US Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of acute bacterial skin/skin structure infections (SSSIs), including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia for pediatric patients ≥2 months old. We evaluated the potency and spectrum of ceftaroline and comparators when tested against community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CARTI) and SSSI pathogens from pediatric patients. A total of 3141 consecutive, unique pediatric patient isolates of clinical significance (1460 CARTI and 1681 SSSI isolates) were collected from 29 US medical centers and tested for susceptibility to ceftaroline and comparators by broth microdilution methods...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399687/low-prevalence-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-review-of-a-clinical-data-warehouse
#13
T M Kapoor, P Mahadeshwar, S Nguyen, J Li, S Kapoor, J Bathon, J Giles, A Askanase
Objective In the era of powerful immunosuppression, opportunistic infections are an increasing concern in systemic lupus erythematosus. One of the best-studied opportunistic infections is Pneumocystis pneumonia; however, the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus is not clearly defined. This study evaluates the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus patients, with a focus on validating the Pneumocystis pneumonia and systemic lupus erythematosus diagnoses with clinical information...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397615/modifiable-risk-factors-for-the-spread-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-long-term-acute-care-hospital-patients
#14
Koh Okamoto, Michael Y Lin, Manon Haverkate, Karen Lolans, Nicholas M Moore, Shayna Weiner, Rosie D Lyles, Donald Blom, Yoona Rhee, Sarah Kemble, Louis Fogg, David W Hines, Robert A Weinstein, Mary K Hayden
OBJECTIVE To identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) colonization among long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH) patients. DESIGN Multicenter, matched case-control study. SETTING Four LTACHs in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS Each case patient included in this study had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission followed by a KPC-positive surveillance culture later in the hospital stay. Each matched control patient had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission and no KPC isolated during the hospital stay...
April 11, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397261/validity-and-reliability-of-administrative-coded-data-for-the-identification-of-hospital-acquired-infections-an-updated-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis
#15
Olga Redondo-González, José María Tenías, Ángel Arias, Alfredo J Lucendo
OBJECTIVE: To conduct an updated assessment of the validity and reliability of administrative coded data (ACD) in identifying hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). METHODS: We systematically searched three libraries for studies on ACD detecting HAIs compared to manual chart review. Meta-analyses were conducted for prosthetic and nonprosthetic surgical site infections (SSIs), Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias/events (VAPs/VAEs) and non-VAPs/VAEs, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)...
April 11, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397171/pediatric-antibiotic-stewardship-successful-interventions-to-reduce-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-use-on-general-pediatric-wards
#16
Katharina Kreitmeyr, Ulrich von Both, Alenka Pecar, Johannes P Borde, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Johannes Huebner
PURPOSE: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) optimize antibiotic usage and combat antibiotic resistance of bacteria. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of specific ASP interventions on antibiotic consumption in general pediatric wards. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to compare a pre-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2014) and post-intervention (Sept.-Dec. 2015) period. An ASP bundle was established including (1) infectious diseases (ID) ward rounds (prospective-audit-with-feedback), (2) ID consultation service, (3) internal guidelines on empiric antibiotic therapy...
April 10, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395861/dissemination-and-clinical-implications-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-producing-oxa-48-in-a-spanish-hospital
#17
A Madueño, J González García, S Fernández-Romero, J Oteo, M Lecuona
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are increasing and few effective antibiotics are currently available to treat patients. AIM: To assess the epidemiology, molecular basis, clinical features, and outcomes in the acquisition and dissemination of OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae (OXA48KP) in a tertiary Spanish hospital between October 2013 and December 2015. METHODS: Clinical, demographic, and microbiological data of patients with OXA48KP in clinical samples were collected from medical records...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393985/-importance-of-respiratory-virus-in-immunocompetent-adult-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Fernando Saldías Peñafiel, Marcos Ortega Gutiérrez, Gino Fuentes López, José Manuel Elola Aránguiz, Javier Uribe Monasterio, Arturo Morales Soto, Orlando Díaz Patiño
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a relevant worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in adult population, however its etiology is often not identified and therapy is empirical. AIM: To assess the etiology of CAP in immunocompetent adult hospitalized patients using conventional and molecular diagnostic methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 240 adult patients who were hospitalized for CAP to identify the microbial etiology...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393724/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-in-turkey
#19
Canan Gündüz, Mehmet Sezai Taşbakan, Abdullah Sayıner, Aykut Çilli, Oğuz Kılınç, Ayşın Şakar Coşkun
Introduction: Pneumonia in cases with preceding hospitalization, hemodialysis, intravenous therapy, wound care, or chemotherapy within the prior 30 days and residence in nursing homes are defined as healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP). The aim of this study was to compare the demographic and laboratory data, isolated causative agents and prognosis of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and HCAP in a large population in Turkey. Materials and Methods: The data of 785 cases (average age 65...
September 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393141/using-cluster-analysis-of-cytokines-to-identify-patterns-of-inflammation-in-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-pilot-study
#20
Timothy L Wiemken, Robert R Kelley, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, William A Mattingly, Forest W Arnold, Stephen P Furmanek, Marcos I Restrepo, James D Chalmers, Paula Peyrani, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Jose Bordon, Stefano Aliberti, Julio A Ramirez
INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are believed to have an exaggerated inflammatory response to bacterial infection. Therapies aiming to modulate the inflammatory response have been largely unsuccessful, perhaps reflecting that CAP is a heterogeneous disorder that cannot be modulated by a single anti-inflammatory approach. We hypothesize that the host inflammatory response to pneumonia may be characterized by distinct cytokine patterns, which can be harnessed for personalized therapies...
2017: Univ Louisville J Respir Infect
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