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Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217929/maternal-vitamin-d-deficiency-a-culprit-for-hypocalcaemia-induced-myocardial-failure-in-a-four-month-old-infant-a-case-report-from-tikur-anbessa-specialized-hospital-ethiopia
#1
Tamirat Moges, Yemisirach Shiferaw, Tigist Heye
Background: A rare but reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy occurs in infants born to vitamin D deficient mothers due to hypocalcaemia. Case Report: We report a case of dilated cardiomyopathy due to hypocalcaemia secondary to maternal vitamin D deficiency in an infant presented with seizure disorder and heart failure. This was a four-month old female infant with respiratory distress and acute heart failure. The cause of her cardiac failure was dilated cardiomyopathy...
May 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217093/risk-factors-for-the-appearance-of-secondary-foci-of-infection-in-children-with-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-cohort-study-2010-2016
#2
M Guadalupe Perez, Soledad Martiren, Florencia Escarra, Vanesa Reijtman, Alejandra Mastroianni, Ana Varela-Baino, Carola Cedillo, M Eva Garcia, Moira Taicz, Rosa Bologna
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacteraemia is a common cause of hospitalisation in children. The occurrence of secondary foci (SF) of SA infection is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for SF of infection in children with community-acquired SA bacteraemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort. All children aged from 30 days to 16 years admitted to a paediatric referral hospital between January 2010 and December 2016 for community-acquired infections, with SA isolated in blood cultures, were included...
December 4, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#3
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208015/molecular-etiological-profile-of-atypical-bacterial-pathogens-viruses-and-coinfections-among-infants-and-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-admitted-to-a-national-hospital-in-lima-peru
#4
Juana Del Valle-Mendoza, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Angela Cornejo-Tapia, Fiorella Orellana-Peralta, Eduardo Verne, Claudia Ugarte, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, María Del Carmen De Lama-Odría, Ronald Nazario-Fuertes, Mónica Esquivel-Vizcarra, Verónica Casabona-Ore, Pablo Weilg, Luis J Del Valle
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to detect the presence of 14 respiratory viruses and atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae), via polymerase chain reaction in patients under 18 years old hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from Lima, Peru. RESULTS: Atypical pathogens were detected in 40% (58/146); viral etiologies in 36% (52/146) and coinfections in 19% (27/146). The most common etiological agent was M...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207958/bloodstream-infections-at-a-tertiary-level-paediatric-hospital-in-south-africa
#5
Harsha Lochan, Vashini Pillay, Colleen Bamford, James Nuttall, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of BSI in South African children. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) microbiology database was accessed to identify positive blood culture specimens during the period 2011-2012. Demographic and clinical details, antimicrobial management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206767/prevention-of-ventilator-associated-and-early-postoperative-pneumonia-through-tapered-endotracheal-tube-cuffs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Bert Maertens, Koen Blot, Stijn Blot
OBJECTIVE: Microaspiration of subglottic secretions is considered a major pathogenic mechanism of hospital-acquired pneumonia, either early postoperative or ventilator-associated pneumonia. Tapered endotracheal tube cuffs have been proposed to provide a better seal of the extraluminal airway, thereby preventing microaspiration and possibly hospital-acquired pneumonia. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the value of endotracheal tubes with tapered cuffs in the prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia...
December 4, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204285/molecular-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-iraqi-hospital-environment
#7
I M S Al-Kadmy, A N M Ali, I M A Salman, S S Khazaal
Healthcare-associated items are a common source of acquired infections, and hospital-acquired infections cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii is the most prevalent infection-causing organism in the hospital environment. Hospital articles and objects are the main sources of infection with the ability to transmit some of the pathogenic microorganisms such as A. baumannii, which is considered a serious problem in therapeutic treatments. In the current study, we isolated A...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197407/low-tidal-volume-mechanical-ventilation-against-no-ventilation-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-heart-surgery-mecano-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Lee S Nguyen, Messaouda Merzoug, Philippe Estagnasie, Alain Brusset, Jean-Dominique Law Koune, Stephane Aubert, Thierry Waldmann, Jean-Michel Grinda, Hadrien Gibert, Pierre Squara
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. There are no recommendations on mechanical ventilation associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during surgery and anesthesiologists perform either no ventilation (noV) at all during CPB or maintain low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation. Indirect evidence points towards better pulmonary outcomes when LTV is performed but no large-scale prospective trial has yet been published in cardiac surgery...
December 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189950/cost-assessment-of-a-new-oral-care-program-in-the-intensive-care-unit-to-prevent-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#9
Jérôme Ory, Charline Mourgues, Evelyne Raybaud, Russell Chabanne, Jean Christophe Jourdy, Fabien Belard, Renaud Guérin, Bernard Cosserant, Jean Sébastien Faure, Laure Calvet, Bruno Pereira, Dominique Guelon, Ousmane Traore, Laurent Gerbaud
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units (ICU). In the bundle of care to prevent the VAP, the oral care is very important strategies, to decrease the oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and presence of causative bacteria of VAP. In view of the paucity of medical economics studies, our objective was to determine the cost of implementing this oral care program for preventing VAP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In five ICUs, during period 1, caregivers used a foam stick for oral care and, during period 2, a stick and tooth brushing with aspiration...
November 30, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189614/acquired-infection-and-antimicrobial-utilization-during-initial-nicu-hospitalization-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#10
Sarah Keene, Karna Murthy, Eugenia Pallotto, Beverly Brozanski, Jason Gien, Isabella Zaniletti, Cheryl Hulbert, Ruth Seabrook, Natalie Rintoul, Louis Chicoine, Nicolas Porta, Theresa R Grover
BACKGROUND: In addition to substantial medical and surgical intervention, neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) often have concurrent concerns for acquired infection. However, few studies focus on infection and corresponding antimicrobial utilization in this population. METHODS: The Children's Hospital Neonatal Database was queried for CDH infants hospitalized from Jan 2010- Feb 2016. Patient charts were linked to the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database...
November 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186015/establishing-genotype-to-phenotype-relationships-in-bacteria-causing-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-a-prelude-to-the-application-of-clinical-metagenomics
#11
REVIEW
Etienne Ruppé, Abdessalam Cherkaoui, Vladimir Lazarevic, Stéphane Emonet, Jacques Schrenzel
Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referred to as the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to clinical samples, is a promising tool for the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Indeed, CMg allows identifying pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), thereby providing the information required for the optimization of the antibiotic regimen. Hence, provided that CMg would be faster than conventional culture, the probabilistic regimen used in HAP could be tailored faster, which should lead to an expected decrease of mortality and morbidity...
November 29, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181967/legionellosis-in-poland-in-2015
#12
Hanna Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Michał Czerwiński
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of legionellosis in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the preceding years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed data published in the annual bulletin: “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” and its prior versions along with the legionellosis case reports sent from Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIPH - NIH. RESULTS: In Poland, both two forms of legionellosis - Legionnaires’ disease (a severe form of disease accompanied by pneumonia) and Pontiac fever (mild, influenza-like form of infection) - are notifiable...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180888/association-between-serum-concentration-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-case-control-study
#13
Mojgan Mamani, Neda Muceli, Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir, Maryam Vasheghani, Jalal Poorolajal
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with significant morbidity and mortality. There is evidence that vitamin D deficiency can be associated with infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of vitamin D between patients with CAP and healthy controls. Methods: In a case-control study on 73 patients with CAP and 76 healthy controls, the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured. Severity and outcomes of disease and also duration of hospital stay were compared in patients with different levels of 25(OH)D...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171871/cytokine-responses-microbial-etiology-and-short-term-outcome-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#14
William W Siljan, Jan C Holter, Ståle H Nymo, Einar Husebye, Thor Ueland, Pål Aukrust, Tom E Mollnes, Lars Heggelund
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory response in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is orchestrated through activation of cytokine networks and the complement system. We examined the association of multiple cytokines and the terminal complement complex (TCC) with microbial etiology, disease severity and short-term outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma levels of 27 cytokines and TCC were analyzed in blood samples obtained at hospital admission, clinical stabilization and 6-weeks follow up from 247 hospitalized adults with CAP...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171616/-adverse-event-prediction-in-immunocompetent-adult-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
Fernando Saldías Peñafiel, Javier Uribe Monasterio, Javiera Gassmann Poniachik, Alejandro Canelo López, Orlando Díaz Patiño
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168995/hospital-resource-utilisation-by-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
H McCarthy, S O'Donnell, R W Costello, H Humphreys
Little data is available on the resource utilisation of patients admitted with Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Ireland. A retrospective review of 50 randomly-selected patients admitted to Beaumont Hospital with CAP was undertaken. The mean length of stay of patients with CAP was 12 days (+/- 16 days). All patients were emergency admissions, all had a chest x-ray, a C-reactive protein blood test, and occupied a public bed at some point during admission. Common antimicrobial therapies were intravenous (IV) amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and oral clarithromycin; 60% received physiotherapy...
August 12, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162982/future-directions-and-molecular-basis-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#17
REVIEW
Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Sevgen Tanir Basaranoglu
Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving treatment and has complications such as ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) that lead to high morbidity and mortality. Moreover VAP is the second most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric intensive care units. Although it is still not well understood, understanding molecular pathogenesis is essential for preventing and treating pneumonia. A lot of microbes are detected as a causative agent of VAP. The most common isolated VAP pathogens in pediatric patients are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram negative bacteria...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161297/prognostic-performance-of-mr-pro-adrenomedullin-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department-compared-to-clinical-severity-scores-psi-and-curb
#18
Jacopo Maria Legramante, Maria Mastropasqua, Beniamino Susi, Ottavia Porzio, Marta Mazza, Grazia Miranda Agrippino, Cartesio D Agostini, Antonella Brandi, Germano Giovagnoli, Vito Nicola Di Lecce, Sergio Bernardini, Marilena Minieri
AIM: (i) evaluate the performance of MR-pro-ADM in reflecting the outcome and risk for CAP patients in the emergency department, and (ii) compare the prognostic performance of MR-pro-ADM with that of clinical scores PSI and CURB65. METHODS: Observational prospective, single-center study in patients with suspected community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Eighty one patients underwent full clinical and laboratory assessment as by protocol, and were followed up a 28 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158121/systemic-cytokines-and-chemokines-on-admission-of-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Ângela G Vasconcellos, Jorge Clarêncio, Daniela Andrade, Maria-Regina A Cardoso, Aldina Barral, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the main cause of death in children under-5 years worldwide and Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial agent. However, it is difficult to identify pneumococcal infection among children with CAP. We aimed to assess association between any cytokine/chemokine and pneumococcal infection in childhood CAP. Furthermore, we evaluated the diagnostic value of cytokine/chemokine for pneumococcal infection. This prospective study was conducted at an Emergency Room, in Salvador, Brazil...
November 17, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157667/a-case-of-multiple-system-atrophy-parkinsonian-type-with-stuttering-and-palilalia-like-dysfluencies-and-putaminal-atrophy
#20
Yoshikazu Kikuchi, Toshiro Umezaki, Taira Uehara, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Koji Yamashita, Akio Hiwatashi, Motohiro Sawatsubashi, Kazuo Adachi, Yumi Yamaguchi, Daisuke Murakami, Jun-Ichi Kira, Takashi Nakagawa
Both developmental and acquired stuttering are related to the function of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which includes the putamen. Here, we present a case of stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies that manifested as an early symptom of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P) and bilateral atrophy of the putamen. The patient was a 72-year-old man with no history of developmental stuttering who presented with a stutter for consultation with our otorhinolaryngology department. The patient was diagnosed with MSA-P based on parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, and bilateral putaminal atrophy revealed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
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