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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214449/-they-treated-me-like-crap-and-i-know-it-was-because-i-was-native-the-healthcare-experiences-of-aboriginal-peoples-living-in-vancouver-s-inner-city
#1
Ashley Goodman, Kim Fleming, Nicole Markwick, Tracey Morrison, Louise Lagimodiere, Thomas Kerr
There is growing evidence that Aboriginal peoples often experience healthcare inequalities due to racism. However, research exploring the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit substances is limited, and research rarely accounts for how multiple accounts of stigma intersect and contribute to the experiences of marginalized populations. Our research aimed to explore the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs and or illicit alcohol (APWUID/A) living in Vancouver's inner city...
January 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214434/an-examination-of-alcohol-risk-profiles-and-co-occurring-mental-health-symptoms-among-oef-oif-veterans
#2
Jennifer M Cadigan, Alicia K Klanecky, Matthew P Martens
INTRODUCTION: Compared to the general population, veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (OEF/OIF) are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and meet criteria for mental health disorders including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder. Less is known how distinct profiles of alcohol use behavior relate to mental health symptoms. METHOD: The current study examined the extent that indicators of alcohol use (i.e., drinks per week, peak blood alcohol concentration, and alcohol-related problems) are categorized into different alcohol risk profiles utilizing a person-centered approach...
February 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214275/detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-by-nested-pcr-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#3
Cristina Rodrigues Santos, Ângela M de Assis, Edson A Luz, Luzia Lyra, Ivan F Toro, José Claudio C Seabra, Dira H Daldin, Tathiane U Marcalto, Marcos T Galasso, Ronaldo F Macedo, Angélica Z Schreiber, Francisco H Aoki
BACKGROUND: Nested PCR can be used to determine the status of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in other lung diseases. AIMS: This study sought to detect a target DNA fragment (mitochondrial large subunit rRNA or mtL SUrRNA) of P. jirovecii in patients with lung disease who underwent bronchoscopy with collection of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). METHODS: The results from toluidine blue staining were compared with those obtained using molecular methods that included an "in house" DNA extraction procedure, PCR and nested PCR...
February 14, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214241/improvement-of-operational-stability-of-ogataea-minuta-carbonyl-reductase-for-chiral-alcohol-production
#4
Kohsuke Honda, Mizuha Inoue, Tomohiro Ono, Kenji Okano, Yasumasa Dekishima, Hiroshi Kawabata
Directed evolution of enantio-selective carbonyl reductase from Ogataea minuta was conducted to improve the operational stability of the enzyme. A mutant library was constructed by an error-prone PCR and screened using a newly developed colorimetric assay. The stability of a mutant with two amino acid substitutions was significantly higher than that of the wild type at 50°C in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis showed that the improved stability of the enzyme can be attributed to the amino acid substitution of V166A...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214186/characteristics-and-prognosis-of-japanese-colorectal-cancer-patients-the-biobank-japan-project
#5
Akiko Tamakoshi, Koshi Nakamura, Shigekazu Ukawa, Emiko Okada, Makoto Hirata, Akiko Nagai, Koichi Matsuda, Yoichiro Kamatani, Kaori Muto, Yutaka Kiyohara, Zentaro Yamagata, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Michiaki Kubo, Yusuke Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, and in Japan, it is estimated that about 10% of men and 8% of women will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer during their lifetime. METHODS: We focused on 5864 participants (3699 men and 2165 women) who had colorectal cancer and were registered with BioBank Japan (BBJ) between April 2003 and March 2008. Characteristics of colon and rectal cancer patients were calculated separately. Among the enrolled patients registered in BBJ within 90 days after diagnosis, we also calculated the 5-year cumulative and relative survival rates, and estimated the effect of lifestyle factors on all-cause mortality...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214185/characteristics-of-patients-with-liver-cancer-in-the-biobank-japan-project
#6
Shigekazu Ukawa, Emiko Okada, Koshi Nakamura, Makoto Hirata, Akiko Nagai, Koichi Matsuda, Zentaro Yamagata, Yoichiro Kamatani, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yutaka Kiyohara, Kaori Muto, Michiaki Kubo, Yusuke Nakamura, Akiko Tamakoshi
BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is the fifth cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. The BioBank Japan (BBJ) project included 200,000 patients with 47 diseases and samples; their clinical information can be used for further studies. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with liver cancer (n = 1733; 1316 men, 417 women) were included. Histology, patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, and causes of death were collected. Cumulative and relative survival rates for liver cancer were calculated...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214169/protective-misperception-prospective-study-of-weight-self-perception-and-blood-pressure-in-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity
#7
Emily S Unger, Ichiro Kawachi, Carly E Milliren, Kendrin R Sonneville, Idia B Thurston, Holly C Gooding, Tracy K Richmond
PURPOSE: Underestimating one's weight is often seen as a barrier to weight loss. However, recent research has shown that weight underperception may be beneficial, with lower future weight gain and fewer depressive symptoms. Here, we examine the relationship between adolescent weight underperception and future blood pressure. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we obtained a nationally representative sample of 2,463 adolescents with overweight and obesity (students in grades 8-12 in 1996)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214020/serum-uric-acid-concentrations-and-fructose-consumption-are-independently-associated-with-nash-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
Antonella Mosca, Valerio Nobili, Rita De Vito, Annalisa Crudele, Eleonora Scorletti, Alberto Villani, Anna Alisi, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent research has suggested that dietary fructose intake may increase serum uric acid (UA) concentrations. Both UA concentration and fructose consumption maybe also increase in NAFLD. It is not known whether dietary fructose consumption and UA concentration are independently associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with NASH in children and adolescents with proven NAFLD, and to test whether UA concentrations and fructose consumption are independently associated with NASH...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213828/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#9
Sebastian Kummer, Dirk Klee, Gerald Kircheis, Michael Friedt, Joerg Schaper, Dieter Häussinger, Ertan Mayatepek, Thomas Meissner
: The liver is intensely involved in glucose metabolism and is thereby closely related to diabetes pathophysiology. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at an increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we studied the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM in a tertiary care paediatric diabetes centre in Germany. We screened 93 children and adolescents with type 1 DM using ultrasound, laboratory investigations, and liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® [FS] and acoustic radiation force imaging [ARFI])...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213631/destroying-god-s-temple-physical-inactivity-poor-diet-obesity-and-other-sin-behaviors
#10
Mark D Faries, Megan McClendon, Eric J Jones
On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213275/a-single-microfluidic-chip-with-dual-surface-properties-for-protein-drug-delivery
#11
Mehrdad Bokharaei, Katayoun Saatchi, Urs O Häfeli
Principles of double emulsion generation were incorporated in a glass microfluidic chip fabricated with two different surface properties in order to produce protein loaded polymer microspheres. The microspheres were produced by integrating two microfluidic flow focusing systems and a multi-step droplet splitting and mixing system into one chip. The chip consists a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic section with two different heights, 12μm and 45μm, respectively. As a result, the protein is homogenously distributed throughout the polymer microsphere matrix, not just in its center (which has been studied before)...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213273/2-methoxyestradiol-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-alcoholic-fatty-liver-by-enhancing-sirtuin-1-mediated-autophagy
#12
Hong-Ik Cho, Min-Jong Seo, Sun-Mee Lee
Alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) is susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, responding with inflammation and extensive hepatocellular damage. Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis and regulates inflammation and lipid metabolism. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2), an endogenous metabolite of estradiol, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examined the cytoprotective mechanisms of 2-ME2 on hepatic I/R in AFL, focusing on autophagy signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed an ethanol diet (ED) to induce AFL, or a control diet (CD) for 6 weeks, and then subjected to 60 min of ischemia and 5 h of reperfusion...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213257/a-zeolitic-imidazolate-framework-based-nanoporous-carbon-as-a-novel-fiber-coating-for-solid-phase-microextraction-of-pyrethroid-pesticides
#13
Shuaihua Zhang, Qian Yang, Xiumin Yang, Wenchang Wang, Zhi Li, Lihong Zhang, Chun Wang, Zhi Wang
A high-surface-area nanoporous carbon (NPC) has been successfully synthesized by using the metal-organic framework ZIF-90 as both the template and precursor together with furfuryl alcohol as a secondary carbon source. The prepared ZIF-90 templated NPC (ZIF-90-NPC) was then coated onto a stainless steel wire by a simple physical adhesion approach to prepare solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. By coupling the ZIF-90-NPC coated fiber-based SPME with gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-μECD), the developed method gave a large enhancement factor (984-2869), low limit of detection (0...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213240/sensitive-and-precise-monitoring-of-phosphatidylethanol-in-human-blood-as-a-biomarker-for-alcohol-intake-by-ultrasound-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-combined-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Siming Wang, Ruiyue Yang, Fusui Ji, Hongxia Li, Jun Dong, Wenxiang Chen
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a special phospholipid that is only formed in the presence of ethanol, and therefore, serves as a promising biomarker for alcohol intake. In this study, a simple, rapid and precise method based on LC-MS/MS combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed and validated for the measurements of PEth (16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:1) in human blood. The influences of several variables for sample extraction and MS detection were carefully investigated...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213124/reciprocal-relationships-between-substance-use-and-disorders-and-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempts-in-the-collaborative-study-of-the-genetics-of-alcoholism
#15
Arpana Agrawal, Rebecca Tillman, Richard A Grucza, Elliot C Nelson, Vivia V McCutcheon, Lauren Few, Kenneth R Conner, Michael T Lynskey, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Marc A Schuckit, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213021/comparing-ptr-ms-profile-of-milk-inoculated-with-pure-or-mixed-cultures-of-spoilage-bacteria
#16
Mohammad Alothman, Karen A Lusk, Patrick Silcock, Phil J Bremer
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with UHT milk (n=8) inoculated with either pure inoculums of Pseudomonas fluorescens (two strains tested) or Chryseobacterium sp., or with mixed cultures of 2 or all 3 of the bacterial strains, and held at 4.5 °C for up to 26 days was measured using proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The VOCs evolved included a range of carbonyl compounds, alcohols, esters, and acids and had significant qualitative and quantitative differences between the inoculums...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212986/correlating-the-effects-of-antimicrobial-preservatives-on-conformational-stability-aggregation-propensity-and-backbone-flexibility-of-an-igg1-monoclonal-antibody
#17
Jayant Arora, Sangeeta B Joshi, C Russell Middaugh, David D Weis, David B Volkin
Multi-dose formulations of biotherapeutics, which offer better dosage management and reduced production costs, require the addition of antimicrobial preservatives (APs). APs have been shown, however, to decrease protein stability in solution and cause protein aggregation. In this report, the effect of four APs, m-cresol, phenol, phenoxyethanol and benzyl alcohol, on conformational stability, aggregation propensity and backbone flexibility of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody, mAb-4, is investigated. Compared to no preservative control, each of the APs decreased the conformational stability of mAb-4 as measured by DSC and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212981/development-of-solid-sedds-vi-effect-of-precoating-of-neusilin%C3%A2-us2-with-pvp-on-drug-release-from-adsorbed-self-emulsifying-lipid-based-formulations
#18
Suhas G Gumaste, Beatryz O S Freire, Abu T M Serajuddin
Adsorption of lipid-based formulations, which are usually liquid, onto silicas has been extensively investigated in the past decade to convert them into solid dosage forms. There are conflicting reports on the ability of commercially available porous silicas, like Neusilin® US2, to release lipid formulations completely, especially after long-term storage. In this study, the release of a model drug, probucol, from different formulations of medium chain lipids and a surfactant, Kolliphor EL (Cremophor EL) or polysorbate 80, were studied after adsorbing them onto Neusilin® US2...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212929/structural-analysis-of-a-homogeneous-polysaccharide-from-achatina-fulica
#19
Jie Liu, Feigneng Shang, Zengming Yang, Mingyi Wu, Jinhua Zhao
Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (AF-1) was isolated and purified from Achatina fulica by papain enzymolysis, alcohol precipitation and strong anion exchange chromatography. Structural of the polysaccharide was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, analysis of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC)...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212849/hydrogen-sulfide-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-alcohol-mediated-neurotoxicity
#20
REVIEW
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Yuankun Zhai, Neetu Tyagi
Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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