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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817785/diving-into-the-world-of-alcohol-teratogenesis-a-review-of-zebrafish-models-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#1
Yohaan Fernandes, Desirè M Buckley, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic alcohol exposure. Along with other reviews in this edition, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish; have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart and craniofacial skeleton...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817776/electrophilic-cyclization-of-phenylalkynediols-to-naphthyl-aryl-iodonium-triflates-with-chelating-hydroxyls-preparation-and-x-ray-analyses
#2
Robert James Hinkle, Sarah E Bredenkamp, Robert David Pike, Seong Ik Cheon
Alkynediols containing one propargylic alcohol as well as a second alcohol, which is propargylic or homopropargylic, react with PhI(+)CN(-)OTf (Stang's reagent) or 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3I(+)CN(-)OTf to afford naphthyl(aryl)iodonium triflates. The reaction occurs at room temperature over the course of 6-12 hours and provides 36-82% yields of microcrystalline solids. Slow diffusion of Et2O into CH3CN solutions of the salts afforded X-ray quality crystals of five compounds with hydroxyl groups forming five- and six-membered chelation complexes with the iodine atom...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817768/metal-free-synthesis-of-homopropargylic-alcohols-from-aldehydes
#3
Bruno V M Teodoro, Luiz F Silva
The synthesis of homopropargylic alcohols under metal-free and mild condition is described. This transformation is based on a one-pot procedure involving sequential α-alkynylation of acyclic aldehydes using hypervalent iodine reagents and borohydride reduction. The chemistry exhibit broad substrate scope and good scalability, providing a convenient route for the α-alkynylation of aldehydes along with the formation of a quaternary carbon center. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by the gram-scale synthesis of the key synthetic precursor of botulinum toxin inhibitors...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817734/treatment-gap-and-barriers-for-mental-health-care-a-cross-sectional-community-survey-in-nepal
#4
Nagendra P Luitel, Mark J D Jordans, Brandon A Kohrt, Sujit D Rathod, Ivan H Komproe
CONTEXT: There is limited research on the gap between the burden of mental disorders and treatment use in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the treatment gap among adults with depressive disorder (DD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to examine possible barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment in Nepal. METHODS: A three-stage sampling technique was used in the study to select 1,983 adults from 10 Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Chitwan district...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817690/resveratrol-and-caloric-restriction-prevent-hepatic-steatosis-by-regulating-sirt1-autophagy-pathway-and-alleviating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#5
Shibin Ding, Jinjin Jiang, Guofu Zhang, Yongjun Bu, Guanghui Zhang, Xiangmei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817659/resveratrol-improves-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-downregulating-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-and-mitochondrial-ros-production
#6
Zhenhua Ma, Yangmin Zhang, Qingchun Li, Meng Xu, Jigang Bai, Shengli Wu
Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be involved in the etiology of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Previous studies had demonstrated that resveratrol (RES) could reduce oxidative stress by different mechanisms. However, the effect of RES on alcohol-induced fatty liver remains unclear. In the present study, a total of 48 male SD rats were divided into three groups: Control, AFLD, and RES groups. Rats were administered with either nothing or 65% vol/vol alcohol (5 ml/kg/day in the first three days, and then 10 ml/kg/day in the following days) with or without RES supplementation (250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817620/gtsp1-expression-in-non-smoker-and-non-drinker-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#7
Pamela de Oliveira Soares, Patrícia Maluf Cury, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Cláudio Roberto Cernea, Erika Erina Fukuyama, David Livingstone Alves Figueiredo, Francisco Gorgonio da Nobrega, Otavio Alberto Curioni, Fabio Daumas Nunes, Raquel Ajub Moyses, Maria Lúcia Bueno Garcia
INTRODUCTION: The main risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are tobacco and alcohol consumption and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, in a subset of patients, no risk factors can be identified. Glutathione S-transferase π (GTSP1) is a carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme that is activated by exposure to carcinogens, and it is associated with a reduction in response to toxic therapies. We studied the expression of GTSP1 in tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from patients with and without these risks to identify whether GTSP1 expression differs according to exposure to carcinogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817258/synthesis-of-complex-glycolates-by-enantioconvergent-addition-reactions
#8
Samuel L Bartlett, Jeffrey S Johnson
The unique role that stereochemistry plays in molecular recognition events continues to provide a driving force for synthesizing organic compounds in enantioenriched form. The tendency of enantioenriched organic compounds to revert to an entropically favored racemic state in the presence of viable racemization pathways (e.g., the enolization of stereogenic carbonyl derivatives) can sometimes interfere with this objective; however, beginning with Noyori's foundational disclosure of a dynamic kinetic transfer hydrogenation, the ability to channel racemic, configurationally labile starting materials through stereoconvergent reaction pathways has been recognized as a powerful strategy in asymmetric synthesis...
August 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817241/association-between-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-heart-failure-risk-in-the-elderly
#9
Catarina Magalhães Porto, Vanessa De Lima Silva, João Soares Brito da Luz, Brivaldo Markman Filho, Vera Magalhães da Silveira
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of heart failure in elderly patients of cardiology outpatient clinics. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study with an analytical approach was employed. Clinical data were collected from the elderly from August 2015 to February 2016. The dependent variable was the risk of heart failure; the independent variable was vitamin D deficiency; and intervening factors were age, gender, education, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, renal failure, dementia, stroke, dyslipidaemia, depression, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, andropause, and cardiac arrhythmia...
August 17, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816928/psychotic-symptoms-associated-with-varenicline-in-a-patient-with-alcohol-and-nicotine-dependence-a-case-report
#10
Fumihiko Ueno, Hiroyuki Uchida, Takefumi Suzuki, Akira Yokoyama, Sachio Matsushita, Masaru Mimura, Susumu Higuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816914/congenital-hypotonia-in-toddlerhood
#11
Naomi Steiner, Alcy Torres, Arathi Reddy, Marilyn Augustyn
David is a 22-month-old boy who is new to your practice. He recently moved from a rural area in the Midwest. His father is in the United States Air Force, and his mother works as a full-time homemaker. Their household includes 5 older siblings. The family moves every year because of the father's Air Force placement.David was born full-term in Virginia, with no reported pregnancy complications and no alcohol, tobacco, or drug exposure. He was delivered vaginally, with Apgar scores of 7 and 9, respectively and no respiratory issues...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816830/fatal-cerebral-edema-seizures-and-hyponatremia-after-trazodone-overdose
#12
Jose David Avila
Trazodone is a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of depression and insomnia. Fatal overdose is rare and usually occurs when combined with other drugs or alcohol. Only a few lethal cases of pure trazodone overdose have been reported, all attributed to cardiotoxicity. We reported a 37-year-old woman who presented after ingesting 6.45 g of trazodone in a suicidal attempt. She was hyponatremic because of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and, shortly after, had a seizure and developed fatal cerebral edema...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816587/dna-methylation-independent-growth-restriction-and-altered-developmental-programming-in-a-mouse-model-of-preconception-male-alcohol-exposure
#13
Richard C Chang, William M Skiles, S Chronister Sarah, Haiqing Wang, Gabrielle I Sutton, Yudhishtar S Bedi, Matthew Snyder, Charles R Long, Michael C Golding
The preconception environment is a significant modifier of dysgenesis and the development of environmentally-induced disease. To date, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been exclusively associated with maternal exposures, yet emerging evidence suggests male-inherited alterations in the developmental program of sperm may be relevant to the growth-restriction phenotypes of this condition. Using a mouse model of voluntary consumption, we find chronic preconception male ethanol exposure associates with fetal growth restriction, decreased placental efficiency, abnormalities in cholesterol trafficking, sex-specific alterations in the genetic pathways regulating hepatic fibrosis, and disruptions in the regulation of imprinted genes...
August 17, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816585/antioxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-akebia-quinata-extracts-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-acute-alcohol-induced-hepatotoxicity
#14
Sang Hoon Lee, Young Sun Song, Yoon Hwa Jeong, Kwang Suk Ko
This study investigated the effects of Akebia quinata (AQ) leaf and fruit extract on acute alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in AML12 cells. Different concentrations of AQ extracts (250 and 2500 μg/mL) were used to treat the AML12 cells with or without ethanol for 24 h for inducing acute alcohol cytotoxicity. AQ extract-treated AML12 cells showed enhanced expression of GSH-synthesizing enzymes and suppressed expression of oxidative stress makers such as NOX4, and decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, inflammatory marker, in acute alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816572/effects-on-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-related-harm-of-a-community-based-prevention-intervention-with-national-support-in-sweden
#15
Tony Nilsson, Peter Allebeck, Håkan Leifman, Sven Andréasson, Thor Norström, Karin Guldbrandsson
BACKGROUND: In order to strengthen local alcohol prevention work in Sweden the Swedish government has for the past almost 15 years commissioned the Public Health Agency of Sweden to initiate a series of community-based alcohol prevention projects. The latest of these, labeled local development with ambitions (LUMA), included 25 municipalities in Sweden. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to examine if LUMA municipalities that received financial support, with requirements, increased local alcohol prevention and if alcohol consumption and harm declined...
August 17, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816518/balancing-between-prejudice-and-fact-for-gaming-disorder-does-the-existence-of-alcohol-use-disorder-stigmatize-healthy-drinkers-or-impede-scientific-research
#16
Seung-Yup Lee, Hyekyung Choo, Hae Kook Lee
The inclusion of Gaming Disorder (GD) criteria in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) beta draft was recently criticized, and an argument was made for its removal to "avoid a waste of public resources." However, these misleading statements are believed to be based on under estimation of this ever-growing problem. Such claims may endanger public health and the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. Thus, the seriousness of the problem was briefly emphasized in our response paper...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816451/palladium-catalyzed-cascade-assembly-of-tricyclic-spiroethers-from-diene-alcohol-precursors
#17
David Lankri, Yelena Mostinski, Dmitry Tsvelikhovsky
Palladium-catalyzed carboetherification-Heck reactions to form tricyclic spiroethers, which are frequently observed as scaffold segments of various biochemical compounds, from simple diene-alcohols have been carried out in a cascade fashion. This is the first attempt to link simple alcohols with diverse, medium-sized spiroether architectures. The reported synthetic strategy is short, robust, and offers rapid delivery of a broad spectrum of tricyclic spiranoid ethers.
August 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816320/formation-of-titanium-dioxide-core-shell-microcapsules-through-a-binary-phase-spray-technique
#18
Jonatan Bergek, Björn Elgh, Anders E C Palmqvist, Lars Nordstierna
Core-shell microcapsules consisting of a titanium dioxide shell and a hydrophobic solvent core have been prepared with diameters of a few micrometers and a narrow size distribution using a simple and fast airbrush technique. These microcapsules were prepared at room temperature in a single-step process in which an oil with a dissolved titanium alkoxide precursor was forced together with an aqueous solution, containing a surface-active polymer, through a narrow spray nozzle using a nitrogen gas propellant. Several different parameters of chemical, physical, and processing origin were investigated to find an optimal recipe...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816082/zeaxanthin-dipalmitate-alleviates-hepatic-injury-induced-by-superimposed-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-non-obese-mice
#19
Jing-Jing Li, Hao Gao, Yi Lv, Mian-Huan Li, Chao-Ran Ren, Kwok-Fai So, Jia Xiao
A hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice model was used to establish the fatty liver superimposed model by feeding the methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks, with or without the gavage of 2 mg/kg zeaxanthin dipalmitate (ZD) three times per week. Both wild-type and HBV transgenic mice, with MCD diet, gained typical non-obese non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and HBV symptoms. Coadministration with ZD exhibited evident therapeutic effects through alleviating those pathological events. Moreover, long-term vehicle-ZD treatment was found to be safe...
September 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816049/trifluoromethylthiolation-based-bifunctionalization-of-diazocarbonyl-compounds-by-rhodium-catalysis
#20
Marvin Lübcke, Weiming Yuan, Kálmán J Szabó
A new Rh-catalyzed, three-component reaction for the oxytrifluoromethylthiolation of α-diazoketones was developed. The SCF3 functionality was introduced using a stable dibenzenesulfonimide reagent under mild conditions. Alcohols, acetals, and ethers were used as the alkoxy sources. Cyclic ethers underwent a trifunctionalization reaction through the introduction of SCF3, OR, and N(SO2Ph)2 substituents in a single step.
August 17, 2017: Organic Letters
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