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V A Johansson, M Bahram, L Tedersoo, U Kõljalg, O Eriksson
Mycoheterotrophic plants obtain organic carbon from associated mycorrhizal fungi, fully or partially. Angiosperms with this form of nutrition possess exceptionally small 'dust seeds' which after germination develop 'seedlings' that remain subterranean for several years, fully dependent on fungi for supply of carbon. Mycoheterotrophs which as adults have photosynthesis thus develop from full to partial mycoheterotrophy, or autotrophy, during ontogeny. Mycoheterotrophic plants may represent a gradient of variation in a parasitism-mutualism continuum, both among and within species...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Nikolai V Ravin, Eugeny V Gruzdev, Alexey V Beletsky, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Mikhail A Filyushin, Elena Z Kochieva, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Andrey V Mardanov, Konstantin G Skryabin
BACKGROUND: Chloroplasts of most plants are responsible for photosynthesis and contain a conserved set of about 110 genes that encode components of housekeeping gene expression machinery and photosynthesis-related functions. Heterotrophic plants obtaining nutrients from other organisms and their plastid genomes represent model systems in which to study the effects of relaxed selective pressure on photosynthetic function. The most evident is a reduction in the size and gene content of the plastome, which correlates with the loss of genes encoding photosynthetic machinery which become unnecessary...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Alexey V Beletsky, Mikhail A Filyushin, Eugeny V Gruzdev, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Elena Z Kochieva, Andrey V Mardanov, Nikolai V Ravin, Konstantin G Skryabin
Monotropa hypopitys (pinesap) is a non-photosynthetic obligately mycoheterotrophic plant of the family Ericaceae. It obtains the carbon and other nutrients from the roots of surrounding autotrophic trees through the associated mycorrhizal fungi. In order to understand the evolutionary changes in the plant genome associated with transition to a heterotrophic lifestyle, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of M. hypopitys using next-generation sequencing. We obtained the RNA-Seq data from flowers, flower bracts and roots with haustoria using Illumina HiSeq2500 platform...
March 2017: Genomics Data
Maria D Logacheva, Mikhail I Schelkunov, Victoria Y Shtratnikova, Maria V Matveeva, Aleksey A Penin
Although plastid genomes of flowering plants are typically highly conserved regarding their size, gene content and order, there are some exceptions. Ericaceae, a large and diverse family of flowering plants, warrants special attention within the context of plastid genome evolution because it includes both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic species with rearranged plastomes and putative losses of "essential" genes. We characterized plastid genomes of three species of Ericaceae, non-photosynthetic Monotropa uniflora and Hypopitys monotropa and photosynthetic Pyrola rotundifolia, using high-throughput sequencing...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anna V Shchennikova, Alexey V Beletsky, Olga A Shulga, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Elena Z Kochieva, Nikolay V Ravin, Konstantin G Skryabin
Myco-heterotroph Monotropa hypopitys is a widely spread perennial herb used to study symbiotic interactions and physiological mechanisms underlying the development of non-photosynthetic plant. Here, we performed, for the first time, transcriptome-wide characterization of M. hypopitys miRNA profile using high throughput Illumina sequencing. As a result of small RNA library sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, we identified 55 members belonging to 40 families of known miRNAs and 17 putative novel miRNAs unique for M...
July 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
M A Filyushin, N M Reshetnikova, E Z Kochieva, K G Skryabin
Intraspecific sequence polymorphism in the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal operon was examined in ten populations of the parasitic plant Monotropa hypopitys from Belgorod oblast, Vologda oblast, and Kaluga oblast of Russia. Based on an analysis of the identified nucleotide substitutions and indels in the ITS regions, the M. hypopitys populations were divided into two groups (A and B). Four new ITS haplotypes of M. hypopitys were identified.
November 2015: Genetika
M A Filyushin, E Z Kochieva, K G Skryabin
This is the first study to investigate the secondary structure of 5.8S rRNA in M. hypopitys and related Ericaceae species. The identified nucleotide substitutions are localized mostly at the 3' and 5' ends of the gene, in the region of the third hairpin, and do not significantly affect the topology of the secondary structure of the 5.8S rRNA molecule.
2015: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Veronika A Johansson, Anna Mikusinska, Alf Ekblad, Ove Eriksson
Mycoheterotrophic plants (MHP) are divided into non-photosynthesizing full MHP and green-leaved partial or initial MHP. We investigated (13)C and (15)N isotope enrichment in five putatively partial MHP species in the tribe Pyroleae (Ericaceae): Chimaphila umbellata, Moneses uniflora, Orthilia secunda, Pyrola chlorantha and Pyrola minor, sampled from forest sites on Öland, Sweden. For M. uniflora and P. chlorantha, we investigated isotope signatures of subterranean seedlings (which are mycoheterotrophic), to examine how the use of seedlings instead of full MHP species (Hypopitys monotropa) as reference species affects the assessment of partial mycoheterotrophy...
January 2015: Oecologia
J Dzierżanowski, A Szarmach, P Słoniewski, P Czapiewski, M Piskunowicz, T Bandurski, T Szmuda
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphometry of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), on the basis of angio-computed tomography (CT), and to give proof of the mathematical definition of the term "hypopal sia of the PCoA". MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred 3-dimensional (3D) angio-CT images, performed in adult patients with bilateral reconstruction of the PCoA (200 results) were used tocalculate the morphometry of the vessel. RESULTS: The average length of the vessel on the right side was 14...
August 2014: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Matthew R Klooster, Theresa M Culley
Studies of mycoheterotrophs, defined as plants that obtain carbon resources from associated mycorrhizal fungi, have fundamentally contributed to our understanding of the importance and complexity of symbiotic ecological interactions. However, to date, the reproductive ecology of these organisms remains empirically understudied, with existing literature presenting hypotheses about traits including a generalist pollination syndrome and autogamous self-pollination. To address this gap in our knowledge of the reproductive ecology of mycoheterotrophic plants, we comparatively analyzed three species of two monotropoid genera, Monotropa and Monotropsis...
July 2009: American Journal of Botany
M R Klooster, A W Hoenle, T M Culley
The myco-heterotroph Monotropa hypopitys is a perennial, circumboreally distributed herb of significant importance in studies of nonphotosynthetic plant biology. To address a deficiency in our knowledge of myco-heterotroph population genetics, 11 microsatellite markers were developed using a cost-effective, nonradioactive protocol. Multiplex reactions revealed polymorphism in the red and yellow colour forms of M. hypopitys with an average of 2.69 alleles per primer. Many primers additionally amplified in the congener Monotropa uniflora and five other closely related genera...
January 2009: Molecular Ecology Resources
Gemma E Beatty, Jim Provan
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to use a combined phylogeographic and species distribution modelling approach to compare the glacial histories of two plant species with overlapping distributions, Orthilia secunda (one-sided wintergreen) and Monotropa hypopitys (yellow bird's nest). Phylogeographic analysis was carried out to determine the distribution of genetic variation across the range of each species and to test whether both correspond to the "classic" model of high diversity in the south, with decreasing diversity at higher latitudes, or whether the cold-adapted O...
2011: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Gemma E Beatty, Jim Provan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral populations of plant species are often characterized by low levels of genetic diversity as a result of genetic drift, restricted gene flow, inbreeding and asexual reproduction. These effects can be exacerbated where range-edge populations are fragmented. The main aim of the present study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity in remnant populations of Hypopitys monotropa (syn. Monotropa hypopitys; yellow bird's nest) at the edge of the species' European range in Northern Ireland, since these remnant populations are small and highly fragmented...
April 2011: Annals of Botany
Laia Gifre, Pilar Peris, Ana Monegal, Maria Jesús Martinez de Osaba, Luisa Alvarez, Núria Guañabens
The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical manifestations and the most frequent causes of osteomalacia (OM) in a group of 28 patients diagnosed with this disorder during a 20-year period. OM was diagnosed by bone biopsy and/or by Bingham and Fitzpatrick criteria (two of the following: low calcium, low phosphate, elevated total alkaline phosphatase [total AP] or suggestive radiographs). Of these patients, 13 had vitamin D deficiency OM (VD-OM), 14 hypophosphatemic OM (HypoP-OM) and one had OM-associated hypophosphatasia...
May 2011: Clinical Rheumatology
F Macchioni
Dispersal capacity plays a central role in the radiation of animals, facilitating the exploitation of habitats variously distributed in space or in time or both. Many living species are unable to leave a host, crawl around, and find a new host, so they must rely on external factors to be transmitted. Biotical factors may be important in passive transport and the process, by means of which an animal is passively transported by a selected carrier of different species, is known as "phoresy". Phoresy is a phenomenon in which one animal (the phoretic) seeks out and attaches to an animal of another species, with which it does not share any phase of the life cycle, for dispersal, during which time the phoretic animal becomes quiescent, stopping feeding and development...
June 2007: Parassitologia
P G Bannerman, A Hahn
It is widely accepted that chronic disabilities in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are due in part to neuronal damage. The central aim of this study was to characterize axonal disruption in the spinal cord of mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MOG-EAE), a model of progressive MS. To accomplish this goal, we induced MOG-EAE in thy1-yellow fluorescent (thy-YFP)-transgenic mice in which all spinal motorneurons express the YFP reporter protein. We demonstrate that a build-up of YFP fluorescence occurs in profiles reminiscent of tortuous fragmented axons and axonal spheroids/globules as seen in various neurodegenerative/neuroinflammatory diseases...
September 15, 2007: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
P G Bannerman, A Hahn, S Ramirez, M Morley, C Bönnemann, S Yu, G-X Zhang, A Rostami, D Pleasure
Using adult male C57BL/6 mice that express a yellow fluorescent protein transgene in their motor neurons, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 (MOG peptide) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Control mice of the same transgenic strain received CFA without MOG peptide. Early in the course of their illness, the EAE mice showed lumbosacral spinal cord inflammation, demyelination and axonal fragmentation. By 14 weeks post-MOG peptide, these abnormalities were much less prominent, but the mice remained weak and, as in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis, spinal cord atrophy had developed...
August 2005: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
S M Berch, H B Massicotte, L E Tackaberry
This paper begins with a brief comparison of Franz Kamienski's 1882 view of the fungus-root associations and nutrition of Monotropa hypopitys with our current understanding. The rest of this paper is a re-publication of Shannon Berch's 1985 translation of Kamienski's breakthrough paper in which it was asserted that Monotropa forms a mutualistic symbiosis and is nourished by fungi associated with the roots of neighbouring trees.
July 2005: Mycorrhiza
Cécile Mazière, Virginie Marcheux, Christophe Louandre, Jean-Claude Mazière
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) is known to be cytotoxic towards different cell types of the arterial wall, leading to progression of an atherosclerotic plaque. We previously reported that OxLDL activates the tumor suppressor p53 in human fibroblasts [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 276 (2000) 718]. In the present work, we demonstrate that OxLDL increased intracellular levels of the kinase inhibitor p21(waf1) (p21) and of the tumor suppressor Rb. Concomitantly, level of the hypophosphorylated active form of Rb (HypoP-Rb) was also enhanced...
May 24, 2002: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
I Yokoji, S Nakamura, T Ikeda
We report a 65-year-old male with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) who developed bilateral vocal cord abductor paralysis (VCAP). The patient was admitted to our hospital because of impaired gait. He was well until two years earlier, when he began to walk unsteadily. During the next two years, dysarthria and dysphagia developed and his gait worsened gradually. On admission, neurological examination showed impaired vertical and incomplete lateral gaze. His speech was slow and monotonous. Contractures were found in the neck muscles and elbows...
June 1997: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
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