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Anna V Shchennikova, Marya A Slugina, Alexey V Beletsky, Mikhail A Filyushin, Andrey A Mardanov, Olga A Shulga, Elena Z Kochieva, Nikolay V Ravin, Konstantin G Skryabin
Monotropa hypopitys is a mycoheterotrophic, nonphotosynthetic plant acquiring nutrients from the roots of autotrophic trees through mycorrhizal symbiosis, and, similar to other extant plants, forming asymmetrical lateral organs during development. The members of the YABBY family of transcription factors are important players in the establishment of leaf and leaf-like organ polarity in plants. This is the first report on the identification of YABBY genes in a mycoheterotrophic plant devoid of aboveground vegetative organs...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
A V Shchennikova, E Z Kochieva, A V Beletsky, M A Filyushin, O A Shulga, N V Ravin, K G Skryabin
The precise spatial-temporal coordination of cell division and differentiation is necessary for the correct formation of tissues, organs, and the organism as a whole. This coordination has been implemented by the intercellular communication mediated by signaling molecules and receptors that selectively recognize them. Membrane receptor kinases of ERECTA family regulate inflorescence and flower structure, the formation of root epidermis and adaptation responses. The characterization of the ERECTA genes of flowering plant pinesap Monotropa hypopitys with unique development features can enrich the knowledge about the kinase ERECTA functions and conserved development processes with their participation...
September 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Thomas W A Braukmann, Michael B Broe, Saša Stefanović, John V Freudenstein
Ericaceae (the heather family) is a large and diverse group of plants that forms elaborate symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi, and includes several nonphotosynthetic lineages. Using an extensive sample of fully mycoheterotrophic (MH) species, we explored inter- and intraspecific variation as well as selective constraints acting on the plastomes of these unusual plants. The plastomes of seven MH genera were analysed in a phylogenetic context with two geographically disparate individuals sequenced for Allotropa, Monotropa, and Pityopus...
July 21, 2017: New Phytologist
A V Shchennikova, O A Shulga, A V Beletsky, M A Filyushin, E Z Kochieva, N V Ravin, K G Skryabin
The gene encoding the transcription factor LEAFY was identified in the genome of the mycoheterotrophic plant, pinesap Monotropa hypopitys. In the transcriptomes of roots, bracts, and flowers of flowering pinesaps, the MhyLFY gene expression was absent. These data suggest the conservativeness of the LFY-dependent mechanism of flower meristem identity and flower formation in heterotrophic species with some differences associated to the specificity of development and the structure of such plants. The pinesap flowering under the control of the transcription factor MhyLFY may be initiated either in an embryonic inflorescence during spring dormancy release of adventitious root buds or in an inflorescence of a growing reproductive stem after photoperiodic induction...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
E Z Kochieva, M A Filyushin, A V Beletsky, N V Ravin, K G Skryabin
Genes encoding six chitinases, five of which belong to classes I (MhCHI3 and MhCHI4), IV (MhCHI1), V (MhCHI5), and VII (MhCHI2), were identified in the transcriptome of the parasitic mixoheterotrophic plant Monotropa hypopitys. The transcription level of MhCHI5 and MhCHI1 was low; however, in the leaves (bracts) and roots it was higher than in flowers. MhCHI4 transcripts were detected primarily in the flowers and were almost absent in the roots, whereas the expression level of MhCHI3 was relatively high in all organs but maximum in the leaves (bracts)...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
V A Johansson, M Bahram, L Tedersoo, U Kõljalg, O Eriksson
Mycoheterotrophic plants obtain organic carbon from associated mycorrhizal fungi, fully or partially. Angiosperms with this form of nutrition possess exceptionally small 'dust seeds' which after germination develop 'seedlings' that remain subterranean for several years, fully dependent on fungi for supply of carbon. Mycoheterotrophs which as adults have photosynthesis thus develop from full to partial mycoheterotrophy, or autotrophy, during ontogeny. Mycoheterotrophic plants may represent a gradient of variation in a parasitism-mutualism continuum, both among and within species...
May 2017: Molecular Ecology
Nikolai V Ravin, Eugeny V Gruzdev, Alexey V Beletsky, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Mikhail A Filyushin, Elena Z Kochieva, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Andrey V Mardanov, Konstantin G Skryabin
BACKGROUND: Chloroplasts of most plants are responsible for photosynthesis and contain a conserved set of about 110 genes that encode components of housekeeping gene expression machinery and photosynthesis-related functions. Heterotrophic plants obtaining nutrients from other organisms and their plastid genomes represent model systems in which to study the effects of relaxed selective pressure on photosynthetic function. The most evident is a reduction in the size and gene content of the plastome, which correlates with the loss of genes encoding photosynthetic machinery which become unnecessary...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Alexey V Beletsky, Mikhail A Filyushin, Eugeny V Gruzdev, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Elena Z Kochieva, Andrey V Mardanov, Nikolai V Ravin, Konstantin G Skryabin
Monotropa hypopitys (pinesap) is a non-photosynthetic obligately mycoheterotrophic plant of the family Ericaceae. It obtains the carbon and other nutrients from the roots of surrounding autotrophic trees through the associated mycorrhizal fungi. In order to understand the evolutionary changes in the plant genome associated with transition to a heterotrophic lifestyle, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of M. hypopitys using next-generation sequencing. We obtained the RNA-Seq data from flowers, flower bracts and roots with haustoria using Illumina HiSeq2500 platform...
March 2017: Genomics Data
Maria D Logacheva, Mikhail I Schelkunov, Victoria Y Shtratnikova, Maria V Matveeva, Aleksey A Penin
Although plastid genomes of flowering plants are typically highly conserved regarding their size, gene content and order, there are some exceptions. Ericaceae, a large and diverse family of flowering plants, warrants special attention within the context of plastid genome evolution because it includes both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic species with rearranged plastomes and putative losses of "essential" genes. We characterized plastid genomes of three species of Ericaceae, non-photosynthetic Monotropa uniflora and Hypopitys monotropa and photosynthetic Pyrola rotundifolia, using high-throughput sequencing...
July 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anna V Shchennikova, Alexey V Beletsky, Olga A Shulga, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Elena Z Kochieva, Nikolay V Ravin, Konstantin G Skryabin
Myco-heterotroph Monotropa hypopitys is a widely spread perennial herb used to study symbiotic interactions and physiological mechanisms underlying the development of non-photosynthetic plant. Here, we performed, for the first time, transcriptome-wide characterization of M. hypopitys miRNA profile using high throughput Illumina sequencing. As a result of small RNA library sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, we identified 55 members belonging to 40 families of known miRNAs and 17 putative novel miRNAs unique for M...
July 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
M A Filyushin, N M Reshetnikova, E Z Kochieva, K G Skryabin
Intraspecific sequence polymorphism in the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal operon was examined in ten populations of the parasitic plant Monotropa hypopitys from Belgorod oblast, Vologda oblast, and Kaluga oblast of Russia. Based on an analysis of the identified nucleotide substitutions and indels in the ITS regions, the M. hypopitys populations were divided into two groups (A and B). Four new ITS haplotypes of M. hypopitys were identified.
November 2015: Genetika
M A Filyushin, E Z Kochieva, K G Skryabin
This is the first study to investigate the secondary structure of 5.8S rRNA in M. hypopitys and related Ericaceae species. The identified nucleotide substitutions are localized mostly at the 3' and 5' ends of the gene, in the region of the third hairpin, and do not significantly affect the topology of the secondary structure of the 5.8S rRNA molecule.
2015: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Veronika A Johansson, Anna Mikusinska, Alf Ekblad, Ove Eriksson
Mycoheterotrophic plants (MHP) are divided into non-photosynthesizing full MHP and green-leaved partial or initial MHP. We investigated (13)C and (15)N isotope enrichment in five putatively partial MHP species in the tribe Pyroleae (Ericaceae): Chimaphila umbellata, Moneses uniflora, Orthilia secunda, Pyrola chlorantha and Pyrola minor, sampled from forest sites on Öland, Sweden. For M. uniflora and P. chlorantha, we investigated isotope signatures of subterranean seedlings (which are mycoheterotrophic), to examine how the use of seedlings instead of full MHP species (Hypopitys monotropa) as reference species affects the assessment of partial mycoheterotrophy...
January 2015: Oecologia
J Dzierżanowski, A Szarmach, P Słoniewski, P Czapiewski, M Piskunowicz, T Bandurski, T Szmuda
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphometry of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), on the basis of angio-computed tomography (CT), and to give proof of the mathematical definition of the term "hypopal sia of the PCoA". MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred 3-dimensional (3D) angio-CT images, performed in adult patients with bilateral reconstruction of the PCoA (200 results) were used tocalculate the morphometry of the vessel. RESULTS: The average length of the vessel on the right side was 14...
August 2014: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Matthew R Klooster, Theresa M Culley
Studies of mycoheterotrophs, defined as plants that obtain carbon resources from associated mycorrhizal fungi, have fundamentally contributed to our understanding of the importance and complexity of symbiotic ecological interactions. However, to date, the reproductive ecology of these organisms remains empirically understudied, with existing literature presenting hypotheses about traits including a generalist pollination syndrome and autogamous self-pollination. To address this gap in our knowledge of the reproductive ecology of mycoheterotrophic plants, we comparatively analyzed three species of two monotropoid genera, Monotropa and Monotropsis...
July 2009: American Journal of Botany
M R Klooster, A W Hoenle, T M Culley
The myco-heterotroph Monotropa hypopitys is a perennial, circumboreally distributed herb of significant importance in studies of nonphotosynthetic plant biology. To address a deficiency in our knowledge of myco-heterotroph population genetics, 11 microsatellite markers were developed using a cost-effective, nonradioactive protocol. Multiplex reactions revealed polymorphism in the red and yellow colour forms of M. hypopitys with an average of 2.69 alleles per primer. Many primers additionally amplified in the congener Monotropa uniflora and five other closely related genera...
January 2009: Molecular Ecology Resources
Gemma E Beatty, Jim Provan
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to use a combined phylogeographic and species distribution modelling approach to compare the glacial histories of two plant species with overlapping distributions, Orthilia secunda (one-sided wintergreen) and Monotropa hypopitys (yellow bird's nest). Phylogeographic analysis was carried out to determine the distribution of genetic variation across the range of each species and to test whether both correspond to the "classic" model of high diversity in the south, with decreasing diversity at higher latitudes, or whether the cold-adapted O...
2011: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Gemma E Beatty, Jim Provan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral populations of plant species are often characterized by low levels of genetic diversity as a result of genetic drift, restricted gene flow, inbreeding and asexual reproduction. These effects can be exacerbated where range-edge populations are fragmented. The main aim of the present study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity in remnant populations of Hypopitys monotropa (syn. Monotropa hypopitys; yellow bird's nest) at the edge of the species' European range in Northern Ireland, since these remnant populations are small and highly fragmented...
April 2011: Annals of Botany
Laia Gifre, Pilar Peris, Ana Monegal, Maria Jesús Martinez de Osaba, Luisa Alvarez, Núria Guañabens
The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical manifestations and the most frequent causes of osteomalacia (OM) in a group of 28 patients diagnosed with this disorder during a 20-year period. OM was diagnosed by bone biopsy and/or by Bingham and Fitzpatrick criteria (two of the following: low calcium, low phosphate, elevated total alkaline phosphatase [total AP] or suggestive radiographs). Of these patients, 13 had vitamin D deficiency OM (VD-OM), 14 hypophosphatemic OM (HypoP-OM) and one had OM-associated hypophosphatasia...
May 2011: Clinical Rheumatology
F Macchioni
Dispersal capacity plays a central role in the radiation of animals, facilitating the exploitation of habitats variously distributed in space or in time or both. Many living species are unable to leave a host, crawl around, and find a new host, so they must rely on external factors to be transmitted. Biotical factors may be important in passive transport and the process, by means of which an animal is passively transported by a selected carrier of different species, is known as "phoresy". Phoresy is a phenomenon in which one animal (the phoretic) seeks out and attaches to an animal of another species, with which it does not share any phase of the life cycle, for dispersal, during which time the phoretic animal becomes quiescent, stopping feeding and development...
June 2007: Parassitologia
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