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folate deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548831/folate-biofortification-in-hydroponically-cultivated-spinach-by-the-addition-of-phenylalanine
#1
Sho Watanabe, Yuta Ohtani, Yohei Tatsukami, Wataru Aoki, Takashi Amemiya, Yasunori Sukekiyo, Seiichi Kubokawa, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, genetically modified foods may have adverse effects, and their production and sales are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542653/-folate-and-pregnancy-current-concepts-it-is-required-folic-acid-supplementation
#2
Erika Castaño, Raúl Piñuñuri, Sandra Hirsch, Ana María Ronco
Folate intake during pregnancy is essential for an adequate fetal and placental development and for the long time health of the individual. Its deficiency may induce fetal pathologies, including neural tube disease (NTD). Therefore, several countries implemented public policies to fortify foods with folic acid (FA). Chile started the fortification of wheat flour with FA in the year 2000, decreasing a 43% the prevalence of NTD. However, despite the high consumption of bread (the main fortified food with FA) by our population, a high number of pregnant women consume FA supplements, thus, over passing the maximal recommended FA intake...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538665/molecular-basis-of-alcohol-related-gastric-and-colon-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Na, Ja Young Lee
Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537221/ethical-stumbling-blocks-in-uncovering-folate-deficiency-as-a-preventable-cause-of-spina-bifida
#4
Lars H Breimer, Torbjörn K Nilsson
The year 2016 witnessed the anniversaries of several key events related to the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD) with folate supplementation. However, the road leading up to this achievement was full of stumbling blocks, both in terms of research ethics and researcher ethics. First, the decisions of ethics review boards differed with respect to allowing placebo groups in folate trials, thus reducing the level of evidence obtained from the earliest studies. Second, statisticians insisted on analysing the outcome of a trial by intention-to-treat - which turned out to be non-significant - rather than by treatment received, which was statistically significant...
May 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534241/a-genetic-variant-in-fign-gene-reduces-the-risk-of-congenital-heart-disease-in-han-chinese-populations
#5
Dan Wang, Maoping Chu, Feng Wang, Aihua Zhou, Miaohua Ruan, Yiming Chen
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth anomalies worldwide. Folate deficiency is an independent risk factor for CHD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed that human folate level could be significantly influenced by fidgetin (FIGN), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), prickle homolog 2 (PRICKLE2), synaptotagmin 9 (SYT9), gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor 2 (GABBR2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) genes. The association between the above-mentioned six variants and CHD was examined in the two independent case-control studies in a total of 868 CHD patients and 931 healthy controls...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532720/the-dietary-composition-of-women-who-delivered-preterm-and-full-term-infants
#6
Wioletta Waksmańska, Rafał Bobiński, Izabela Ulman-Włodarz, Anna Pielesz, Monika Mikulska
OBJECTIVES: Literature data show that excess and primary deficiency in particular nutrients, vitamins and minerals may lead to pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, hypertension and neural tube defects in the foetus. The aim of the study was to determine differences in average daily consumption of selected nutrients during pregnancy in women who did not supplement their diet and to evaluate the influence of dietary habits on the occurrence of pre-term delivery and hypertension in pregnant women...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526947/association-of-ulcerative-colitis-with-transcobalamin-ii-gene-polymorphisms-and-serum-homocysteine-vitamin-b12-and-folate-levels-in-chinese-patients
#7
Shuzi Zheng, Wei Yang, Chaoqun Wu, Liang Sun, Daopo Lin, Xiuqing Lin, Lijia Jiang, Ran Ding, Yi Jiang
It has been reported that abnormal elevation of homocysteine is quite prevalent in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. We attempted to explore the relationship of UC with transcobalamin II (TCN2) gene polymorphisms and serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate levels in Chinese patients. TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756) genotypes were detected by the improved multiple ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) technique in 527 UC patients and 574 controls. Moreover, 128 UC patients and 138 controls were randomly selected for the measurement of homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate levels by enzymatic cycling assay or chemiluminescence immunoassay...
May 19, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524215/-novel-therapies-in-neurometabolic-diseases-the-importance-of-early-intervention
#8
L G Gutierrez-Solana
INTRODUCTION: Individually, neurometabolic diseases are ultra rare, but for some of them there is an effective treatment. DEVELOPMENT: Several recent therapeutic advances are reviewed. Today, the possibilities of treatment for lysosomal diseases have improved. In recent years the use of enzyme replacement therapy has become more widely extended to treat mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (Morquio A), mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (Sly syndrome), lysosomal acid lipase deficiency and alpha-mannosidosis...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523235/effects-of-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-versus-oral-levodopa-carbidopa-on-b-vitamin-levels-and-neuropathy
#9
Sebastian Loens, Elena Chorbadzhieva, Alexandra Kleimann, Dirk Dressler, Christoph Schrader
OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible interactions between levodopa therapy and plasma levels of B vitamins in patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) in the context of either oral levodopa therapy or levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG). Secondly, to determine the prevalence of neuropathy and its relation to plasma levels of B vitamins and homocysteine. METHODS: Medication doses, neurographies, and serum levels of pyridoxine, cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine of eight LCIG and 13 orally treated advanced IPD patients matched for age, Hoehn & Yahr stage, and UPRDS III were collected...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515336/the-effects-of-micronutrient-deficiencies-on-bacterial-species-from-the-human-gut-microbiota
#10
Matthew C Hibberd, Meng Wu, Dmitry A Rodionov, Xiaoqing Li, Jiye Cheng, Nicholas W Griffin, Michael J Barratt, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Andrei L Osterman, Jeffrey I Gordon
Vitamin and mineral (micronutrient) deficiencies afflict 2 billion people. Although the impact of these imbalances on host biology has been studied extensively, much less is known about their effects on the gut microbiota of developing or adult humans. Therefore, we established a community of cultured, sequenced human gut-derived bacterial species in gnotobiotic mice and fed the animals a defined micronutrient-sufficient diet, followed by a derivative diet devoid of vitamin A, folate, iron, or zinc, followed by return to the sufficient diet...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513265/perturbing-status-of-vitamin-b12-in-indian-infants-and-their-mothers
#11
Medha Mittal, Vijayashri Bansal, Rahul Jain, Pradeep Kumar Dabla
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency in early life can adversely affect the growth of developing brain with myriad of neurodevelopmental manifestations. At this age, the deficiency is usually the result of low maternal levels. OBJECTIVES: To assess the vitamin B12 status of healthy exclusively breast-fed Indian infants aged 1 to 6 months and their mothers. METHODS: One hundred term exclusively breast-fed infants aged 1 to 6 months attending pediatric outpatient department were recruited...
June 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508256/the-role-of-micronutrients-in-alopecia-areata-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Jordan M Thompson, Mehwish A Mirza, Min Kyung Park, Abrar A Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring form of hair loss caused by immune-mediated attack of the hair follicle. As with other immune-mediated diseases, a complex interplay between environment and genetics is thought to lead to the development of AA. Deficiency of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals may represent a modifiable risk factor associated with development of AA. Given the role of these micronutrients in normal hair follicle development and in immune cell function, a growing number of investigations have sought to determine whether serum levels of these nutrients might differ in AA patients, and whether supplementation of these nutrients might represent a therapeutic option for AA...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496133/folate-metabolism-regulates-oligodendrocyte-survival-and-differentiation-by-modulating-ampk%C3%AE-activity
#13
Qinjie Weng, Jiajia Wang, Jiaying Wang, Biqin Tan, Jing Wang, Haibo Wang, Tao Zheng, Q Richard Lu, Bo Yang, Qiaojun He
Folate, an essential micronutrient, is a critical cofactor in one-carbon metabolism for many cellular pathways including DNA synthesis, metabolism and maintenance. Folate deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of neurological disease, cancer and cognitive dysfunction. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a key enzyme to regulate folate metabolism, however folate/DHFR activity in oligodendrocyte development has not been fully understood. Here we show that folate enhances oligodendrocyte maturation both in vitro and in vivo, which is accompanied with upregulation of oligodendrocyte-specific DHFR expression...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488686/an-overview-of-folate-status-in-a-population-based-study-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-and-the-potential-impact-of-10-years-of-national-folic-acid-fortification-policy
#14
J Steluti, J Selhub, L Paul, C Reginaldo, R M Fisberg, D M L Marchioni
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Food fortification is an important strategy in public health policy for controlling micronutrient malnutrition and a major contributing factor in the eradication of micronutrients' deficiencies. Approximately 50 countries worldwide have adopted food fortification with folic acid (FA). FA fortification of wheat and maize flours has been mandatory in Brazil since 2004. To assess the effect of 10 years of FA food fortification policy on folate status of residents of São Palo, Brazil using a population-based survey...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475162/characterization-and-interrelations-of-one-carbon-metabolites-in-tissues-erythrocytes-and-plasma-in-mice-with-dietary-induced-folate-deficiency
#15
Markus Kopp, Rosalie Morisset, Michael Rychlik
Studies on one-carbon metabolism for the assessment of folate deficiency have focused on either metabolites of folate metabolism or methionine cycle. To bridge the gap between deficiency markers in these pathways we designed a dietary induced folate deficiency study using male C57BL/6N mice. After weaning (3 weeks) mice were fed a defined control diet (1 week) before being fed a folate deficient diet (n = 6 mice) and the control diet (n = 6 mice) for 12 additional weeks. Thereafter, we determined total homocysteine in plasma and folate in erythrocytes as well as S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and six folate vitamers in tissues including 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, tetrahydrofolate, 10-formylfolic acid, and folic acid by means of stable isotope dilution assays coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
May 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472811/an-analysis-of-transcobalamin-ii-gene-polymorphisms-and-serum-levels-of-homocysteine-folate-and-vitamin-b12-in-chinese-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#16
Shuzi Zheng, Chaoqun Wu, Wei Yang, Xuanping Xia, Xiuqing Lin, Lijia Jiang, Ran Ding, Yi Jiang
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the association of Crohn's disease (CD) with transcobalamin II (TCN2) polymorphisms and serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels. METHODS: TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756) were genotyped by iMLDR in 389 CD patients and 746 controls. Furthermore, 102 CD patients and 153 controls were randomly selected for examination of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels by enzymatic cycling assay and chemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively...
May 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464292/rnai-mediated-gene-silencing-of-itpa-using-a-targeted-nanocarrier-apoptosis-induction-in-skbr3-cancer-cells
#17
Fahimeh Charbgoo, Mehrdad Behmanesh, Maryam Nikkhah, Eric G Kane
A pure nucleotide pool is required for high-fidelity DNA replication and prevention of carcinogenesis in living cells. Human inosine triphosphatase (ITPase), encoded by the ITPA gene, plays a critical role in maintaining the purity of the cellular nucleotide pool by excluding nucleotides that enhance mutagenesis. ITPase is a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes the non-canonical nucleotides inosine triphosphate (ITP) and xanthine triphosphate (XTP). The monophosphate products of ITPase reactions are subsequently excluded from the nucleotide pool and the improper substitution of ITP and XTP into DNA and RNA is prevented...
May 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461497/folate-rescues-vitamin-b12-depletion-induced-inhibition-of-nuclear-thymidylate-biosynthesis-and-genome-instability
#18
Ashley M Palmer, Elena Kamynina, Martha S Field, Patrick J Stover
Clinical vitamin B12 deficiency can result in megaloblastic anemia, which results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis by trapping folate cofactors in the form of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) and subsequent inhibition of de novo thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis. In the cytosol, vitamin B12 functions in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, which regenerates THF from 5-methylTHF. In the nucleus, THF is required for de novo dTMP biosynthesis, but it is not understood how 5-methylTHF accumulation in the cytosol impairs nuclear dTMP biosynthesis...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460896/folates-chemistry-analysis-occurrence-biofortification-and-bioavailability
#19
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Young-Soo Keum
Folates (Vitamin B9) include both naturally occurring folates and synthetic folic acid used in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folate deficiency causes severe abnormalities in one-carbon metabolism can result chronic diseases and developmental disorders, including neural tube defects. Mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo; therefore, diet and dietary supplements are the only way to attain daily folate requirements. In the last decade, significant advancements have been made to enhance the folate content of rice, tomato, common bean and lettuce by using genetic engineering approaches...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460586/supplementation-with-6s-5-methyltetrahydrofolate-or-folic-acid-equally-reduces-serum-homocysteine-concentrations-in-older-adults
#20
Ewa Sicińska, Anna Brzozowska, Wojciech Roszkowski, Paul M Finglas
Folic acid (FA) supplementation reduces the elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. [6 S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolate ([6 S]-5-MTHF) is an alternative to FA due to possible advantages, that is, no masking cobalamin deficiency. The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of [6 S]-5-MTHF in relations to FA supplementation in reducing the serum Hcy. Healthy volunteers, aged 50-65, had normal serum folate and did not use supplements with B-vitamins for 6 months. Forty subjects were divided into two groups: receiving 400 μg/d FA or the equimolar amount of [6 S]-5-MTHF...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
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