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Global Medicine

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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with a global overview of the role of PRM in healthcare systems in Europe. Several documents and reports by WHO and the UN call for the worldwide strengthening of rehabilitation as a key health strategy of the 21st century. Therefore, further implementation of PRM in healthcare systems is crucial. Many aspects need to be considered when implementing PRM in a health system. Since PRM should be provided along the whole continuum of care, a specific phase model has been developed...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The White Book (WB) of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe is produced by the 4 European PRM Bodies (European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine - EARM, European Society of PRM - ESPRM, European Union of Medical Specialists - PRM Section, European College of PRM-ECPRM served by the European Union of Medical Specialists-PRM Board) and constitutes the reference book for PRM physicians in Europe. It has now reached its third edition; the first was published in 1989 and the second in 2006/2007...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
M Cabrero-de Cabo, J M Ramos-Rincón, M Górgolas-Hernández Mora
OBJECTIVE: The teaching of tropical medicine, international health or global health in the Spanish Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy is unknown. The objective of this study is to show a current overview of teaching in degree and post-graduate. METHODS: The curricula are reviewed, identifying those subjects and postgraduate courses with the denomination "Tropical Medicine", "International Health", "Global Health" or "Imported Diseases"...
March 20, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Andrew M Hill, Melissa J Barber, Dzintars Gotham
Introduction: There are persistent gaps in access to affordable medicines. The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) includes medicines considered necessary for functional health systems. Methods: A generic price estimation formula was developed by reviewing published analyses of cost of production for medicines and assuming manufacture in India, which included costs of formulation, packaging, taxation and a 10% profit margin. Data on per-kilogram prices of active pharmaceutical ingredient exported from India were retrieved from an online database...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Grace Sum, Thomas Hone, Rifat Atun, Christopher Millett, Marc Suhrcke, Ajay Mahal, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh, John Tayu Lee
Background: Multimorbidity, the presence of two or more non-communicable diseases (NCD), is a costly and complex challenge for health systems globally. Patients with NCDs incur high levels of out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), often on medicines, but the literature on the association between OOPE on medicines and multimorbidity has not been examined systematically. Methods: A systematic review was conducted via searching medical and economics databases including Ovid Medline, EMBASE, EconLit, Cochrane Library and the WHO Global Health Library from year 2000 to 2016...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Kerri Wazny
Background: Crowdsourcing is a nascent phenomenon that has grown exponentially since it was coined in 2006. It involves a large group of people solving a problem or completing a task for an individual or, more commonly, for an organisation. While the field of crowdsourcing has developed more quickly in information technology, it has great promise in health applications. This review examines uses of crowdsourcing in global health and health, broadly. Methods: Semantic searches were run in Google Scholar for "crowdsourcing," "crowdsourcing and health," and similar terms...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Mercè Boada, Miguel A Santos-Santos, Octavio Rodríguez-Gómez, Montserrat Alegret, Pilar Cañabate, Asunción Lafuente, Carla Abdelnour, Mar Buendía, Maria José de Dios, América Morera, Ángela Sanabria, Laura Campo, Agustín Ruiz, Lluís Tárraga
Alzheimer's disease (AD) research is at a critical time. The global society is increasingly aware of the frightening rate of growth of the human and financial burden caused by this condition and of the urgent need to halt its progression. Consequently, the scientific community holds great responsibility to quickly put in place and optimize the machinery necessary for testing new treatments or interventions. In this context demand for participants for AD research is at an all-time high. In this review, we will focus on a methodological factor that is increasingly recognized as a key factor that shapes trial populations and affects validity of results in clinical trials: patient engagement, recruitment, and retention...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Maureen Mackintosh, Julius Mugwagwa, Geoffrey Banda, Paula Tibandebage, Jires Tunguhole, Samuel Wangwe, Mercy Karimi Njeru
The benefits of local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa for local access to medicines and to effective treatment remain contested. There is scepticism among health systems experts internationally that production of pharmaceuticals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can provide competitive prices, quality and reliability of supply. Meanwhile low-income African populations continue to suffer poor access to a broad range of medicines, despite major international funding efforts. A current wave of pharmaceutical industry investment in SSA is associated with active African government promotion of pharmaceuticals as a key sector in industrialization strategies...
March 19, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Inuk Jung, Hyejin Kang, Jang Uk Kim, Hyeonsook Chang, Sun Kim, Woosuk Jung
BACKGROUND: Ginseng is a popular traditional herbal medicine in north-eastern Asia. It has been used for human health for over thousands of years. With the rise in global temperature, the production of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) in Korea have migrated from mid to northern parts of the Korean peninsula to escape from the various higher temperature related stresses. Under the high ambient temperature, vegetative growth was accelerated, which resulted in early flowering. This precocious phase change led to yield loss...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Wolfgang Seger, Sabine Grotkamp, Wolfgang Cibis
A broad and common understanding of the nature of Personal Factors contributes and initiates a dialogue between professionals involved in health care to gain a comprehensive perspective regarding an individual's health condition and accurately allocate social benefits and medical interventions. Personal Factors play an essential role in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the underlying Bio-Psycho-Social Disease Model. To date, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has not classified Personal Factors for global use despite their impact on the functioning of individuals as facilitators or barriers...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Qiong Wang, Yi-Ru Wang, Qing-Yun Jia, Li Liu, Chong-Qing Xu, Xiao-Yun Wang, Min Yao, Xue-Jun Cui, Qi Shi, Yong-Jun Wang, Qian-Qian Liang
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by swelling and painful joints, eventually leading to joint destruction. There is still a lack of effective therapy to treat RA. The Juanbi pill is a Chinese medicine that has been widely used to treat active RA in China for hundreds of years, relieving pain and protecting the affected joints from malformation. However, there is no solid evidence to show the effect of the Juanbi pill on the management of active RA...
March 20, 2018: Trials
Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Luciano Rossetti
Luciano Rossetti, MD, Executive Vice President, Global Head of R&D at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor Luciano Rossetti, MD, is Executive Vice President, Global Head of R&D at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and a member of the Healthcare Executive Committee. As Global Head of R&D, Rossetti leads the strategy for Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany's discovery and development efforts in healthcare. He joined Merck KGaA in July 2014, and has since led the acceleration of several key programs through the pipeline and advanced the innovation of Merck KGaA's discovery teams into development...
March 20, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Abhinav Jain, Shrey Gandhi, Remya Koshy, Vinod Scaria
Incidental findings in genomic data have been studied in great detail in the recent years, especially from population-scale data sets. However, little is known about the frequency of such findings in ethnic groups, specifically the Middle East, which were not previously covered in global sequencing studies. The availability of whole exome and genome data sets for a highly consanguineous Arab population from Qatar motivated us to explore the incidental findings in this population-scale data. The sequence data of 1005 Qatari individuals were systematically analyzed for incidental genetic variants in the 59 genes suggested by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Thijs T Wingelaar, Paul Clarijs, Pieter-Jan Am van Ooij, Dave Aa Koch, Rob A van Hulst
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is an important part of dive medical examinations. Depending on the standard used to assess fitness to dive, different reference sets and fixed cut-off points are used. Reference values are part of an ongoing debate regarding the validity and accuracy related to different age groups, sex and ethnic backgrounds. The Global Lung Initiative (GLI) has provided an all-age reference set which corrects for sex and ethnicity (GLI-2012); this has had substantial impact on pulmonary medicine...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Hadeel Albabtain, Monira Alwhaibi, Khalid Alburaikan, Yousif Asiri
Background: Complementary and Alternative Medication (CAM) is commonly used among women with breast cancer to improve their quality of life (QoL). However, few studies examine the prevalence of CAM and its' relation to the patients' QoL among women with breast cancer. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 95 women with breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The outcome measure of interest was the QoL. The correlation was used to assess the association between CAM use and QoL...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Bradley A Perkins, C Thomas Caskey, Pamila Brar, Eric Dec, David S Karow, Andrew M Kahn, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Naisha Shah, Debbie Boeldt, Erin Coughlin, Gabby Hands, Victor Lavrenko, James Yu, Andrea Procko, Julia Appis, Anders M Dale, Lining Guo, Thomas J Jönsson, Bryan M Wittmann, Istvan Bartha, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Axel Bernal, James B Brewer, Suzanne Brewerton, William H Biggs, Yaron Turpaz, J Craig Venter
Reducing premature mortality associated with age-related chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, is an urgent priority. We report early results using genomics in combination with advanced imaging and other clinical testing to proactively screen for age-related chronic disease risk among adults. We enrolled active, symptom-free adults in a study of screening for age-related chronic diseases associated with premature mortality. In addition to personal and family medical history and other clinical testing, we obtained whole-genome sequencing (WGS), noncontrast whole-body MRI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), global metabolomics, a new blood test for prediabetes (Quantose IR), echocardiography (ECHO), ECG, and cardiac rhythm monitoring to identify age-related chronic disease risks...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Giorgia Caruso
The indiscriminate use of antibiotics for the treatment of human and animal infections has led to the rise ofresistance in pathogens and in commensal bacteria. In particular, farm animals may act as vectors for the dissemination of drug-resistant genes because of the intensive use of antibiotics in animal production, enabling resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including those normally used in human medicine. Escherichia coli , being a widespread commensal, is considered a good indicator of antibiotic use...
March 19, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
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