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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337071/international-standards-for-genomes-transcriptomes-and-metagenomes
#1
Christopher E Mason, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Scott Tighe, Shixiu Wu, Shawn Levy
Challenges and biases in preparing, characterizing, and sequencing DNA and RNA can have significant impacts on research in genomics across all kingdoms of life, including experiments in single-cells, RNA profiling, and metagenomics (across multiple genomes). Technical artifacts and contamination can arise at each point of sample manipulation, extraction, sequencing, and analysis. Thus, the measurement and benchmarking of these potential sources of error are of paramount importance as next-generation sequencing (NGS) projects become more global and ubiquitous...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335786/matching-safety-to-access-global-actors-and-pharmacogovernance-in-kenya-a-case-study
#2
Kathy Moscou, Jillian C Kohler
BACKGROUND: The Kenyan government has sought to address inadequacies in its National Pharmaceutical Policy and the Pharmacy and Poisons Board's (PPB) medicines governance by engaging with global actors (e.g. the World Health Organization). Policy actors have influenced the way pharmacovigilance is defined, how challenges are understood and which norms are requisite to address drug safety issues. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between specific modes of engagement among global (exogenous) and domestic actors at the national and sub-national level to identify the positive or negative effect on pharmacovigilance and pharmacogovernance in Kenya...
March 23, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335438/the-food-production-environment-and-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-human-pathogens-of-animal-origin
#3
REVIEW
Manjusha Lekshmi, Parvathi Ammini, Sanath Kumar, Manuel F Varela
Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain...
March 14, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333443/systematic-investigation-of-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-for-treating-cardio-cerebrovascular-diseases-in-an-animal-model
#4
Yinfeng Yang, Yan Li, Jinghui Wang, Ke Sun, Weiyang Tao, Zhenzhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Yanqiu Pan, Shuwei Zhang, Yonghua Wang
Globally, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) account for the leading cause of death, and thus the development of novel strategies for preventing and treating such diseases is in urgent need. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), used for thousands of years in Asia and other regions, have been proven effective in certain disorders. As a medicinal herb for a long time in TCM, Ginkgo Biloba Leaves (GBLs), have been widely used to treat various diseases including CCVDs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of medicinal herb in treating these diseases are still unclear...
March 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332995/three-dimensional-dosimetric-validation-of-a-magnetic-resonance-guided-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-system
#5
Leith J Rankine, Stewart Mein, Bin Cai, Austen Curcuru, Titania Juang, Devin Miles, Sasa Mutic, Yuhe Wang, Mark Oldham, H Harold Li
PURPOSE: To validate the dosimetric accuracy of a commercially available magnetic resonance guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (MRgIMRT) system using a hybrid approach: 3-dimensional (3D) measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We used PRESAGE radiochromic plastic dosimeters with remote optical computed tomography readout to perform 3D high-resolution measurements, following a novel remote dosimetry protocol. We followed the intensity modulated radiation therapy commissioning recommendations of American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 119, adapted to incorporate 3D data...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332849/can-we-determine-sasang-constitutional-body-type-merely-by-facial-inspection
#6
Seung Chul Rhee, Hyo-Sang Bae, Yung-Seop Lee, Rahil Hwang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the inter-observer concordance rate of anthroscopic examination on facial features among experts in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) in order to evaluate the presence of statistical differences in facial structural characteristics among different body types of Sasang constitution (SC), and to develop an objective method for facial analysis for diagnosing SC types to prevent SCM experts from misdiagnosis by their perceptional errors about faces...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#7
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330463/global-transcriptome-analysis-of-huperzia-serrata-and-identification-of-critical-genes-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-huperzine-a
#8
Mengquan Yang, Wenjing You, Shiwen Wu, Zhen Fan, Baofu Xu, Mulan Zhu, Xuan Li, Youli Xiao
BACKGROUND: Huperzia serrata (H. serrata) is an economically important traditional Chinese herb with the notably medicinal value. As a representative member of the Lycopodiaceae family, the H. serrata produces various types of effectively bioactive lycopodium alkaloids, especially the huperzine A (HupA) which is a promising drug for Alzheimer's disease. Despite their medicinal importance, the public genomic and transcriptomic resources are very limited and the biosynthesis of HupA is largely unknown...
March 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328735/building-workforce-capacity-abroad-while-strengthening-global-health-programs-at-home-participation-of-seven-harvard-affiliated-institutions-in-a-health-professional-training-initiative-in-rwanda
#9
Corrado Cancedda, Robert Riviello, Kim Wilson, Kirstin W Scott, Meenu Tuteja, Jane R Barrow, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Gene Bukhman, Jennifer Scott, Danny Milner, Giuseppe Raviola, Barbara Weissman, Stacy Smith, Tej Nuthulaganti, Craig D McClain, Barbara E Bierer, Paul E Farmer, Anne E Becker, Agnes Binagwaho, Joseph Rhatigan, David E Golan
A consortium of 22 U.S. academic institutions is currently participating in the Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program (HRH Program). Led by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and funded by both the U.S. Government and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the primary goal of this seven-year initiative is to help Rwanda train the number of health professionals necessary to reach the country's health workforce targets. Since 2012, the participating U.S. academic institutions have deployed faculty from a variety of health-related disciplines and clinical specialties to Rwanda...
March 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327853/-latin-american-perspectives-on-person-centered-medicine
#10
Alberto Perales, Juan Mendoza, Rodolfo Armas, Oscar Cluzet
Person-centered medicine (PCM) is a programmatic global initiative led by the International College of Person-Centered Medicine. It has recently emerged in Latin America. It requires the use of scientific research as an instrument to generate the best clinical evidence, and humanism as the essence of medicine to help mankind. It is focused on not only combatting disease but also promoting the display of healthy human being potentials towards achieving well-being and comprehensive growth. Although the humanism of medicine in Latin America has been a distinctive characteristic of its practice, now, there is a worrying decline in its impact on healthcare...
October 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327852/-person-centered-clinical-care-principles-and-strategies
#11
Juan Enrique Mezzich, Alberto Perales
The development of person-centered clinical care is inscribed within an international programmatic movement towards a medicine focused on the totality of the person. This movement, with broad historical bases, has been maturing since 2008 through conferences among global health institutions, research projects and academic publications. This paper is aimed at elucidating the conceptual principles of person-centered medicine (PCM) and to delineate strategies for the practical application of such principles in clinical care services...
October 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327043/handwashing
#12
Erin Dean
Essential facts Antimicrobial resistance develops when medicines are used inappropriately. Global estimates suggest that every year more than 700,000 people die from drug-resistant strains of common bacterial and viral infections, such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV. If antimicrobial resistance continues to increase, this number could rise to 10 million a year by 2050.
March 22, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326177/characterization-of-secondary-care-for-copd-in-sweden
#13
Josefin Sundh, Christer Janson, Gunnar Johansson, Anders Lindén, Claes-Göran Löfdahl, Thomas Sandström, Kjell Larsson
Introduction: Only a selected proportion of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are managed in secondary care. The aim of this study was to characterize disease severity, treatment and structure of secondary care for COPD in Sweden. Methods: Information was collected from 29 of 33 existing secondary care units of respiratory medicine in Sweden, using both individual data from 373 consecutively enrolled COPD patients with Global initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage III-IV and a structural questionnaire about available resources at the units...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325591/global-scanning-of-antihistamines-in-the-environment-analysis-of-occurrence-and-hazards-in-aquatic-systems
#14
Lauren A Kristofco, Bryan W Brooks
Concentration of the global population is increasingly occurring in megacities and other developing regions, where access to medicines is increasing more rapidly than waste management systems are implemented. Because freshwater and coastal systems are influenced by wastewater effluent discharges of differential quality, exposures in aquatic systems must be considered. Here, we performed a global scanning assessment of antihistamines (AHs), a common class of medicines, in surface waters and effluents. Antihistamines were identified, literature occurrence and ecotoxicology data on AHs collated, therapeutic hazard values (THVs) calculated, and environmental exposure distributions (EEDs) of AHs compared to ecotoxicity thresholds and drug specific THVs to estimate hazards in surface waters and effluents...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325576/raman-spectroscopy-in-quality-control-of-chinese-herbal-medicine
#15
Dan-Dan Chen, Xiao-Fang Xie, Hui Ao, Ji-Lei Liu, Cheng Peng
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is of noteworthy international interest due to its potential impact on healthcare and manifests numerous opportunities for new drug development. However, solid scientific evidence is still lacking regarding the safety, efficacy, and quality of CHM-derived medicines. Success in the modernization and globalization of CHM is heavily dependent on the achievements in advanced analytical techniques for in-line checks of CHM quality. Raman spectroscopy has become increasingly valued as an analytical technique in the pharmaceutical sector because it can provide a detailed chemical fingerprint...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325553/metabolomics-through-the-lens-of-precision-cardiovascular-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Sin Man Lam, Yuan Wang, Bowen Li, Jie Du, Guanghou Shui
Metabolomics, which targets at the extensive characterization and quantitation of global metabolites from both endogenous and exogenous sources, has emerged as a novel technological avenue to advance the field of precision medicine principally driven by genomics-oriented approaches. In particular, metabolomics has revealed the cardinal roles that the environment exerts in driving the progression of major diseases threatening public health. Herein, the existent and potential applications of metabolomics in two key areas of precision cardiovascular medicine will be critically discussed: 1) the use of metabolomics in unveiling novel disease biomarkers and pathological pathways; 2) the contribution of metabolomics in cardiovascular drug development...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321300/identifying-highlighting-and-reducing-polypharmacy-in-a-uk-hospice-inpatient-unit-using-improvement-science-methods
#17
Alison Phippen, Jennie Pickard, Douglas Steinke, Matt Cope, Dai Roberts
Polypharmacy, the concurrent use of multiple medications by one individual is a growing global issue driven by an ageing population and increasing prevalence of multi-morbidity[1]. Polypharmacy can be problematic: interactions between medications, reduced adherence to medication, burden of medication to patients, administration time, increased risk of errors and increased cost. Quality improvement methods were applied to identify and highlight polypharmacy patients with the aim of reducing their average number of regular tablets/capsules per day by 25%...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318021/corrigendum-adaptive-biomedical-innovation-evolving-our-global-system-to-sustainably-and-safely-bring-new-medicines-to-patients-in-need
#18
G Hirsch, M Trusheim, E Cobbs, M Bala, S Garner, D Hartman, K Isaacs, M Lumpkin, R Lim, K Oye, E Pezalla, P Saltonstall, H Selker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317814/the-medicinal-plants-in-the-control-of-tuberculosis-laboratory-study-on-medicinal-plants-from-the-northern-area-of-pakistan
#19
Sami Ullah, Shah Hussain, Sadiq Noor Khan, Mohammad Khurram, Iqbal Khan, Murad Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) ranks as the second leading cause of deaths due to infectious diseases. Although global efforts have been made to control TB, still, this is a serious threat as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) produced resistance against both the first- and second-line drugs. The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant, extremely drug resistant, and totally drug-resistant TB worldwide requires extra efforts to search for new anti-TB drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study evaluated the antimycobacterial activities of Citrullus colocynthis, Calotropis procera, Ricinus communis, Capparis decidua, and Fagonia cretica plants' extracts against rifampicin-sensitive (H37Rv) and rifampicin-resistant (TMC331) strains of MTB...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316989/quality-of-spine-surgery-research-from-the-arab-countries-a-systematic-review-and-bibliometric-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Saleh S Baeesa, Yazid Maghrabi, Abdul Karim Msaddi, Richard Assaker
Purpose. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the level of evidence (LOE) of spine surgery publications in the Arab countries and compare it with standard international literature in spine surgery and to determine the stand of the Arab nations academic production with that of the global one. Methods. An online search using "PubMed" and "Google Scholar" was carried out, using search terms related to spine surgery such as "Spine surgery," "Scoliosis," "Herniated disc." Each article was reviewed and graded by two reviewers using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence scale...
2017: BioMed Research International
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