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radiation countermeasure

Masaharu Tsubokura, Shuhei Nomura, Hajime Watanobe, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Chiaki Suzuki, Sae Ochi, Claire Leppold, Hirokatsu Kinoshita, Shigeaki Kato, Yasutoshi Saito
Background Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation; however, little information is available on a prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March, 2011. Methods To assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and a prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged 18 or younger at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, we evaluated the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima...
October 19, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
David B Hanbury, Ann M Peiffer, Greg Dugan, Rachel N Andrews, J Mark Cline
In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated, using Rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability...
October 14, 2016: Radiation Research
Mary Sproull, Kevin Camphausen
With the possibility of large-scale terrorist attacks around the world, the need for modeling and development of new medical countermeasures for potential future chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) has been well established. Project Bioshield, initiated in 2004, provided a framework to develop and expedite research in the field of CBRN exposures. To respond to large-scale population exposures from a nuclear event or radiation dispersal device (RDD), new methods for determining received dose using biological modeling became necessary...
October 6, 2016: Radiation Research
Philippe Foubert, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Andreina Gonzalez, Felipe Berard, Waylon Weber, Diana Zafra, Zeni Alfonso, Sherry Zhao, Mayer Tenenhaus, John K Fraser
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to develop an approach that models the cutaneous healing that occurs in a patient with full thickness thermal burn injury complicated by total body radiation exposure sufficient to induce sub-lethal prodromal symptoms. An assessment of the effects of an autologous cell therapy on wound healing on thermal burn injury with concomitant radiation exposure was used to validate the utility of the model. METHODS: Göttingen minipigs were subjected to a 1...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Brian L Fish, Feng Gao, Jayashree Narayanan, Carmen Bergom, Elizabeth R Jacobs, Eric P Cohen, John E Moulder, Christie M Orschell, Meetha Medhora
The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients...
November 2016: Health Physics
Cong Liu, Yuhui Hao, Jiawei Huang, Hong Li, Zhangyou Yang, Yiping Zeng, Jing Liu, Rong Li
Impaired wound healing caused by radiation happens frequently in clinical practice and the exact mechanisms remain partly unclear. Various countermeasures have been taken to tackle with this issue. Ghrelin was considered as a potent endogenous growth hormone releasing peptide, its role in enhancing wound repair and regeneration was firstly investigated in whole body irradiated (γ ray) mice in this study. Collagen deposition and neovascularization were mostly discussed. The results demonstrated that ghrelin administration promoted cutaneous wound healing in irradiated mice, followed with reduced average wound closure time, increased spleen index (SI), and improved hematopoiesis...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Lei Ren, Dafei Xie, Peng Li, Xinyan Qu, Xiujuan Zhang, Yaling Xing, Pingkun Zhou, Xiaochen Bo, Zhe Zhou, Shengqi Wang
Exposure to ionizing radiation causes damage to living tissues; however, only a small number of agents have been approved for use in radiation injuries. Radioprotector is the primary countermeasure to radiation injury and none radioprotector has indeed reached the drug development stage. Repurposing the long list of approved, non-radioprotective drugs is an attractive strategy to find new radioprotective agents. Here, we applied a computational approach to discover new radioprotectors in silico by comparing publicly available gene expression data of ionizing radiation-treated samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with gene expression signatures of more than 1309 small-molecule compounds from the Connectivity Map (cmap) dataset...
September 21, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Christopher Rabender, Eleonora Mezzaroma, Adolfo G Mauro, Ramesh Mullangi, Antonio Abbate, Mitchell Anscher, Barry Hart, Ross Mikkelsen
There is an ongoing and significant need for radiation countermeasures to reduce morbidities and mortalities associated with exposure of the heart and lungs from a radiological or nuclear incidents. Radiation-induced late effects occur months to years after exposure, stemming from significant tissue damage and remodeling, resulting in fibrosis and loss of function. TGF-β is reported to play a role in both pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis. We investigated the ability of a small molecule TGF-β receptor 1 inhibitor, IPW-5371, to mitigate the effects of thoracic irradiation in C57L/J mice, a murine model that most closely resembles that observed in humans in the induction of fibrosis and dose response...
September 19, 2016: Radiation Research
Poonam Malhotra, Manish Adhikari, Saurabh Mishra, Sumit Singh, Piyush Kumar, Shravan Kumar Singh, Raj Kumar
Radiation exposure to immune system induces imbalance in cytokines expression involved in Th1/Th2 homeostasis perturbations. In the present study, N-acetyl tryptophan glucoside (NATG), a bacterial secondary metabolite, was evaluated for its possible radioprotective potential to immune system using J774A.1 murine macrophages. In this study, expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-2, IL-12, IL-13 and IL-17A cytokines was analyzed in irradiated and NATG pretreated cells using ELISA assay. Results of the study indicated that irradiated macrophages (NK-1R(+ )cells) pretreated with NATG showed higher (p < ...
October 11, 2016: Free Radical Research
Vijay K Singh, Patricia L P Romaine, Victoria L Newman, Thomas M Seed
INTRODUCTION: The global threat of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) disaster is an important priority for all government agencies involved in domestic security and public health preparedness. Radiological/nuclear (RN) attacks or accidents have become a larger focus of the United States Food and Drug administration (US FDA) over time because of their increased likeliness. Clinical signs and symptoms of a developing acute radiation syndrome (ARS) are grouped into three sub-syndromes named for the dominant organ system affected, namely the hematopoietic (H-ARS), gastrointestinal (GI-ARS), and neurovascular systems...
September 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Albert L Wiley
This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Z Carr, W Weiss, N Roebbel, J Abrahams
It is necessary for the radiation protection system to broaden beyond radioactive dose, the view on impact of nuclear accidents, taking in consideration the psychological, social and economic determinants impacting the vulnerability of the exposed population, as well as the impacts of emergency countermeasures. It is strongly recommended to pursue strategies, approaches and services that will address these aspects within the general health protection system and will be applied before, during and after an emergency...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Vijay K Singh, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Stephen Y Wise, Victoria L Newman, Patricia L P Romaine, Thomas M Seed
This study was designed to evaluate the possible potentiation of survival protection afforded by relatively low-dose amifostine prophylaxis against total body irradiation in combination with a protective, less toxic agent, gamma-tocotrienol (GT3). Mice were administered amifostine and/or GT3, then exposed to 9.2 Gy (60)Co γ-irradiation and monitored for survival for 30 days. To investigate cytokine stimulation, mice were administered amifostine or GT3; serum samples were collected and analyzed for cytokines...
August 19, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
B R Macias, F Lima, J M Swift, Y Shirazi-Fard, E S Greene, M R Allen, J Fluckey, H A Hogan, L Braby, Suojin Wang, S A Bloomfield
Exploration missions to the Moon or Mars will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation and low gravitational fields. Exposure to reduced weightbearing and radiation independently result in bone loss. However, no data exist regarding the skeletal consequences of combining low-dose, high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and partial weightbearing. We hypothesized that simulated galactic cosmic radiation would exacerbate bone loss in animals held at one-sixth body weight (G/6) without radiation exposure...
September 2016: Radiation Research
Paridhi Gupta, Manoshi Gayen, Joan T Smith, Elena K Gaidamakova, Vera Y Matrosova, Olga Grichenko, Barbara Knollmann-Ritschel, Michael J Daly, Juliann G Kiang, Radha K Maheshwari
The radioprotective capacity of a rationally-designed Mn2+-decapeptide complex (MDP), based on Mn antioxidants in the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, was investigated in a mouse model of radiation injury. MDP was previously reported to be extraordinarily radioprotective of proteins in the setting of vaccine development. The peptide-component (DEHGTAVMLK) of MDP applied here was selected from a group of synthetic peptides screened in vitro for their ability to protect cultured human cells and purified enzymes from extreme damage caused by ionizing radiation (IR)...
2016: PloS One
C Norman Coleman, John F Koerner
The public health and medical response to a radiological or nuclear incident requires the capability to sort, assess, treat, triage and to ultimately discharge, refer or transport people to their next step in medical care. The size of the incident and scarcity of resources at the location of each medical decision point will determine how patients are triaged and treated. This will be a rapidly evolving situation impacting medical responders at regional, national and international levels. As capabilities, diagnostics and medical countermeasures improve, a dynamic system-based approach is needed to plan for and manage the incident, and to adapt effectively in real time...
July 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Reut Shainer, Osnat Almogi-Hazan, Arye Berger, Liad Hinden, Martin Mueller, Chaya Brodie, Cedric Simillion, Michael Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Reuven Or
Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) may lead to cancer and death and has few effective countermeasures. Efficacy of synthetic PIF treatment was demonstrated in preclinical autoimmune and transplantation models. PIF protected against inflammation and mortality following lethal irradiation in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) model. Herein, we demonstrate that PIF imparts comprehensive local and systemic protection against lethal and sub-lethal ARS in murine models. PIF treatment 2 h after lethal irradiation led to 100% survival and global hematopoietic recovery at 2 weeks after therapy...
July 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Jing Shi, Lan Wang, Yan Lu, Yue Ji, Yaqing Wang, Ke Dong, Xiangqing Kong, Wei Sun
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Airi Mori, Shogo Takahara, Azusa Ishizaki, Masashi Iijima, Yukihisa Sanada, Masahiro Munakata
Large quantities of radioactive materials were released into the environment as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Many inhabitants residing in the affected areas are now exposed to radiation in their daily lives. In an attempt to manage this radiation dose, an additional radiation dose of 1 mSv/y was adopted as a long-term dosimetric target. An activity level reading of 0.23 μSv/h was then determined as a guidance value to achieve the target by implementing decontamination measures...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Zhidan Chen, Stephen L Coy, Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Adam B Hall, Albert J Fornace, Paul Vouros
Radiation exposure is an important public health issue due to a range of accidental and intentional threats. Prompt and effective large-scale screening and appropriate use of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate radiation injury requires rapid methods for determining the radiation dose. In a number of studies, metabolomics has identified small-molecule biomarkers responding to the radiation dose. Differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) has been used for similar compounds for high-throughput small-molecule detection and quantitation...
October 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
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