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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737053/-the-research-advancement-and-conception-of-the-deep-underground-medicine
#1
REVIEW
He-Ping Xie, Ji-Feng Liu, Ming-Zhong Gao, Xue-Hong Wan, Shi-Xi Liu, Jian Zou, Jiang Wu, Teng-Fei Ma, Yi-Lin Liu, Hong Bu, Wei-Min Li
The 21th century is the century of exploring and utilizing the underground space. In the future, more and more people will spend more and more time living or/and working in the underground space. However,we know little about the effect on the health of human caused by the underground environment. Herein,we systematically put forward the strategic conception of the deep-underground medicine,in order to reveal relative effects and mechanism of the potential factors in the deep underground space on human's physiological and psychological healthy,and to work out the corresponding countermeasures...
March 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710476/acanthopanax-senticosus-reduces-brain-injury-in-mice-exposed-to-low-linear-energy-transfer-radiation
#2
A Yingyu Zhou, B Wei Song, C Yilei Fu, D Denis Baranenko, E Jiaping Wang, F Yongzhi Li, G Weihong Lu
BACKGROUND: Compared with pharmaceuticals, natural medicines are gaining acceptance as countermeasures against radiation injury because of their distinct characteristics, specifically low toxicity and multi-target effects. METHODS: The ability of a traditional Chinese medicine, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS), to reduce radiation injury following exposure of the heads of mice to 4?Gy low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation was assessed histologically, behaviorally and metabolically''...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567949/ocimum-flavone-orientin-as-a-countermeasure-for-thrombocytopenia
#3
Marshleen Yadav, Feifei Song, Jason Huang, Arnab Chakravarti, Naduparambil K Jacob
Thrombocytopenia or chronic depletion of platelets in blood, could create life-threatening conditions in patients who receive aggressive systemic radiation and chemotherapy. Currently there are no approved agents for the rapid treatment of thrombocytopenia. In the present study, we demonstrate that administration of Orientin, a glycosidic flavonoid or dietary administration of Orientin containing Tulsi (Holy Basil) leaves, results in a significant increase in circulating platelets in a clinically relevant mouse model...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515101/synergistic-actions-of-fgf2-and-bone-marrow-transplantation-mitigate-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury
#4
Byoung Hyuck Kim, Hee-Won Jung, Seok Hyun Seo, Hyemi Shin, Jeanny Kwon, Jae Myoung Suh
Unwanted radiological or nuclear exposure remains a public health risk for which effective therapeutic countermeasures are lacking. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) in treating radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) incurred by lethal whole-body irradiation (WBI) when administered in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In vitro experiments indicated FGF2 treatment increased proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and upregulated AKT-GSK3β/β-catenin signaling in irradiated IEC-6 cells...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509947/medical-management-of-acute-radiation-syndrome-and-associated-infections-in-a-high-casualty-incident
#5
Nicholas Dainiak
A high-casualty incident may result in a significant human toll due to the inability of a community to meet the health care demands of the population. A successful medical response requires health care facilities to not only communicate and integrate medical services, meet surge capacity, protect health care workers and implement triage and treatment protocols, but also to provide the venue for clinical management of acute radiation injuries and their associated infections. Today, clinical management is primarily guided by the recommendations of a Consultancy that were made at the World Health Organization (WHO)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502528/application-of-stem-cells-in-tissue-engineering-for-defense-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Chinedu Cletus Ude, Azizi Miskon, Ruszymah Bt Hj Idrus, Muhamad Bin Abu Bakar
The dynamic nature of modern warfare, including threats and injuries faced by soldiers, necessitates the development of countermeasures that address a wide variety of injuries. Tissue engineering has emerged as a field with the potential to provide contemporary solutions. In this review, discussions focus on the applications of stem cells in tissue engineering to address health risks frequently faced by combatants at war. Human development depends intimately on stem cells, the mysterious precursor to every kind of cell in the body that, with proper instruction, can grow and differentiate into any new tissue or organ...
February 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475522/dynamical-modeling-approach-to-risk-assessment-for-radiogenic-leukemia-among-astronauts-engaged-in-interplanetary-space-missions
#7
Olga A Smirnova, Francis A Cucinotta
A recently developed biologically motivated dynamical model of the assessment of the excess relative risk (ERR) for radiogenic leukemia among acutely/continuously irradiated humans (Smirnova, 2015, 2017) is applied to estimate the ERR for radiogenic leukemia among astronauts engaged in long-term interplanetary space missions. Numerous scenarios of space radiation exposure during space missions are used in the modeling studies. The dependence of the ERR for leukemia among astronauts on several mission parameters including the dose equivalent rates of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and large solar particle events (SPEs), the number of large SPEs, the time interval between SPEs, mission duration, the degree of astronaut's additional shielding during SPEs, the degree of their additional 12-hour's daily shielding, as well as the total mission dose equivalent, is examined...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473853/antioxidant-tocols-as-radiation-countermeasures-challenges-to-be-addressed-to-use-tocols-as-radiation-countermeasures-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Ujwani Nukala, Shraddha Thakkar, Kimberly J Krager, Philip J Breen, Cesar M Compadre, Nukhet Aykin-Burns
Radiation countermeasures fall under three categories, radiation protectors, radiation mitigators, and radiation therapeutics. Radiation protectors are agents that are administered before radiation exposure to protect from radiation-induced injuries by numerous mechanisms, including scavenging free radicals that are generated by initial radiochemical events. Radiation mitigators are agents that are administered after the exposure of radiation but before the onset of symptoms by accelerating the recovery and repair from radiation-induced injuries...
February 23, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447591/characterization-of-a-partial-body-irradiation-model-with-oral-cavity-shielding-in-nonhuman-primates
#9
Michael V Accardi, Oreola Donini, Adam Rumage, Alexis Ascah, Julius Haruna, Mylène Pouliot, Kim Bujold, Hai Huang, Wieslaw Wierzbicki, John Stamatopoulos, Houman Naraghi, Thomas Measey, Simon Authier
PURPOSE: Characterization of a novel partial-body irradiation (PBI) shielding strategy in nonhuman primates (NHP; rhesus macaques), aimed at protecting the oral cavity, with respect to various gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS) syndrome parameters as well as buccal ulceration development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NHPs were irradiated using a Cobalt-60 gamma source, in a single uniform dose, ranging from 9-13 Gy and delivered at 0.60-0.80 Gy min-1 ...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445080/modeling-radiation-injury-induced-cell-death-and-countermeasure-drug-responses-in-a-human-gut-on-a-chip
#10
Sasan Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Rachelle Prantil-Baun, Amanda Jiang, Ratnakar Potla, Tadanori Mammoto, James C Weaver, Thomas C Ferrante, Hyun Jung Kim, Joaquim M S Cabral, Oren Levy, Donald E Ingber
Studies on human intestinal injury induced by acute exposure to γ-radiation commonly rely on use of animal models because culture systems do not faithfully mimic human intestinal physiology. Here we used a human Gut-on-a-Chip (Gut Chip) microfluidic device lined by human intestinal epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells to model radiation injury and assess the efficacy of radiation countermeasure drugs in vitro. Exposure of the Gut Chip to γ-radiation resulted in increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation, as well as villus blunting, disruption of tight junctions, and compromise of intestinal barrier integrity...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415268/comparative-analysis-of-the-countermeasures-taken-to-mitigate-exposure-of-the-public-to-radioiodine-following-the-chernobyl-and-fukushima-accidents-lessons-from-both-accidents
#11
Vladimir Uyba, Alexander Samoylov, Sergey Shinkarev
In the case of a severe radiation accident at a nuclear power station, the most important radiation hazard for the public is internal exposure of the thyroid to radioiodine. The purposes of this paper were (i) to compare countermeasures conducted (following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents) aimed at mitigation of exposure to the thyroid for the public, (ii) to present comparative estimates of doses to the thyroid and (iii) to derive lessons from the two accidents. The scale and time of countermeasures applied in the early phase of the accidents (sheltering, evacuation, and intake of stable iodine to block the thyroid) and at a later time (control of 131I concentration in foodstuffs) have been described...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398043/preventive-radioecological-assessment-of-territory-for-optimization-of-monitoring-and-countermeasures-after-radiation-accidents
#12
B S Prister, V D Vinogradskaya, T D Lev, M M Talerko, E K Garger, Y Onishi, O G Tischenko
A methodology of a preventive radioecological assessment of the territory has been developed for optimizing post-emergency monitoring and countermeasure implementation in an event of a severe radiation accident. Approaches and main stages of integrated radioecological zoning of the territory are described. An algorithm for the assessment of the potential radioecological criticality (sensitivity) of the area is presented. The proposed approach is validated using data of the dosimetric passportization in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident for the test site settlements...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329263/effect-of-radiological-countermeasures-on-subjective-well-being-and-radiation-anxiety-after-the-2011-disaster-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#13
Michio Murakami, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Yoshihito Takeda, Akiko Sato, Yasumasa Igarashi, Kazumi Sano, Tetsuo Yasutaka, Wataru Naito, Sumire Hirota, Aya Goto, Tetsuya Ohira, Seiji Yasumura, Koichi Tanigawa
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, concerns about radiation exposure and decline in subjective well-being have been reported. To tackle these problems, various countermeasures in relation to radiation have been implemented. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the effects of radiological countermeasures on subjective well-being (e.g., satisfaction with life (SWL) and emotional well-being) and radiation anxiety, through a questionnaire survey targeting Fukushima residents ( N = 1023)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309266/radiation-induced-long-noncoding-rnas-in-a-mouse-model-after-whole-body-irradiation
#14
Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Sunita Chopra, Joel Levin, Iris Eke, Adeola Makinde, Shaoli Das, Uma Shankavaram, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sandra Demaria, C Norman Coleman
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in regulating many biological processes and have been implicated in development and disease pathogenesis. Biomarkers of cancer and normal tissue response to treatment are of great interest in precision medicine, as well as in public health and medical management, such as for assessment of radiation injury after an accidental or intentional exposure. Circulating and functional RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs, in whole blood and other body fluids are potential valuable candidates as biomarkers...
March 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283379/a-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-serum-signature-from-nonhuman-primates-administered-with-a-promising-radiation-countermeasure-gamma-tocotrienol
#15
Amrita K Cheema, Khyati Y Mehta, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Stephen Y Wise, Charles P Hinzman, Josh Wolff, Vijay K Singh
The development of radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) has been underway for the past six decades, leading to the identification of multiple classes of radiation countermeasures. However, to date, only two growth factors (Neupogen and Neulasta) have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the mitigation of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). No radioprotector for ARS has been approved by the FDA yet. Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) has been demonstrated to have radioprotective efficacy in murine as well as nonhuman primate (NHP) models...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251020/podophyllotoxin-and-rutin-in-combination-prevents-oxidative-stress-mediated-cell-death-and-advances-revival-of-mice-gastrointestine-following-lethal-radiation-injury
#16
Ajaswrata Dutta, Manju Lata Gupta, Savita Verma
Intestinal injury is inevitable during exposure to high radiation doses and is a common side effect observed during abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy. Yet, no radiation countermeasures are available for gastrointestine (GI) injury management. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of podophyllotoxin and rutin in combination (G-003M) on ionising radiation induced GI injury. We prophylactically administered G-003M to C57BL/6J mice exposed to 9 Gy total body radiation (TBI) and assessed for morphological changes, loss in absorption, fluid retention, biochemical alterations, immunohistochemical analysis to study cPARP, caspase-3, PCNA expression, and TUNEL staining...
January 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235452/comparison-of-external-doses-between-radio-contaminated-areas-and-areas-with-high-natural-terrestrial-background-using-the-individual-dosimeter-d-shuttle-75-months-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#17
Masaharu Tsubokura, Shuhei Nomura, Izumi Yoshida, Toyoaki Sawano, Makoto Miyazaki, Satoru Tomita, Tomoyoshi Oikawa, Masami Watanabe
After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the air dose gradually decreases every year due to the physical decay of radioactive materials and environmental changes as well as countermeasures. However, there is little information on personal behavioral patterns and individual dose from external exposure among the inhabitants around the nuclear power plant.
 
 To evaluate the dose from external exposure in Minamisoma city and compare the differences with outside of Fukushima, we started the external dose assessment project in cooperation with city officials in Minamisoma as well as other three cities in Japan, where the natural terrestrial background radiation level is relatively high...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230065/the-toll-like-receptor-2-6-agonist-fsl-1-lipopeptide-therapeutically-mitigates-acute-radiation-syndrome
#18
Cathryn J Kurkjian, Hao Guo, Nathan D Montgomery, Ning Cheng, Hong Yuan, Joseph R Merrill, Gregory D Sempowski, W June Brickey, Jenny P-Y Ting
Risks of radiation exposure from nuclear incidents and cancer radiotherapy are undeniable realities. These dangers urgently compel the development of agents for ameliorating radiation-induced injuries. Biologic pathways mediated by myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), the common adaptor for toll-like receptor (TLR) and Interleukin-1 receptor signaling, are critical for radioprotection. Treating with agonists prior to radiation enhances survival by activating TLR signaling, whereas radiomitigating TLR-activating therapeutics given after exposure are less defined...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206597/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-of-rats-with-gcr-induced-spatial-memory-impairment
#19
Sucharita M Dutta, Melissa M Hadley, Scott Peterman, Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Richard A Britten
NASA is planning future missions to Mars, which will result in astronauts being exposed to ∼13 cGy/year of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Previous ground-based experiments have demonstrated that low (15 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/n56 Fe ions impair hippocampus-dependent spatial memory in rats. However, some irradiated rats maintain a spatial memory performance comparable to that seen in the sham-irradiated rats, suggesting that some of these animals are able to ameliorate the deleterious effects of the GCR, while others are not...
February 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198313/modifiers-of-radiation-effects-in-the-eye
#20
REVIEW
Norman J Kleiman, Fiona A Stewart, Eric J Hall
World events, including the threat of radiological terrorism and the fear of nuclear accidents, have highlighted an urgent need to develop medical countermeasures to prevent or reduce radiation injury. Similarly, plans for manned spaceflight to a near-Earth asteroid or journey to Mars raise serious concerns about long-term effects of space radiation on human health and the availability of suitable therapeutic interventions. At the same time, the need to protect normal tissue from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy has driven considerable research into the design of effective radioprotectors...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
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