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radiation countermeasure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141658/thioredoxin-mitigates-radiation-induced-hematopoietic-stem-cell-injury-in-mice
#1
Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy, Qinhong Wang, Zhihong Zheng, Yiqun Jiao, Benny J Chen, Phuong L Doan, Nelson J Chao, Yubin Kang
BACKGROUND: Radiation exposure poses a significant threat to public health. Hematopoietic injury is one of the major manifestations of acute radiation sickness. Protection and/or mitigation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from radiation injury is an important goal in the development of medical countermeasure agents (MCM). We recently identified thioredoxin (TXN) as a novel molecule that has marked protective and proliferative effects on HSCs. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of TXN in rescuing mice from a lethal dose of total body radiation (TBI) and in enhancing hematopoietic reconstitution following a lethal dose of irradiation...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135537/status-and-perception-of-risk-management-in-radiation-therapy-survey-among-korean-medical-physicists
#2
Sohyun Ahn, Dong Oh Shin, Sang Hyoun Choi, Jihye Koo, Soon Sung Lee, Dong-Wook Park, Yoon-Jin Oh, Sohyun Park, Dong Wook Kim
This study was conducted as part of an endeavor to improve the risk management system of radiation therapy departments in the Republic of Korea. An online survey on the status and perception of Korea's medical physicists on risk management in radiation therapy was carried out. A total of 40 domestic radiation oncology departments participated. This survey is divided into three categories: (1) work environment; (2) risk management status; and (3) opinions on how to improve risk management. Based on the results of the survey, the conclusions that can be derived are (1) the majority of respondents have a high interest in the risk management of radiation therapy; (2) the lack of staffing is one cause of risk management difficulties; (3) a risk-related terminology and classification system at the national or professional association level are required; (4) each hospital should create a voluntary reporting system for the handling of incidents; (5) medical physicists should establish incident reporting, analysis and countermeasures; and (6) government should develop education and training programs...
November 10, 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053152/heart-in-space-effect-of-the-extraterrestrial-environment-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#3
REVIEW
Richard L Hughson, Alexander Helm, Marco Durante
National space agencies and private corporations aim at an extended presence of humans in space in the medium to long term. Together with currently suboptimal technology, microgravity and cosmic rays raise health concerns about deep-space exploration missions. Both of these physical factors affect the cardiovascular system, whose gravity-dependence is pronounced. Heart and vascular function are, therefore, susceptible to substantial changes in weightlessness. The altered cardiovascular function in space causes physiological problems in the postflight period...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035153/acute-and-chronic-kidney-injury-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-partial-body-irradiation-with-bone-marrow-sparing
#4
Eric P Cohen, Kim G Hankey, Alexander W Bennett, Ann M Farese, George A Parker, Thomas J MacVittie
The development of medical countermeasures against acute and delayed multi-organ injury requires animal models predictive of the human response to radiation and its treatment. Late chronic injury is a well-known feature of radiation nephropathy, but acute kidney injury has not been reported in an appropriate animal model. We have established a single-fraction partial-body irradiation model with minimal marrow sparing in non-human primates. Subject-based medical management was used including parenteral fluids according to prospective morbidity criteria...
October 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023398/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-on-the-bone-system-in-response-to-the-space-special-environment
#5
REVIEW
Ye Tian, Xiaoli Ma, Chaofei Yang, Peihong Su, Chong Yin, Ai-Rong Qian
The space special environment mainly includes microgravity, radiation, vacuum and extreme temperature, which seriously threatens an astronaut's health. Bone loss is one of the most significant alterations in mammalians after long-duration habitation in space. In this review, we summarize the crucial roles of major factors-namely radiation and microgravity-in space in oxidative stress generation in living organisms, and the inhibitory effect of oxidative stress on bone formation. We discussed the possible mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced skeletal involution, and listed some countermeasures that have therapeutic potentials for bone loss via oxidative stress antagonism...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963717/bio-300-a-nanosuspension-of-genistein-mitigates-pneumonitis-fibrosis-following-high-dose-radiation-exposure-in-the-c57l-j-murine-model
#6
Isabel L Jackson, Andrew Zodda, Ganga Gurung, Radmila Pavlovic, Michael D Kaytor, Michael A Kuskowski, Zeljko Vujaskovic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: BIO 300 nanosuspension (Humanetics Corporation) is being developed as a medical countermeasure (MCM) for the mitigation of the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure, specifically pneumonitis and fibrosis of the lung. The objective of this study was to determine the best dose and treatment duration of BIO 300 to mitigate lung injury and improve the likelihood for survival in C57L/J mice exposed to whole thorax lung irradiation (WTLI). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Age- and sex-matched C57L/J mice received a single dose of 11...
September 30, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957385/additional-risk-of-diabetes-exceeds-the-increased-risk-of-cancer-caused-by-radiation-exposure-after-the-fukushima-disaster
#7
Michio Murakami, Masaharu Tsubokura, Kyoko Ono, Shuhei Nomura, Tomoyoshi Oikawa
The 2011 Fukushima disaster led to increases in multiple risks (e.g., lifestyle diseases and radiation exposure) and fear among the public. Here, we assessed the additional risks of cancer caused by radiation and diabetes related to the disaster and the cost-effectiveness of countermeasures against these conditions. Our study included residents of the cities of Minamisoma and Soma (10-40 km and 35-50 km north of the Fukushima Daiichi (N° 1) Nuclear Power Station, respectively). We used the loss of life expectancy (LLE) as an indicator to compare risks between radiation exposure and diabetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#8
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
November 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871103/lipidomic-dysregulation-within-the-lung-parenchyma-following-whole-thorax-lung-irradiation-markers-of-injury-inflammation-and-fibrosis-detected-by-maldi-msi
#9
Claire L Carter, Jace W Jones, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie, Maureen A Kane
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a delayed effect of acute radiation exposure that can limit curative cancer treatment therapies and cause lethality following high-dose whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI). To date, the exact mechanisms of injury development following insult remain ill-defined and there are no FDA approved pharmaceutical agents or medical countermeasures. Traditionally, RILI development is considered as three phases, the clinically latent period, the intermediate acute pneumonitis phase and the later fibrotic stage...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810683/evaluating-the-physiological-and-perceptual-responses-of-wearing-a-newly-designed-cooling-vest-for-construction-workers
#10
Yijie Zhao, Wen Yi, Albert P C Chan, Francis K W Wong, Michael C H Yam
Construction workers are subjected to heat stress because of the hot environment, physically demanding tasks, and/or personal protective equipment. A tailor-made cooling vest that protects construction workers from heat-related injuries was developed. The purpose of the study is to examine a newly designed cooling vest's effectiveness in alleviating physiological and perceptual strain in a hot and humid environment. Twelve male participants performed two trials, i.e., cooling vest (VEST) and control (CON) in a climatic chamber controlled at 37°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, 0...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657605/pharmacological-modulation-of-radiation-damage-does-it-exist-a-chance-for-other-substances-than-hematopoietic-growth-factors-and-cytokines
#11
REVIEW
Michal Hofer, Zuzana Hoferová, Martin Falk
In recent times, cytokines and hematopoietic growth factors have been at the center of attention for many researchers trying to establish pharmacological therapeutic procedures for the treatment of radiation accident victims. Two granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-based radiation countermeasures have been approved for the treatment of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. However, at the same time, many different substances with varying effects have been tested in animal studies as potential radioprotectors and mitigators of radiation damage...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657406/a-review-of-radiation-countermeasures-focusing-on-injury-specific-medicinals-and-regulatory-approval-status-part-ii-countermeasures-for-limited-indications-internalized-radionuclides-emesis-late-effects-and-agents-demonstrating-efficacy-in-large-animals-with
#12
REVIEW
Vijay K Singh, Melissa Garcia, Thomas M Seed
PURPOSE: The threat of a radiological/nuclear event is a critical concern for all government agencies involved in national security and public health preparedness. Countermeasures that are safe, easily administered, and effective at diminishing or eliminating adverse health effects to individuals and the overall public health impact of radiation exposure are urgently needed. Radiation countermeasures included in this three-part series have been classified under various subheadings based specifically on their developmental stages for United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval...
September 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657400/a-review-of-radiation-countermeasures-focusing-on-injury-specific-medicinals-and-regulatory-approval-status-part-iii-countermeasures-under-early-stages-of-development-along-with-standard-of-care-medicinal-and-procedures-not-requiring-regulatory-approval-for
#13
REVIEW
Vijay K Singh, Briana K Hanlon, Paola T Santiago, Thomas M Seed
PURPOSE: Terrorist attacks, with their intent to maximize psychological and economic damage as well as inflicting sickness and death on given targeted populations, are an ever-growing worldwide concern in government and public sectors as they become more frequent, violent, and sensational. If given the chance, it is likely that terrorists will use radiological or nuclear weapons. To thwart these sinister efforts, both physical and medical countermeasures against these weapons are currently being researched and developed so that they can be utilized by the first responders, military, and medical providers alike...
September 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650707/a-review-of-radiation-countermeasures-focusing-on-injury-specific-medicinals-and-regulatory-approval-status-part-i-radiation-sub-syndromes-animal-models-and-fda-approved-countermeasures
#14
REVIEW
Vijay K Singh, Thomas M Seed
PURPOSE: The increasing global risk of nuclear and radiological accidents or attacks has driven renewed research interest in developing medical countermeasures to potentially injurious exposures to acute irradiation. Clinical symptoms and signs of a developing acute radiation injury, i.e. the acute radiation syndrome, are grouped into three sub-syndromes named after the dominant organ system affected, namely the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and neurovascular systems. The availability of safe and effective countermeasures against the above threats currently represents a significant unmet medical need...
September 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649630/towards-human-exploration-of-space-the-theseus-review-series-on-muscle-and-bone-research-priorities
#15
Thomas Lang, Jack J W A Van Loon, Susan Bloomfield, Laurence Vico, Angele Chopard, Joern Rittweger, Antonios Kyparos, Dieter Blottner, Ilkka Vuori, Rupert Gerzer, Peter R Cavanagh
Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641684/novel-indications-for-commonly-used-medications-as-radiation-protectants-in-spaceflight
#16
REVIEW
Mark F McLaughlin, Dorit B Donoviel, Jeffrey A Jones
In the space environment, the traditional radioprotective principles of time, distance, and shielding become difficult to implement. Additionally, the complex radiation environment inherent in space, the chronic exposure timeframe, and the presence of numerous confounding variables complicate the process of creating appropriate risk models for astronaut exposure. Pharmaceutical options hold tremendous promise to attenuate acute and late effects of radiation exposure in the astronaut population. Pharmaceuticals currently approved for other indications may also offer radiation protection, modulation, or mitigation properties along with a well-established safety profile...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605260/cellular-therapies-for-treatment-of-radiation-injury-report-from-a-nih-niaid-and-irsn-workshop
#17
Andrea L DiCarlo, Radia Tamarat, Carmen I Rios, Marc Benderitter, Christine W Czarniecki, Theresa C Allio, Francesca Macchiarini, Bert W Maidment, Jean-Rene Jourdain
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over the possibility of a radiological or nuclear incident occurring somewhere in the world. Intelligence agencies frequently report that terrorist groups and rogue nations are seeking to obtain radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction. In addition, there exists the real possibility that safety of nuclear power reactors could be compromised by natural (such as the tsunami and subsequent Fukushima accident in Japan in March, 2011) or accidental (Three Mile Island, 1979 and Chernobyl, 1986) events...
August 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561779/transcriptomics-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-their-potential-spaceflight-related-health-consequences
#18
REVIEW
Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Stephanie Krieger, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Srujana Neelam, Honglu Wu
In space, living organisms are exposed to multiple stress factors including microgravity and space radiation. For humans, these harmful environmental factors have been known to cause negative health impacts such as bone loss and immune dysfunction. Understanding the mechanisms by which spaceflight impacts human health at the molecular level is critical not only for accurately assessing the risks associated with spaceflight, but also for developing effective countermeasures. Over the years, a number of studies have been conducted under real or simulated space conditions...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545017/12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-tpa-increases-murine-intestinal-crypt-stem-cell-survival-following-radiation-injury
#19
Yaojie Liang, Hongwei Zhou, Yibing Yao, Ailing Deng, Zhihong Wang, Boning Gao, Minhang Zhou, Yu Cui, Lili Wang, Lei Zhou, Bianhong Wang, Li Wang, Anqi Liu, Lanlan Qiu, Kun Qian, Yejian Lu, Wanping Deng, Xi Zheng, Zhengtao Han, Yonghui Li, Junzhong Sun
Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients following radiation therapy. Thus, there is a need for agents that can protect the intestinal epithelium against radiation. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) has been shown to induce differentiation and/or apoptosis in multiple cell lines and primary cells. In the current report, we studied the function of TPA in radiation induced enteropathy in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6 after ionizing radiation (IR) and in mice after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI)...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534834/combining-pharmacological-countermeasures-to-attenuate-the-acute-radiation-syndrome-a-concise-review
#20
REVIEW
Michal Hofer, Zuzana Hoferová, Daniel Depeš, Martin Falk
The goal of combined pharmacological approaches in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is to obtain an effective therapy producing a minimum of undesirable side effects. This review summarizes important data from studies evaluating the efficacy of combining radioprotective agents developed for administration prior to irradiation and therapeutic agents administered in a post-irradiation treatment regimen. Many of the evaluated results show additivity, or even synergism, of the combined treatments in comparison with the effects of the individual component administrations...
May 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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