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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897218/radiation-induced-magnetization-reversal-causing-a-large-flux-loss-in-undulator-permanent-magnets
#1
Teruhiko Bizen, Ryota Kinjo, Teruaki Hasegawa, Akihiro Kagamihata, Yuichiro Kida, Takamitsu Seike, Takahiro Watanabe, Toru Hara, Toshiro Itoga, Yoshihiro Asano, Takashi Tanaka
We report an unexpectedly large flux loss observed in permanent magnets in one of the undulators operated in SACLA, the x-ray free electron laser facility in Japan. Characterizations of individual magnets extracted from the relevant undulator have revealed that the flux loss was caused by a homogeneous magnetization reversal extending over a wide area, but not by demagnetization of individual magnets damaged by radiation. We show that the estimated flux-loss rate is much higher than what is reported in previous papers, and its distribution is much more localized to the upstream side...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888688/an-oral-hemokine-tm-%C3%AE-methylhydrocinnamate-enhances-myeloid-and-neutrophil-recovery-following-irradiation-in-vivo
#2
Douglas V Faller, Serguei A Castaneda, Daohong Zhou, Merriline Vedamony, Peter E Newburger, Gary L White, Stanley Kosanke, P Artur Plett, Christie M Orschell, Michael S Boosalis, Susan P Perrine
An oral therapeutic which reduces duration of cytopenias and is active following accidental radiation exposures is an unmet need in radiation countermeasures. Alpha methylhydrocinnamate (ST7) prolongs STAT-5 phosphorylation, reduces growth-factor dependency of multi-lineage cell lines, and stimulates erythropoiesis. Here, ST7 and its isomers were studied for their effects on myeloid progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) following radiation, in nonhuman primates, and murine irradiation models. Addition of ST7 or ST7-S increased CFU-GM production by 1...
October 31, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881872/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-direct-effects-of-simulated-solar-and-galactic-cosmic-radiation-on-human-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#3
C Rodman, G Almeida-Porada, S George, J Moon, S Soker, T Pardee, M Beaty, P Guida, S P Sajuthi, C D Langefeld, S J Walker, P F Wilson, C D Porada
Future deep space missions to Mars and near-Earth asteroids will expose astronauts to chronic solar energetic particles (SEP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation, and likely one or more solar particle events (SPEs). Given the inherent radiosensitivity of hematopoietic cells and short latency period of leukemias, space radiation-induced hematopoietic damage poses a particular threat to astronauts on extended missions. We show that exposing human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC) to extended mission-relevant doses of accelerated high-energy protons and iron ions: 1) introduces mutations that are frequently located within genes involved in hematopoiesis and are distinct from those induced by γ-radiation; 2) dramatically reduces in vitro colony-formation; 3) markedly alters engraftment and lineage commitment in vivo; and 4) leads to the development, in vivo, of what appears to be T-ALL...
November 24, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849061/mitigation-of-radiation-induced-hematopoietic-injury-by-the-polyphenolic-acetate-7-8-diacetoxy-4-methylthiocoumarin-in-mice
#4
Kavya Venkateswaran, Anju Shrivastava, Paban K Agrawala, Ashok Prasad, Namita Kalra, Parvat R Pandey, Kailash Manda, Hanumantharao G Raj, Virinder S Parmar, Bilikere S Dwarakanath
Protection of the hematopoietic system from radiation damage, and/or mitigation of hematopoietic injury are the two major strategies for developing medical countermeasure agents (MCM) to combat radiation-induced lethality. In the present study, we investigated the potential of 7, 8-diacetoxy-4-methylthiocoumarin (DAMTC) to ameliorate radiation-induced hematopoietic damage and the associated mortality following total body irradiation (TBI) in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of DAMTC 24 hours post TBI alleviated TBI-induced myelo-suppression and pancytopenia, by augmenting lymphocytes and WBCs in the peripheral blood of mice, while bone marrow (BM) cellularity was restored through enhanced proliferation of the stem cells...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832656/perifocal-inflammatory-reaction-with-volume-fluctuation-caused-by-diagnostic-radiation-induced-regression-in-germinoma-makes-histological-diagnosis-difficult-despite-its-disappearance-following-treatment-a-significant-pitfall-and-countermeasures-to-it
#5
Yuichiro Yoneoka, Junichi Yoshimura, Masayasu Okada, Yukihiko Fujii
We present a pediatric case of neurohypophyseal germinoma with a perifocal inflammatory reaction (PIR) with volume fluctuation caused by diagnostic radiation-induced regression (DRIR). On-target biopsy failed to confirm the histology because PIR hardly contained any germinoma cells. DRIR-related fluctuation of the tumor volume disguised germinoma as inflammation. We analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and detected a high level of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), which demonstrated the neurohypophyseal lesion to be germinoma and brought the patient from successful radiochemotherapy up to complete remission...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817217/spaceflight-induced-changes-in-the-human-proteome
#6
Alexey S Kononikhin, Natalia L Starodubtseva, Lyudmila Kh Pastushkova, Daria N Kashirina, Kristina Yu Fedorchenko, Alexander G Brhozovsky, Igor A Popov, Irina M Larina, Evgeny N Nikolaev
Spaceflight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans: Individuals are exposed to radiation, microgravity, hypodynamia, and will experience isolation. A better understanding of the molecular processes induced by these factors may allow us to develop personalized countermeasures to minimize risks to astronauts. Areas covered: This review is a summary of literature searches from PubMed, NASA, Roskosmos and the authors' research experiences and opinions. The review covers the available proteomic data on the effects of spaceflight factors on the human body, including both real space missions and ground-based model experiments...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806643/manganese-superoxide-dismutase-gene-modified-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuates-acute-radiation-induced-lung-injury
#7
HaiXu Chen, Hang Xiang, BenYan Wu, XiaoMei Zhang, Ming Li, Juan Liu, Jun Li, ZhaoQi Ren, Bin Du, KunLun He, Qiang Zeng, Chao Yang
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a major clinical complication for radiotherapy in thoracic tumors. An immediate effect of lung irradiation is the generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) that can produce oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins resulting in lung cell injury or death. Currently, the medical management of RILI remains supportive. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of countermeasures. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to facilitate the improved recovery of RILI...
November 2, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758131/assessment-of-nutritional-status-of-iodine-through-urinary-iodine-screening-among-local-children-and-adolescents-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#8
Masaharu Tsubokura, Shuhei Nomura, Hajime Watanobe, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Chiaki Suzuki, Sae Ochi, Claire Leppold, Hirokatsu Kinoshita, Shigeaki Kato, Yasutoshi Saito
Background Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation; however, little information is available on a prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March, 2011. Methods To assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and a prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged 18 or younger at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, we evaluated the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima...
October 19, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740889/long-term-cognitive-functioning-in-single-dose-total-body-gamma-irradiated-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#9
David B Hanbury, Ann M Peiffer, Greg Dugan, Rachel N Andrews, J Mark Cline
In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated using Rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability...
November 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710702/state-of-the-art-advances-in-radiation-biodosimetry-for-mass-casualty-events-involving-radiation-exposure
#10
Mary Sproull, Kevin Camphausen
With the possibility of large-scale terrorist attacks around the world, the need for modeling and development of new medical countermeasures for potential future chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) has been well established. Project Bioshield, initiated in 2004, provided a framework to develop and expedite research in the field of CBRN exposures. To respond to large-scale population exposures from a nuclear event or radiation dispersal device (RDD), new methods for determining received dose using biological modeling became necessary...
November 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690716/development-of-a-combined-radiation-and-full-thickness-burn-injury-minipig-model-to-study-the-effects-of-uncultured-adipose-derived-regenerative-cell-therapy-in-wound-healing
#11
Philippe Foubert, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Andreina Gonzalez, Felipe Berard, Waylon Weber, Diana Zafra, Zeni Alfonso, Sherry Zhao, Mayer Tenenhaus, John K Fraser
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to develop an approach that models the cutaneous healing that occurs in a patient with full thickness thermal burn injury complicated by total body radiation exposure sufficient to induce sub-lethal prodromal symptoms. An assessment of the effects of an autologous cell therapy on wound healing on thermal burn injury with concomitant radiation exposure was used to validate the utility of the model. METHODS: Göttingen minipigs were subjected to a 1...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682899/combined-hydration-and-antibiotics-with-lisinopril-to-mitigate-acute-and-delayed-high-dose-radiation-injuries-to-multiple-organs
#12
Brian L Fish, Feng Gao, Jayashree Narayanan, Carmen Bergom, Elizabeth R Jacobs, Eric P Cohen, John E Moulder, Christie M Orschell, Meetha Medhora
The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients...
November 2016: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676309/ghrelin-accelerates-wound-healing-in-combined-radiation-and-wound-injury-in-mice
#13
Cong Liu, Yuhui Hao, Jiawei Huang, Hong Li, Zhangyou Yang, Yiping Zeng, Jing Liu, Rong Li
Impaired wound healing caused by radiation happens frequently in clinical practice and the exact mechanisms remain partly unclear. Various countermeasures have been taken to tackle with this issue. Ghrelin was considered as a potent endogenous growth hormone releasing peptide, its role in enhancing wound repair and regeneration was firstly investigated in whole body irradiated (γ ray) mice in this study. Collagen deposition and neovascularization were mostly discussed. The results demonstrated that ghrelin administration promoted cutaneous wound healing in irradiated mice, followed with reduced average wound closure time, increased spleen index (SI), and improved hematopoiesis...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664700/radiation-protective-effects-of-baclofen-predicted-by-a-computational-drug-repurposing-strategy
#14
Lei Ren, Dafei Xie, Peng Li, Xinyan Qu, Xiujuan Zhang, Yaling Xing, Pingkun Zhou, Xiaochen Bo, Zhe Zhou, Shengqi Wang
Exposure to ionizing radiation causes damage to living tissues; however, only a small number of agents have been approved for use in radiation injuries. Radioprotector is the primary countermeasure to radiation injury and none radioprotector has indeed reached the drug development stage. Repurposing the long list of approved, non-radioprotective drugs is an attractive strategy to find new radioprotective agents. Here, we applied a computational approach to discover new radioprotectors in silico by comparing publicly available gene expression data of ionizing radiation-treated samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with gene expression signatures of more than 1309 small-molecule compounds from the Connectivity Map (cmap) dataset...
September 21, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643876/ipw-5371-proves-effective-as-a-radiation-countermeasure-by-mitigating-radiation-induced-late-effects
#15
Christopher Rabender, Eleonora Mezzaroma, Adolfo G Mauro, Ramesh Mullangi, Antonio Abbate, Mitchell Anscher, Barry Hart, Ross Mikkelsen
There is an ongoing and significant need for radiation countermeasures to reduce morbidities and mortalities associated with exposure of the heart and lungs from a radiological or nuclear incidents. Radiation-induced late effects occur months to years after exposure, stemming from significant tissue damage and remodeling, resulting in fibrosis and loss of function. TGF-β is reported to play a role in both pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis. We investigated the ability of a small molecule TGF-β receptor 1 inhibitor, IPW-5371, to mitigate the effects of thoracic irradiation in C57L/J mice, a murine model that most closely resembles that observed in humans in the induction of fibrosis and dose response...
September 19, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620851/n-acetyl-tryptophan-glucopyranoside-natg-as-a-countermeasure-against-gamma-radiation-induced-immunosuppression-in-murine-macrophage-j774a-1-cells
#16
Poonam Malhotra, Manish Adhikari, Saurabh Mishra, Sumit Singh, Piyush Kumar, Shravan Kumar Singh, Raj Kumar
Radiation exposure to immune system induces imbalance in cytokines expression involved in Th1/Th2 homeostasis perturbations. In the present study, N-acetyl tryptophan glucoside (NATG), a bacterial secondary metabolite, was evaluated for its possible radioprotective potential to immune system using J774A.1 murine macrophages. In this study, expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-2, IL-12, IL-13 and IL-17A cytokines was analyzed in irradiated and NATG pretreated cells using ELISA assay. Results of the study indicated that irradiated macrophages (NK-1R(+ )cells) pretreated with NATG showed higher (p < ...
2016: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610458/medical-countermeasures-for-unwanted-cbrn-exposures-part-ii-radiological-and-nuclear-threats-with-review-of-recent-countermeasure-patents
#17
Vijay K Singh, Patricia L P Romaine, Victoria L Newman, Thomas M Seed
The global threat of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) disaster is an important priority for all government agencies involved in domestic security and public health preparedness. Radiological/nuclear (RN) attacks or accidents have become a larger focus of the United States Food and Drug administration (US FDA) over time because of their increased likeliness. Clinical signs and symptoms of a developing acute radiation syndrome (ARS) are grouped into three sub-syndromes named for the dominant organ system affected, namely the hematopoietic (H-ARS), gastrointestinal (GI-ARS), and neurovascular systems...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574325/use-of-clinical-decision-guidance-as-a-new-public-health-tool-for-the-medical-management-of-internal-contamination-in-radiological-mass-casualty-scenarios
#18
Albert L Wiley
This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542815/protecting-public-health-in-nuclear-emergencies-the-need-to-broaden-the-process
#19
Z Carr, W Weiss, N Roebbel, J Abrahams
It is necessary for the radiation protection system to broaden beyond radioactive dose, the view on impact of nuclear accidents, taking in consideration the psychological, social and economic determinants impacting the vulnerability of the exposed population, as well as the impacts of emergency countermeasures. It is strongly recommended to pursue strategies, approaches and services that will address these aspects within the general health protection system and will be applied before, during and after an emergency...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542813/the-potentiation-of-the-radioprotective-efficacy-of-two-medical-countermeasures-gamma-tocotrienol-and-amifostine-by-a-combination-prophylactic-modality
#20
Vijay K Singh, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Stephen Y Wise, Victoria L Newman, Patricia L P Romaine, Thomas M Seed
This study was designed to evaluate the possible potentiation of survival protection afforded by relatively low-dose amifostine prophylaxis against total body irradiation in combination with a protective, less toxic agent, gamma-tocotrienol (GT3). Mice were administered amifostine and/or GT3, then exposed to 9.2 Gy (60)Co γ-irradiation and monitored for survival for 30 days. To investigate cytokine stimulation, mice were administered amifostine or GT3; serum samples were collected and analyzed for cytokines...
August 19, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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