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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229964/csfv-proliferation-is-associated-with-gbf1-and-rab2
#1
Wulong Liang, Minping Zheng, Changlei Bao, Yanming Zhang
The Golgi apparatus and its resident proteins are utilized and regulated by viruses to facilitate their proliferation. In this study, we investigated Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) proliferation when the function of the Golgi was disturbed. Golgi function was disturbed using chemical inhibitors, namely, brefeldin A (BFA) and golgicide A (GCA), and RNA interfering targets, such as the Golgi-specific BFA-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) and Rab2 GTPases. CSFV proliferation was significantly inhibited during RNA replication and viral particle generation after BFA and GCA treatment...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228395/antibody-responses-to-zika-virus-infections-in-flavivirus-endemic-environments
#2
Sarah L Keasey, Christine L Pugh, Stig M R Jensen, Jessica L Smith, Robert D Hontz, Anna P Durbin, Dawn M Dudley, David H O'Connor, Robert G Ulrich
Zika virus (ZIKV) infections occur in areas where dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV), and other viruses of the genus Flavivirus co-circulate. The envelope protein (E) of these closely related flaviviruses induces specific long-term immunity, yet subsequent infections are associated with cross-reactive antibody responses that may enhance disease susceptibility and severity. To gain a better understanding of ZIKV infections against a background of similar viral diseases, we examined serological immune responses to ZIKV, WNV, DENV and YFV infections of humans and non-human primates (NHP)...
February 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225040/vulnerability-of-the-british-swine-industry-to-classical-swine-fever
#3
Thibaud Porphyre, Carla Correia-Gomes, Margo E Chase-Topping, Kokouvi Gamado, Harriet K Auty, Ian Hutchinson, Aaron Reeves, George J Gunn, Mark E J Woolhouse
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a notifiable, highly contagious viral disease of swine which results in severe welfare and economic consequences in affected countries. To improve preparedness, it is critical to have some understanding of how CSF would spread should it be introduced. Based on the data recorded during the 2000 epidemic of CSF in Great Britain (GB), a spatially explicit, premises-based model was developed to explore the risk of CSF spread in GB. We found that large outbreaks of CSF would be rare and generated from a limited number of areas in GB...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222127/unusual-pattern-of-chikungunya-virus-epidemic-in-the-americas-the-panamanian-experience
#4
Jean-Paul Carrera, Yamilka Díaz, Bernardino Denis, Itza Barahona de Mosca, Dennys Rodriguez, Israel Cedeño, Dimelza Arauz, Publio González, Lizbeth Cerezo, Lourdes Moreno, Lourdes García, Lisseth E Sáenz, María Aneth Atencio, Eddy Rojas-Fermin, Fernando Vizcaino, Nicolas Perez, Brechla Moreno, Sandra López-Vergès, Anayansi Valderrama, Blas Armién
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) typically causes explosive epidemics of fever, rash and polyarthralgia after its introduction into naïve populations. Since its introduction in Panama in May of 2014, few autochthonous cases have been reported; most of them were found within limited outbreaks in Panama City in 2014 and Puerto Obaldia town, near the Caribbean border with Colombia in 2015. In order to confirm that Panama had few CHIKV cases compared with neighboring countries, we perform an epidemiological analysis of chikungunya cases reported from May 2014 to July 2015...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219763/utility-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-subgenomic-replicon-based-single-round-infectious-particles-as-antigens-in-neutralization-tests-for-zika-virus-and-three-other-flaviviruses
#5
Atsushi Yamanaka, Meng Ling Moi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ichiro Kurane, Mami Matsuda, Ryosuke Suzuki, Eiji Konishi
The introduction of a foreign virus into an area may cause an outbreak, as with the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas. Preparedness for handling a viral outbreak involves the development of tests for the serodiagnosis of foreign virus infections. We previously established a gene-based technology to generate some flaviviral antigens useful for functional antibody assays. The technology utilizes a Japanese encephalitis virus subgenomic replicon to generate single-round infectious particles (SRIPs) that possess designed surface antigens...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219668/outbreak-of-dengue-virus-type-3-in-malakand-pakistan-2015-a-laboratory-perspective
#6
Muhammad Suleman, Rani Faryal, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Massab Umair, Mian Muhammad Sufian, Yasir Arshad, Tanveer Inam, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
An outbreak of dengue fever was reported in Malakand district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan during 2015. Detection of viral RNA by real-time PCR confirmed dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3) to be the causative agent causing the outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial E-NS1 gene sequences showed that the DENV-3 viruses belonged to genotype III with maximum homology with the dengue-3 strains previously reported from Pakistan and India. Our current report provides updated information on molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus serotypes responsible for 2015 outbreak in KP...
February 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219154/-human-enterovirus-infection-status-and-clinical-characteristics-of-274-patients-with-viral-encephalitis-in-henan-province-2011-2012
#7
H X Ma, J J Pan, Y Li, K Kang, X Y Huang, A G You, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate human enterovirus (HEV) infection and clinical characteristics of viral encephalitis patients in Pingdingshan, Henan Province. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid specimens and epidemiological information were collected from 274 viral encephalitis patients in the departments of pediatrics and neurology in hospitals in Pingdingshan, Henan Province, from April 2011 to August 2012. Patients with bacterial infections were excluded from the study. Demographic information was collected by questionnaires and clinical information was mainly obtained from hospital examinations...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218698/genetic-assessment-of-african-swine-fever-isolates-involved-in-outbreaks-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-between-2005-and-2012-reveals-co-circulation-of-p72-genotypes-i-ix-and-xiv-including-19-variants
#8
Leopold K Mulumba-Mfumu, Jenna E Achenbach, Matthew R Mauldin, Linda K Dixon, Curé Georges Tshilenge, Etienne Thiry, Noelia Moreno, Esther Blanco, Claude Saegerman, Charles E Lamien, Adama Diallo
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic pigs. It is a socioeconomically important disease, initially described from Kenya, but subsequently reported in most Sub-Saharan countries. ASF spread to Europe, South America and the Caribbean through multiple introductions which were initially eradicated-except for Sardinia-followed by re‑introduction into Europe in 2007. In this study of ASF within the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 62 domestic pig samples, collected between 2005-2012, were examined for viral DNA and sequencing at multiple loci: C-terminus of the B646L gene (p72 protein), central hypervariable region (CVR) of the B602L gene, and the E183L gene (p54 protein)...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217822/how-to-diagnose-early-5-azacytidine-induced-pneumonitis-a-case-report
#9
Srimanta Chandra Misra, Laurence Gabriel, Eric Nacoulma, Gérard Dine, Valentina Guarino
Interstitial pneumonitis is a classical complication of many drugs. Pulmonary toxicity due to 5-azacytidine, a deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase inhibitor and cytotoxic drug, has rarely been reported. We report a 67-year-old female myelodysplastic syndrome patient treated with 5-azacytidine at the conventional dosage of 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days. One week after starting she developed moderate fever along with dry cough and subsequently her temperature rose to 39.5 °C. She was placed under broad-spectrum antibiotics based on the protocol for febrile neutropenia, including ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily, ceftazidime 1 g three times daily (tid), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 400 mg/80 mg tid...
December 2017: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216367/identification-and-evaluation-of-potent-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-3cl-pro-inhibitors
#10
Vathan Kumar, Jin Soo Shin, Jiun-Jie Shie, Keun Bon Ku, Chonsaeng Kim, Yun Young Go, Kai-Fa Huang, Meehyein Kim, Po-Huang Liang
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory illness with fever, cough and shortness of breath. Up to date, it has resulted in 1826 human infections, including 649 deaths. Analogous to picornavirus 3C protease (3C(pro)), 3C-like protease (3CL(pro)) is critical for initiation of the MERS-CoV replication cycle and is thus regarded as a validated drug target. As presented here, our peptidomimetic inhibitors of enterovirus 3C(pro) (6b, 6c and 6d) inhibited 3CL(pro) of MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) with IC50 values ranging from 1...
February 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216208/a-rare-case-of-pediatric-lumbar-spinal-ependymoma-mimicking-meningitis
#11
Ezeali Mike Ekuma, Kiyoshi Ito, Akihiro Chiba, Yosuke Hara, Kohei Kanaya, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Samuel Ohaegbulam, Kazuhiro Hongo
Spontaneous acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from lumbar ependymoma in children is rare. We report a case of a14-year-old boy who developed sudden radicular low back pain while playing baseball. He was initially managed conservatively in a local hospital for suspected lumbar disc herniation, but later developed meningeal symptoms and fever before being referred to our hospital. There he underwent a diagnostic lumbar puncture in the emergency room; his cerebrospinal fluid suggested an SAH. Physical examination showed meningeal signs and cauda equina features...
February 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213954/human-herpes-virus-6-infection-in-pediatric-organ-transplant-patients
#12
Elisa Ylinen, Silja Lehtinen, Timo Jahnukainen, Teemu Karlsson, Raisa Loginov, Laura Mannonen, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Hannu Jalanko
Transplant patients need lifelong immunosuppressive medication, but this reduces their defense mechanisms, making them prone to viral infections and reactivations. We aimed to clarify the prevalence and clinical manifestations of the human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) infection in children after pediatric solid organ transplants. Clinical findings and viral loads were compared between primary HHV-6 infections and reactivations. The study comprised 47 kidney, 25 liver, and 12 heart transplant patients who underwent surgery from 2009 to 2014...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#13
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207988/the-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-dengue-virus-pathogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Nilanka Perera, Joanna L Miller, Nicole Zitzmann
Symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections range from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic disease and death. Host-viral interactions play a significant role in deciding the fate of the infection. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a pro-survival cellular reaction induced in response to DENV mediated ER stress. The UPR has complex interactions with the cellular autophagy machinery, apoptosis and innate immunity. DENV has evolved to manipulate the UPR to facilitate its replication and to evade host immunity...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#15
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202798/high-prevalence-and-diversity-of-hepatitis-viruses-in-suspected-cases-of-yellow-fever-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#16
Sheila Makiala-Mandanda, Frédéric Le Gal, Nadine Ngwaka-Matsung, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Richard Onanga, Berthold Bivigou-Mboumba, Elisabeth Pukuta-Simbu, Athenaïs Gerber, Jessica L Abbate, Dieudonné Mwamba, Nicolas Berthet, Eric Maurice Leroy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Pierre Becquart
The majority of patients with acute febrile jaundice (>95%) identified through a yellow fever surveillance program in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) test negative for antibodies against yellow fever virus. However, no etiological investigation has ever been carried out on these patients. Here, we tested for hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D (HDV) and E (HEV) viruses, all of which can cause acute febrile jaundice, in patients included in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. On a total of 498 serum samples collected from suspected cases of yellow fever from January 2003 to January 2012, ELISA techniques were used to screen for antibodies against HAV (IgM) and HEV (IgM) and for antigens and antibodies against HBV (HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM), HCV and HDV...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198435/cultured-corneas-show-dendritic-spread-and-restrict-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-that-is-not-observed-with-cultured-corneal-cells
#17
Neel Thakkar, Dinesh Jaishankar, Alex Agelidis, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Kyle Mangano, Shrey Patel, Sati Zeynep Tekin, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) causes life-long morbidities in humans. While fever blisters are more common, occasionally the cornea is infected resulting in vision loss. A very intriguing aspect of HSV-1 corneal infection is that the virus spread is normally restricted to only a small fraction of cells on the corneal surface that connect with each other in a dendritic fashion. Here, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the susceptibility of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells to HSV-1 infection, we infected HCE cells at three different dosages of HSV-1 and measured the outcomes in terms of viral entry, gene and protein expression, viral replication and cytokine induction...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198193/association-between-dehydration-and-fever-during-the-first-week-of-life
#18
Ariane Boutin, Ana Carceller, Marie Pier Desjardins, Marisol Sanchez, Jocelyn Gravel
BACKGROUND: Trying to differentiate serious bacterial infection (SBI) from a self-limiting illness in febrile infants seen in the pediatric emergency department (PED) is a significant challenge. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dehydration and its relationship to SBI in febrile full-term newborns under 1 week of age seen in a PED. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out on all children younger than 8 days of age with fever who presented to a single, tertiary care, PED from January 2009 to April 2014...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196967/coxsackie-myocarditis-and-hepatitis-with-reactivated-epstein-bar-virus-ebv-a-case-report
#19
Varunsiri Atti, Nathan M Anderson, Mathew B Day
BACKGROUND Myocarditis, defined as inflammation of myocardial tissue of the heart, is an uncommon cardiac presentation and is due to a variety of causes. It affects 1% of the US population, 50% of which is caused by coxsackie B virus. Cardiac tissue is the prime target, and destruction of myocardium results in cardiac failure with fluid overload. CASE REPORT Our patient was a 57-year-old woman with fever, headache, neck pain, and generalized malaise. Her white blood cell count was 13×10³ cells/mm³. Interestingly, lumbar puncture ruled out meningitis...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196318/common-skin-conditions-in-children-skin-infections
#20
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Recognition of their common and atypical presentations is necessary to differentiate them from other skin conditions of similar morphology. Impetigo, cellulitis, and abscess comprise the majority of childhood bacterial skin infections and are treated with topical or systemic antibiotics that cover group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus...
February 2017: FP Essentials
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